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  • High deductible health insurance plans have been advocated as a measure to control rising healthcare expenditure, by reducing the moral hazard associated with 3rd party insurance and encouraging cost-effective behavior. Despite the increasing use of demand-side cost-sharing, the optimal design of health insurance schemes is not very well understood nor easy to apply. As such, economic theory has not had a major influence on design of health insurance schemes. This dissertation examines aspects of designing and implementing high deductible insurance schemes. First, I examine the optimal coinsurance rates of primary prevention, diagnostic services and office visits. In many observed health plans, these services are often exempt from deductibles. The Affordable Care Act also mandates that private health plans must cover a stipulated list of preventive services at zero coinsurance with no deductible. I show that optimal coinsurance rates for primary prevention are always higher than the coinsurance rates for associated treatment for risk-neutral individuals; and if the uninsured portion of treatment expenditure is sufficiently large or probability of illness is sufficiently small for risk-averse individuals. This probability is given by the threshold under which a risk-averse individual will undertake more prevention. We also identify similar thresholds for diagnostic services and they show that optimal coinsurance rates are always higher than associated treatment coinsurance in most circumstances. These results suggest that additional justifications have to be sought in setting prevention and diagnostic coinsurance below that of treatment. This dissertation also develops an easily applicable formula for optimal nonlinear coinsurance rates using a perturbation method. This method has the advantage of being extended to solve optimal deductible levels with fixed coinsurance rates as compared to Blomqvist(1997)'s derivation using optimal control theory. The application of this formula to observed health insurance plans, distribution of expenditures and risk aversion provides maximum bounds (in absolute terms) for elasticity estimates. Similarly from elasticity estimates, we can also obtain lower bounds of risk aversion. I apply these formulas to generate optimal coinsurance rates and deductible levels for observed expenditure distributions and elasticities in the RAND HIE. Finally, I study Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs) which are usually coupled to high deductible health insurance schemes. The effectiveness of MSAs depends on the extent to which consumers value Medisave dollars less compared to cash dollars because of restrictions imposed on the use of MSAs. Using individual-level data of hospital ward choice in Singapore, we estimate that consumers value Medisave dollars at 80 cents to a dollar in cash.
  • "Experimental design is often overlooked in the literature of applied and mathematical statistics: statistics is taught and understood as merely a collection of methods for analyzing data. Consequently, experimenters seldom think about optimal design, including prerequisites such as the necessary sample size needed for a precise answer for an experimental question. Providing a concise introduction to experimental design theory, Optimal Experimental Design with R: Introduces the philosophy of experimental design Provides an easy process for constructing experimental designs and calculating necessary sample size using R programs Teaches by example using a custom made R program package: OPDOE. Consisting of detailed, data-rich examples, this book introduces experimenters to the philosophy of experimentation, experimental design, and data collection. It gives researchers and statisticians guidance in the construction of optimum experimental designs using R programs, including sample size calculations, hypothesis testing, and confidence estimation. A final chapter of in-depth theoretical details is included for interested mathematical statisticians"--Back cover.
  • Mathematical models of health systems and disease can provide important information to decision makers when direct experimentation is impossible, impractical, or unethical, and when there are many possible decision alternatives. When costs or benefits of a medical or health policy decision are in the distant future (perhaps decades away) or are borne by other members of society, mathematical models may be the only practical way to fully evaluate the costs and consequences of policy alternatives. Through modeling, the decision maker can develop a deeper understanding of which factors have the greatest impact on the outcome of interest and explicitly explore decision uncertainty. This dissertation applies and extends the use of mathematical models in the application area of health policy -- specifically to applications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening in injection drug users (IDUs) and the general population.
  • Biopsy methods used in lung cancer typically have either significant complication rates or high rates of false negatives. The safest biopsy method (transbronchial biopsy) has high false negative rates. This thesis takes the initial steps towards adding real-time 3-dimensional imaging to this process via tomosynthesis. Currently transbroncial biopsies are guided by an Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy (ENB) system. This guidance assumes little physiological change between the CT scan and the procedure and also assumes that there is no movement of the catheter while removing the ENB probe from the working channel and inserting the needle or cytobrush for the biopsy. Thus the pulmonologist is 'blind' during the actual biopsy. The scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system (an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system) can add tomosynthesis imaging to the biopsy process. The SBDX system has a 2D array of small beams incident from multiple angles onto a small detector. The multiple angles allows 3-dimensional information to be reconstructed in the images via tomosynthesis. To maximize the tomographic angle of the SBDX system, the tomosynthetic angle as a function of tumor-to-detector distance (TDD) was calculated. Monte Carlo Software (PCXMC) was used to calculate organ doses and effective dose for source-to-detector distances (SDDs) for multiple system geometries. These calculations were performed for both the SBDX system and for standard fluoroscopy. The effect of system geometry on patient dose, both in absolute terms and in terms of image quality were investigated. The tomographic angle had more significant changes with SDD in the region near the detector, at a source to tumor distance that is 69.7% of the SDD assuming constant source and detector size. Changing the patient location in order to increase tomographic angle has a significant effect on organ dose distribution due to geometrical considerations. When tumor signal to noise ratio (SNR) is held constant (ie. x-ray fluence is scaled appropriately), SBDX gives 2-10 times less dose than fluoroscopy for the same conditions within the typical range of patient locations. These models suggested an ideal SDD of 100 cm because of practical considerations of varying patient size, and adequate room between the patient and the bracing securing the detector. To show that the SBDX could improve targeting of tumor lesions, realistic phantoms were needed. Pig lungs and hearts were preserved, the vasculature was filled, and lesions were created in them. The lungs were capable of breathing motion when placed in a custom vaccum chamber. A chest phantom with a rib cage was cut to fit in the vacuum chamber. This provided a very lifelike phantom model for the lungs including the capacity to mimic breathing motion. The prepared lungs were scanned by CT and the scans were used for ENB planning. The pulmonologist placed fiducials which represented the tissue sample site using the ENB system. During this process, the lungs were deformed to simulate the real clinical condition of breathing. After all the fiducials were placed, the lungs were scanned on the SBDX system. The shortest distance from the distal tip of the fiducial to the center of the lesion was measured using the SBDX images. The lungs were again scanned by CT and the fiducial-to-lesion distances were measured. The SBDX system fiducial-to-lesion distances had significant (p< 0.0001) agreement with the CT fiducial-to-lesion distances, indicating that SBDX images can accurately provide image guidance for ENB procedures. The ENB tip-to-target distances were not accurate. When auto-registered lungs were compared with manually registered lungs, it was found that the auto-registered lungs, which had less CT-to-body divergence, had more agreement with the CT fiducial-to-lesion measurements. This indicates that CT-to-body divergence both from rigid registration of primary bronchial passages and non-rigid breathing motion is responsible for the ENB inaccuracy in the distal regions of the lungs. Additional steps to bring this method to the clinic include testing with both guidance systems concurrently, continued development of the reconstruction algorithm, and testing the system in an in vivo model.
  • Thoroughly revised and updated, Optimization in Drug Discovery: In Vitro Methods, Second Edition presents a wide spectrum of in vitro assays including formulation, plasma binding, absorption and permeability, cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) metabolism, CYP inhibition and induction, drug transporters, drug-drug interactions via assessment of reactive metabolites, genotoxicity, and chemical and photo-mutagenicity assays. Written for the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Expert authors have developed and utilized these in vitro assays to achieve drug-like characteristics in addition to efficacy properties and good safety profiles of drug candidates. Comprehensive and up-to-date, Optimization in Drug Discovery: In Vitro Methods, Second Edition aims to guide researchers down the difficult path to successful drug discovery and development.
  • Classification and disease prediction via mathematical programming / Eva K. Lee and Tsung-Lin Wu -- Using influence diagrams in cost-effectiveness analysis for medical decisions / Ram S. Duriseti -- Non-Bayesian classification to obtain high quality clinical decisions / Ram S. Duriseti -- Optimizing pediatric vaccine formularies / Shane N. Hall, Sheldon H. Jacobson, and Edward C. Sewell -- Optimal spending on HIV prevention and treatment : a framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness with example application to the India AIDS initiative / Margaret L. Brandeau ... [et al.] -- Optimization over graphs for kidney paired donation / Sommer E. Gentry -- Introduction to radiation therapy planning optimization / Gino J. Lim -- Beam orientation optimization methods in intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning / Dionne M. Aleman, H. Edwin Romeijn, and James F. Dempsey -- Multileaf collimator shape matrix decomposition / Thomas Kalinowski -- Optimal planning for radiation therapy / Mark Langer, Ronald Rardin, and Ali Tuncel -- Introduction to systems biology for mathematical programmers / Eivind Almaas, Allen Holder, and Kevin Livingstone -- Algorithms for genomics analysis / Eva K. Lee and Kapil Gupta -- Computational methods for probe design and selection / Claudio N. Meneses, Panos M. Pardalos, and Michelle A. Ragle -- Implementation of logical analysis of data for oligo probe selection / In-Yong Jang, Kwangsoo Kim, and Hong Seo Ryoo -- New dihedral angle measure for protein secondary prediction / Moon K. Kim, Yunho Jang, and J. MacGregor Smith -- Optimization of tumor virotherapy with recombinant measles viruses / Zeljko Bajzer ... [et al.] -- Combating microbial resistance to antimicrobial agents through dosing regimen optimization / Michael Nikolaou and Vincent H. Tam.
  • Also available: Print – 2007
    Osteoporosis : a paediatric concern? / R.A. Faulkner, D.A. Bailey -- The biomechanical basis of bone strength development during growth / S.A. Kontulainen ... [et al.] -- The effect of exercise on bone mass and structural geometry during growth / R.M. Daly -- Evidence for an interaction between exercise and nutrition for improved bone health during growth B. Specker, M. Vukovich -- Gene-environmental interactions in the skeletal response to nutrition and exercise during growth / J.-P. Bonjour ... [et al.] -- The effect of energy balance on endocrine function and bone health in youth / C. Zanker, K. Hind -- Risk factors for fractures in normally active children and adolescents / A. Goulding -- Does exercise during growth prevent fractures in later life? / M.K. Karlsson -- Lessons learned from school-based skeletal loading intervention trials : putting research into practice / J.M. Hughes, S.A. Golner, M.A. Petit.
  • Foreword -- Preface -- Contributors -- Authors biographies -- FRAMEWORK OF CLINECS. "CLINECS": strategy and tactics to provide evidence of the usefulness of health care services from the patient's perspective (value for patients) -- Systems view of health care -- ETHICS AND PHILOSOPHY. ETHICS. Seeking justice in health care -- Evidence-based medicine and ethics: desired and undesired effects of screening -- PHILOSOPHY. Paradoxes of medical progress: abandoned patients, physicians, and nurses -- Theory behind the bridge principles -- PSYCHOLOGY. PSYCHOMETRICS. How to measure quality of life -- New instrument to describe indicators of well-being in old old patients with severe dementia: Vienna list -- CULTURE AND PSYCHOLOGY. Patient empowerment: increased compliance or total transformation? -- Shared decision making in medicine -- CLINICAL PRACTICE. PROBLEMS OFTEN OVERLOOKED. Overdiagnosis and pseudodisease: too much of a "good thing"? -- Palliative medicine today: evidence and culture -- Medical geography- who gets the goods? More may not be better -- Cancer survival in Europe and the United States -- QUALITY AND SAFETY. Patient safety: what does it mean in the United States? -- Increasing safety by implementing optimized team interaction: experience from the aviation industry -- Evidence-based information technology: concept for rational information processing in the health care system -- ECONOMICALLY ORIENTED ANALYSES. Cost-effectiveness analysis: measuring the value of health care services -- Cost-effectiveness of lung volume reduction surgery -- Health economic evaluation of adjuvant breast cancer treatment -- Aims and value of screening: is perceived safety a value for which to pay? -- CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY. APPLICATIONS. Evidence-based health care seen from four points of view -- Efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency of diagnostic technology -- Reduced mammographic screening may explain declines in breast carcinoma among older women -- "Fading of reported effectiveness" bias: longitudinal meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials -- Clinical research and outcomes research: common criteria and differences -- Are the results of randomized trials influenced by preference effects? Part I. Findings from a systematic review -- Are the results of randomized trials influenced by preference effects? Part II. Why current studies often fail to answer this question -- CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK. Suggested changes in practice, research, and systems: clinical economics point of view -- Index.
  • How can chronically ill patients make the best treatment decisions when there is uncertainty about the costs and effectiveness of new and emerging treatments? We investigate this question by evaluating new medical technologies and interventions focusing on chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Chronic HCV affects approximately 3 million Americans and has been historically difficult to treat. New and emerging treatments show great promise in providing better health outcomes, but at a significantly higher cost. Using decision-analytic Markov models, we first examine the cost-effectiveness of various disease monitoring strategies before treatment initiation, and the improved use of a new genetic marker-guided therapy to target HCV treatment to patients. We then investigate the cost-effectiveness of population screening policies to detect and treat the estimated 2 million Americans who are unaware of their chronic HCV infection. Motivated by this applied work, we consider the general theoretical question of how long a patient with a treatable chronic disease should wait for more effective treatments to emerge before undergoing currently available treatment. This decision involves a difficult tradeoff between the deterioration of a patient's health and the magnitude of technological improvement over time. We model the patient-level treatment adoption decision problem as an optimal stopping problem using a discrete-time, finite-horizon Markov Decision Process framework. We present structural properties of the model, analytical results, and a numerical example for chronic HCV treatment. Results of this work can inform both individuals and organizations in making treatment decisions in the presence of rapid medical technology advancement.
  • Need to optimize the health of women / Lilian U. Thompson and Wendy E. Ward -- Sex-specific biology of the gastrointestinal tract / Marianne J. Legato -- Adolescence / Nicole Larson ... [et al.] -- Premenopause / Paula Skidmore and Aedin Cassidy -- Pregnancy and lactation / Lisa A. Houghton and Deborah L. O'Connor -- Menopause and midlife / Stacie E. Geller, Marci Goldstein Adams, and Laura Studee -- Obesity and weight management / Peter Clifton -- The metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus / Janet A. Vogt and Thomas M.S. Wolever -- Cardiovascular disease / Alice H. Lichtenstein and Nirupa R. Matthan -- Breast and ovarian cancer / Bette J. Caan and Cynthia A. Thomson -- Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis / Wendy E. Ward -- Rheumatoid arthritis / Lisa K. Stamp and Leslie G. Cleland -- Irritable bowel syndrome / Gerald E. Mullin and Linda A. Lee -- Eye health / Jennifer Evans -- Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia / Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello, Sara Hutchison, and Hannes B. Staehelin -- Depression and psychiatric disorders / Christina P.C. Borba and David C. Henderson -- Eating disorders / Richard E. Kreipe and Sophie Bucher Della Torre -- Oral health / Peter C. Fritz and Wendy E. Ward -- Conclusion: what we know, and where do we go from here / Lilian U. Thompson and Wendy E. Ward.
  • This book by Madbak and Dangleben has collated lot of information that has been presented and published in many disparate arenas into a single easy to read source. In an area where there is more experience and ℓ́ℓfavorite techniquesℓ́ℓ than true evidence based answers, they provide a wealth of information along with outstanding photographic support that makes this an excellent resource for all surgeons caring for this population. Similar to many things in life, when treating patients with the open abdomen one size or methodology does not fit all and this book will assuredly contain at least one possible answer to your patientℓ́ℓs problem. One of the more unique aspects of this textbook is its detailed ℓ́ℓHow toℓ́ℓ approach for the wide variety of techniques utilized in the management of the open abdomen. While there may be no consensus as to what constitutes the optimal management of the open abdomen, this book articulates a number of options and their advantages. Most importantly, it provides high quality photographs that enhance the step by step ℓ́ℓHow toℓ́ℓ approach of the text. More recent developments including using biologic mesh, implementing complex abdominal wall reconstruction and utilizing minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are described. This book is not only appropriate for all practicing surgeons that deal with this complex issue, but is also relevant for residents and fellows who are just getting their first exposure to open abdomens.
  • Anxiety, a sustained state of apprehension in the absence of a specific and imminent threat, is critical for an organism to survive in an environment with unpredictable risks. In disease states, however, anxiety becomes severely debilitating; anxiety disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases (28% lifetime prevalence). Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders, current treatments are often ineffective and have severe side-effects, such as addiction, pointing to the need for a deeper understanding of anxiety circuits. The amygdala and extended amygdala have long been hypothesized to play a central role in anxiety, but the function of the intra- and inter-connections of the amygdala and extended amygdala circuits are unclear, largely due to the lack of appropriate tools. With the advent of optogenetics, which was pioneered in the Deisseroth lab, and with the evolution of virus- or promoter-based targeting strategies, it is now possible to manipulate a specific circuit element with unprecedented precision and to identify its function in behavior. The first part of this thesis illustrates the application of optogenetics to identify an intra-amygdala circuit element that decreases anxiety. The second part explores the functional circuitry of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a key component of the extended amygdala. We studied the roles of its input from the amygdala and outputs to the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in the anxious state. Here, the term 'anxious state' is used to emphasize that anxiety is a behavioral state consisting of distinct features, such as behavioral risk-avoidance and changes in respiration rate. We sought to find circuit elements mediating each distinct feature of the anxious state. The data provided by this thesis furthers our understanding of the function and dysfunction of anxiety circuitry. The approach that we employed here for functional circuit mapping may be applicable to the dissection of other behavioral states, such as fear and aggression.
  • The neural control of sleep and wakefulness depends upon a complex and partially defined balance between subcortical excitatory and inhibitory populations in the brain. Wake-active neurons include hypocretin (Hcrt)-containing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and noradrenergic neurons that make up the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC). Experimentally determining a causal role for these neurons in promoting and maintaining wakefulness has remained elusive using traditional pharmacological and electrical techniques due to their small size, unique morphology, and proximity to heterogeneous neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. The recent development of optogenetic technology provides a toolkit of genetically-encodable, millisecond timescale, stimulation and inhibition probes that can be targeted to specific cell types with no toxicity to the cells under investigation. This dissertation discusses the application of optogenetic tools to questions about sleep/wake circuitry and uses these tools to study Hcrt and LC neurons, both individually and in combination.
  • Optogenetic neuromodulation is giving scientists an unprecedented ability to modulate neural circuits, providing specificity with regards to location, cell type, as well as neuromodulatory effect. On the other hand, electrical stimulation and lesions, methods commonly used to study neural circuits, are lacking in specificity, often affecting both local cells and passing axons, as well as multiple cell types. Our laboratory has been at the forefront of the field of optogenetics, having developed, for use in mammalian systems, Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), an algal light-activated cation channel that depolarizes neurons in response to blue light, and Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (eNpHR), a chloride pump that hyperpolarizes neurons in response to amber light. These proteins can control neuronal activity with millisecond timescale precision, and through promoters, they can be targeted to specific cell-types in heterogeneous tissue. Along with its specificity, light stimulation with optogenetic tools often allows the recording of neural activity without the artifact that obfuscates recordings with electrical stimulation. The advantages provided by optogenetics allowed us to make a breakthrough in determining the therapeutic mechanism of deep brain stimulation, a robust treatment for Parkinson's disease in which stimulating electrodes are implanted deep in the brain. Using optogenetics, we replicated the effect of deep brain stimulation by modulating cortical inputs into the region where the stimulating electrode is normally placed. Combined with other corroborating publications, a hypothesis is emerging that electrical stimulation deep in the brain actually produces its effect by modulating cortical projections to the deep brain region. Based on this concept, several clinical studies are being done to better understand the cortical role in Parkinson's disease and determine whether cortical stimulation (potentially non-invasive), could be an alternative to the invasive implants currently used. In order to perform these experiments, we studied the transmission of visible light in brain tissue to estimate the volume of activation produced by optogenetic stimulation and developed a device to measure fluorescence in awake, behaving animals, allowing the quantification of virally transfected gene expression over time, as well as the localization of expression along axon bundles. The knowledge gained from these experiments will have a significant impact on future experiments in the broader field of optogenetics.
  • Social interaction is an essential and highly integrative behavioral task that is impaired in major psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, social anxiety disorder, and depression. Current treatments for many of these disorders are based on pharmacological approaches that have been used for decades even though their mechanisms of action are poorly understood and carry many side effects. In particular, treatment of the asocial symptoms of these disorders has remained elusive due to a generally poor understanding of the neural circuitry underlying normal social behavior. In order to move toward a deeper circuit-level understanding of these complex neural processes, our lab has pioneered the use of two light-activated microbial opsins, Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and Halorhodopsin (NpHR), to achieve precise bidirectional optogenetic control of specific cell types in behaving animals. However, it has become clear that the complexity of the circuitry involved in psychiatric behaviors will require new classes of optogenetic tools to modulate cells in a more refined manner based on characteristics such as projection profile, receptor expression, and endogenous firing patterns. The purpose of this study was thus two-fold: 1) to develop novel optogenetic tools for more physiologically relevant stimulation of different cell types on different timescales, and 2) to apply these tools to define in socializing animals the real-time causal role not only of a specific brain region and cell type, but also of distinct subpopulations defined by projections to different downstream brain regions and distinct downstream cell types. The engineered opsins we develop here will be generalizable to dissect other neural circuits in health and disease, enabling new domains of optogenetic investigation that have thus far been inaccessible, and enhancing the precision of optical neural control in a broad variety of settings.
  • Hippocampal oscillations are critical for information processing, and are strongly influenced by inputs from the medial septum. Hippocamposeptal neurons provide direct inhibitory feedback from the hippocampus onto septal cells, and are therefore likely to also play an important role in the circuit; these neurons fire at either low or high frequency, reflecting hippocampal network activity during theta oscillations or ripple events, respectively. Since the hippocamposeptal projection is sparse and long-range, the impact of high or low frequency hippocampal input on septal physiology has not been addressable with classical electrophysiological or pharmacological techniques. In order to understand the contribution of defined neuronal subtypes, such as hippocamposeptal neurons, to brain function, our laboratory has developed a technique termed optogenetics, which integrates genetic targeting and optical stimulation to achieve temporally precise manipulation of genetically and spatially defined cell types in intact tissue. Optogenetics employs light sensitive microbial proteins, including ion pumps and channels that can elicit or inhibit action potentials. Optogenetics has already proved invaluable to neuroscience, but several key limitations to its application have become apparent: First, increasingly diverse optogenetic tools allow more versatile control over neural activity, but since new tools have been developed in multiple laboratories and tested across different preparations it is difficult to draw direct comparisons between them. As a result, it has become increasingly challenging for end users to select the optimal reagents for their experimental needs. Second, as the power of genetically encoded interventional and observational tools for neuroscience expands, the boundary of experimental design is increasingly defined by limits in selectively expressing these tools in specific cell types. To date, cell-type has primarily referred to genetic specificity, achieved with promoter-driven expression either in transgenic animals or in viruses. This approach is limited in its ability to define a 'cell type': cells may be targeted based on only a single parameter, and genetic targeting does not take into account anatomic connectivity, in many cases the most salient feature of a target population. The aim of this thesis is thus three-fold: 1) To interrogate frequency-dependent signaling in the hippocamposeptal pathway, using optogenetics to gain cell-type specific, temporally-precise control over hippocamposeptal fibers, 2) To systematically compare microbial opsins under matched experimental conditions to extract essential principles and identify key parameters for the conduct, design and interpretation of experiments involving optogenetic techniques, and 3) To develop new viral and molecular strategies to target cells of interest based on both genetic and topological parameters. The investigation of the hippocamposeptal projection will increase our understanding of the larger circuit of which it is a part, and will also illustrate the importance of firing frequency in neuronal signaling. The tool development described will be useful for future work investigating the hippocamposeptal pathway in particular, and more generally for a broad variety of applications of optogenetics to neuroscience.
  • Optogenetics is a fast-growing field concerning the invention, and use, of molecules that are genetically expressed in cells, and then either report on cellular physiology in optical form, or enable control of specific pathways in cells when actuated by light. This book reviews the current state, as well as the underlying principles and future directions, of a diversity of optogenetic tools of importance for observing and controlling cellular signaling and physiology. These tools are already revolutionizing neuroscience, and are starting to have impact on fields ranging from metabolism to
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  • Describing the diagnosis and management of maxillofacial and associated traumatic injuries step by step, this 4th Edition takes you beyond the surgical management of head and neck trauma to cover the general management of traumatic injuries, systemic evaluation of the trauma patient, and special considerations associated with maxillofacial trauma patient care. New to this edition are over 700 full-color illustrations showing details of traumatic injuries and their treatment. Edited by head and neck trauma expert Dr. Raymond J. Fonseca, along with over 80 highly respected contributors, this comprehensive reference provides all of the information you need to offer the best care possible to maxillofacial trauma patients. UPDATED content reflects current thinking and the latest techniques in the management of traumatic injuries. NEW full-color illustrations and design highlight clinical areas and show details of injuries and their treatment.
  • Dentists are routinely faced with a huge choice of implant systems from different manufacturers, each of whom claims that its own particular system has advantages over the others. There is consequently a need for an evidence-based review of the field that offers authoritative practical guidance for dental practitioners. Oral and Cranial Implants: Recent Research Developments has been written with this in mind. It brings together all the recent key developments in implant research and discusses the underlying science relating to implant procedures and failures.
  • The new edition of this highly successful volume continues to offer readers with a systemized and objective approach to the practice of oral and maxillofacial medicine. Winner of the Royal Society of Medicine and Society of Authors Book Award in the category of 'New Authored Book' (2004), and Highly Commended in the British Medical Association Book Awards (2009), this volume is ideal for senior dental students, dental practitioners and for trainees and practitioners in oral medicine, surery, and pathology in particular. Allows the reader to adopt a systematic approach to history taking Explains how to examine patients and their oral lesions systematically to start formulating differential diagnoses Identifies which sites may be affected by the presenting condition and what to look for at the sites Explains when clinical investigations are indicated, which are appropriate, and how to perform them Shows the reader how to interpret the findings of routine clinical investigations and understand the potential implications for the patient Identifies relevant follow-up questions that may further clarify the findings of the clinical examination and refocus the history Explains how to recognise the scope of oral and maxillofacial diseases and the importance of their medical management in addition to the traditional dental focus of the discipline Shows the reader how to identify lesions and understand their potential implications for the patient Explains how to advise the patient about the aetiology of oral lesions and their predisposing factors Identifies a range of therapeutic options for the patient and emphasises the need for regular review and re-appraisal of the condition Provides an understanding of how treatment may impact, positively or negatively, upon the condition Identifies the need to refer for advice, investigations or treatment by dental, medical or surgical specialists Shows the reader how to recognise the importance of close liaison with colleagues in other disciplines, particular imaging, medicine, pathology and surgery.
  • Print Material
    "Be prepared to diagnose and manage any condition you encounter in your practice! This bestselling reference gives you direct access to a complete range of full-color clinical images and patient radiographs that illustrate the differentiating characteristics of lesions in the oral and maxillofacial region. Significantly revised and updated content throughout this edition brings you the latest information on the etiology, clinical features, histopathology, treatment, and prognosis of each disease entity, as well as cutting-edge topics such as bisphosphonate osteonecrosis, the oral complications associated with methamphetamine abuse, solitary fibrous tumors, gene mutation, and plasminogen deficiency. Over 1,300 clinical photos and radiographs, most in full color, facilitate identification and classification of lesions. Current concepts of pathogenesis and disease management help you understand the diseases that affect the oral and maxillofacial structures, formulate an accurate diagnosis, and institute proper treatment. Each chapter is logically organized by body system or disease group, enabling you to easily identify a specific condition. A comprehensive appendix of differential diagnosis among oral and maxillofacial disease processes helps you rule out invalid diagnoses. The bibliography divided by topic presented at the end of each chapter enables you to pursue supplemental literature. Highly accomplished authors and contributors with a broad range of clinical and classroom teaching experience provide well-balanced coverage of the entire subject. Chapter outlines at the beginning of each chapter allow immediate access to specific topics. Over 200 new illustrations have been added to this popular, visual reference. A new section on bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis thoroughly explores and illustrates this recently identified complication resulting from medications used to prevent bone loss in patients with multiple myeloma, metastatic tumors, and osteoporosis. A new section about the oral complications of methamphetamine abuse details characteristic oral manifestations such as "meth mouth caries" and factitial injuries. Expanded coverage of oral piercings, intraoral tattoos, and other body modifications includes unusual entities such as tongue splitting and charm needles. A new section on transient lingual papillitis sheds light on this common cause of transitory tongue irritation. A new section on solitary fibrous tumors familiarizes you with this popular designation for certain benign fibrous neoplasms. A new section on hypoplasminogenemia (ligneous conjunctivitis), or plasminogen deficiency, includes images from a patient case that illustrate the characteristic gingival lesions associated with this rare but fascinating systemic condition. A new section on hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia describes the characteristic oral manifestations that can lead you to accurately diagnose this condition, potentially preventing a woman with this disorder from having cytologically unusual cells misdiagnosed as carcinoma on her cervical PAP smears. A new section discusses the clinical and microscopic features of chronic ulcerative stomatitis, an immune-mediated condition of the oral mucosa that presents with erosive lesions and is often mistaken for lichen planus. The chapter on Forensic Dentistry has been thoroughly revised and updated by leading forensic odontology author, Dr. Edward Herschaft, to include the latest information on this fascinating topic. Several chapters have been updated to include the most current knowledge of specific gene mutations associated with hereditary oral disorders."--Publisher's website.
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 4th Edition provides state-of-the-art information on the wide variety of diseases that may affect the oral and maxillofacial region. Over 1,400 radiographs and full-color clinical photos - that's more than any other reference - bring pathologies and conditions to life. New to this edition is coverage of the latest advances in diagnosis and disease management, plus topics such as hereditary dental anomalies and oral lesions associated with cosmetic fillers.
  • v. 1. Anesthesia and pain control, dentoalveolar surgery, practice management, implant surgery / volume editors, Raymond J. Fonseca -- v. 2. Trauma, surgical pathology, temporomandibular disoders / volume editors, Robert D. Marciani -- v. 3. Orthognathic surgery, esthetic surgery, cleft and craniofacial surgery / volume editors, Timothy A. Turvey.
  • Print Material
    Part I - Basic principles in the management of traumatic injuries -- Part II - Systematic evaluation of the traumatized patient -- Part III - Management of head and neck injuries -- Part IV - Special considerations in the management of traumatic injuries.
  • Gene therapy of salivary diseases -- Collection, storage, and processing of saliva samples for downstream molecular applications -- Proteomic analysis of saliva: 2D gel electrophoresis, LC-MS/MS, and Western blotting -- Transcriptomic analyses of saliva -- The oral microbiota : General overview, taxonomy, and nucleic acid techniques -- Microbial community profiling using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) -- Protocols to study the physiology of oral biofilms -- Adhesion of yeast and bacteria to oral surfaces -- Quantitative analysis of periodontal pathogens by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction -- Bacterial viability determination in a dentinal tubule infection model by confocal laser scanning microscopy -- Characterization of anti-competitor activities produced by oral bacteria -- Natural transformation of oral streptococci -- Use of in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) to identify virulence factors of porphyromonas gingivalis -- Oral bacterial genome sequencing using the high-throughput roche genome sequencer FLX system -- Use of a yeast-based membrane protein expression technology to overexpress drug resistance efflux pumps -- Explant culture of embryonic craniofacial tissues : Analyzing effects of signaling molecules on gene expression -- A method to isolate, purify, and characterize human periodontal ligament stem cells -- Preclinical methods for the evaluation of periodontal regeneration in vivo -- Proteomic analysis of dental tissue microsamples -- Immunological techniques : ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry -- Analysis of immune responses to purified recombinant antigens of periodontal pathogens -- Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of T-cell clonality in periodontal disease -- Real-time PCR focused-gene array profiling of gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts -- The use of gene arrays in deciphering the pathobiology of periodontal diseases -- Bioinformatics techniques in microarray research : Applied microarray data analysis using R and SAS software.
  • Oral cancer is frequently diagnosed late, when the disease has advanced with lesions that are large and deeply invasive and with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, leading to increased mortality. Moreover, late diagnosis and treatment often result in considerable morbidity of oral and maxillofacial structures and poor appearance and function following therapy. This book provides head and neck oncologists, oral oncologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, medical oncologists, dentists and other members of dental teams furnishing supportive care with a systematic review of recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances in oral cancer. The various authoritative chapters are prepared by specialists who are active leaders in each basic and clinical field. All chapters address individual and collective issues that arise in managing oral cancer patients with difficult treatment problems and provide insight into the multiple valid management approaches available. The authors offer an extensive source of information about oral cancers and encourage the clinician to be flexible and innovative, giving physicians and medical personnel the background information to make the best, educated, responsible decisions for individual patients.
  • Oral Cytology: A Concise Guide provides a state-of-the-art review of the major issues specific to the field of oral cytology. The sections of the book have been structured to review the complexities of sample collection, manual/automated analysis, pitfalls, gray zones and controversies in diagnosis, as well as, issues not covered by other available materials. Recent advancements in ancillary techniques like DNA ploidy, image analysis and molecular biology are discussed in detail. This useful text is extensively illustrated with patient and microscopic pictures, which will further highlight the clinical application. Throughout the text, simultaneous inclusion of both cytologic and histologic images will allow cyto-histological correlation. Readers will find descriptions of techniques offering greater simplicity, speed, patient comfort and cost effectiveness, as well as improved diagnostic precision. This bench-side reference is a unique and valuable resource in the field of oral cytology, both for those currently in training and clinicians dealing with the diagnosis of oral lesions.
  • Also available: Print – 2013
  • Oral mucositis 2012
    Treatment tolerance is a challenge for most cancer patients, and it is therefore essential that healthcare professionals (HCP) are quick to recognize adverse events and implement management strategies to address them. This pocket book provides an in-depth guide to the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of oral mucositis, a common adverse event of chemotherapy.
  • Developmental and congenital conditions -- Noninfectious papillary lesions -- Bacterial, viral, fungal, and other infectious conditions -- Fibrous, gingival, lipocytic, and miscellaneous tumors -- Vascular, neural, and muscle tumors -- Ulcerative and inflammatory conditions -- Immune-mediated, autoimmune, and granulomatous conditions -- Pigmented lesions -- Reactive keratotic lesions (nonleukoplakias) -- Leukoplakia, oral dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma -- Inflammatory salivary gland disorders -- Salivary gland neoplasms -- Intraosseous odontogenic cysts and tumors and other intraosseous lesions -- Odontogenic tumors -- Nonodontogenic intraosseous lesions.
  • Covering pathologic conditions by clinical appearance, Oral Pathology: Clinical Pathologic Correlations, 6th Edition uses an atlas-style format to help you identify, diagnose, and plan treatment for oral disease presentations. Two-page spreads include clinical photos of common conditions on one side while the facing page lists the central features, causes, and significance of each specific disease. Each chapter is organized by clinical appearance, such as white lesions, red-blue lesions, and cysts of the jaws and neck, and includes full-color photomicrographs and clinical photos to help you identify pathologic elements. This edition adds new coverage of oral cancer and new cone beam CT, regular CT, and MRI images. Expert authors Joseph Regezi, James Sciubba, and Richard Jordan provide a quick reference that;s ideal for the lab, NBDE review, or chairside use! An atlas-style Clinical Overview section makes it easy to find key information, with one page showing clinical photos of common conditions and the facing page listing symptoms, causes, and significance. Organization by clinical appearance -- such as including all red-blue lesions in one chapter along with possible causes -- matches what you would expect to see upon a patient's presentation, and provides a practical tool for developing differential diagnoses and planning treatment. Hundreds of full-color clinical photographs and radiographs depict specific conditions for easier identification in real clinical scenarios. Full-color photomicrographs help you identify pathologic elements and provide correct diagnoses and treatment plans. Boxes and tables offer clear, at-a-glance information on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment for many conditions. Student resources on a companion Evolve website include 30 case studies, a 150-question practice exam, and case-based learning to prepare you for the NBDE and for clinical practice.
  • Physiology and pharmacology of erectile dysfunction / Rafael Carrion ... [et al.] -- Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction / Jonathan D. Schiff and John P. Mulhall -- Pharmacology of phosphodiesterase inhibitors / Erwin Bischoff -- Sildenafil citrate, the classical PDE5 inhibitor: a five-year review of its efficacy and safety in the arena of erectile dysfunction / Harin Padma-Nathan -- Tadalafil: clinical trials experience / Culley C. Carson, III -- Vardenafil: clinical trials experience / Ajay Nehra -- Erectile dysfunction assessment and management in primary care practice / Louis Kuritzky and Martin Miner -- When to refer the patient with erectile dysfunction to a specialist / Ira D. Sharlip -- Erectile dysfunction: assessing risk and managing the cardiac patient / Thorsten Reffelmann and Robert A. Kloner -- Is diabetic erectile dysfunction more difficult to treat? / Pierre Theuma and Vivian A. Fonseca -- Depression and antidepressant-associated erectile dysfunction / Raymond C. Rosen -- Intracavernous, transurethral, and topical therapies for erectile dysfunction in the era of oral pharmacotherapy: salvaging first-line therapy, failures with combination therapies / Hans-Martin A. Fritsche, Mustafa F. Usta, and Wayne J.G. Hellstrom -- Androgen deficiency of the aging male: enhancing erectile response to oral pharmacotherapy / Alvaro Morales and Jeremy P.W. Heaton -- Central activation of erection and clinical experience / Jeremy P.W. Heaton, Alvaro Morales, and Michael A. Adams -- Sustaining the cure: oral pharmacotherapy failures salvage with vacuum devices and penile implants / Ronald W. Lewis -- Prevention and treatment of erectile dysfunction utilizing lifestyle changes and dietary supplements: what works and what is worthless? / Mark A. Moyad -- Pharmacological strategies in the management of rapid ejaculation / Chris G. McMahon -- Sexual dysfunction after radical prostatectomy and the use of PDE-5 inhibitors / Andrew McCullough -- Female sexual dysfunction: is there a magic pill? / Ridwan Shabsigh ... [et al.].
  • Oral surgery 2007
  • This book thoroughly reviews the diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the orbital walls and apex, including orbital floor, medial orbital wall, naso-orbito-ethmoid, orbitozygomatic, maxillary, and frontobasilar fractures. For each form of injury, signs and symptoms are identified and clear guidance is provided on the interpretation of clinical and radiological findings and on current surgical treatment methods. In addition, the role of orbital imaging techniques, including CT and MRI, in depicting anatomic relations is explained with the aid of a wealth of radiological images and photograph.
  • Orbital imaging 2015
  • Orbital infection: Bacterial Orbital Cellulitis -- Fungal Orbital Cellulitis -- Mycobacterial Orbital Cellulitis -- Viral Orbital Cellulitis -- Parasitic Orbital Cellulitis. Idiopathic Orbital -- Inflammation and IgG4 variant -- Sarcoidosis -- Wegener?s Granulomatosis -- Churg-Strauss Syndrome -- Sjogren Syndrome -- Langerhans? cell histiocytosis -- Adult xanthogranulomatous Disorders -- Kimura Disease -- Inflammation associated with intraocular and orbital tumors -- Graves? Eye Disease -- Orbital lymphoproliferative disorder. .
  • Orbital Tumors, 2nd edition discusses advances in orbital disease and their treatment, offering readers an up-to-date, single volume reference for orbital tumors. Divided into two parts, this book covers everything from advances in oncogenesis and its relationship to orbital tumors, to medical genetics and the role of imaging in diagnosis of orbital tumors. Additionally, new information on incidence and behavior of tumors resulting from environmental and social trends is included. Written and edited by leaders in the fields of ophthalmology and oncology, Orbital Tumors, 2nd edition builds upon the first edition, proving to be a useful reference for orbital specialists and of significant interest to everyone dealing with orbital pathology from a clinical and scientific point of view.
  • Also available: Print – 2005
  • 2012 ClinicalKey
    Chapter 1 Introduction -- Chapter 2 The techniques of FNA cytology -- Chapter 3 Imaging methods for guidance of aspiration cytology -- Chapter 4 Head and neck; salivary glands -- Chapter 5 Lymph nodes -- Chapter 6 The thyroid gland -- Chapter 7 Breast -- Chapter 8 Lung, chest wall and pleura -- Chapter 9 Mediastinum -- Chapter 10 Liver and spleen -- Chapter 11 Pancreas, biliary tract and intra-abdominal organs -- Chapter 12 Kidney, adrenal and retroperitoneum -- Chapter 13 Male and female genital organs -- Chapter 14 Skin and subcutis -- Chapter 15 Soft tissues -- Chapter 16 Bone and cartilage -- Chapter 17 Paediatric tumors -- Chapter 18 Infectious Diseases.
  • Also available: Print – 2006
  • This issue of Progress in Brain Research reviews current knowledge and understanding, provides a starting point for researchers and practitioners entering the field, and builds a platform for further research and discovery. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation, and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist.
  • Also available: Print – 2005
  • 1. Isolation and characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells for use in tissue engineering / Benjamin M. Buehrer and Bentley Cheatham -- 2. Isolation of smooth muscle cells from bladder for generation of engineered urologic organs / Darell W. McCoy -- 3. Isolation of urothelial cells from bladder tissue / Namrata Sangha -- 4. Isolation of pulsatile cell bodies from esophageal tissue / John W. Ludlow, Joydeep Basu, Christopher W. Genheimer, Kelly I. Guthrie, and Namrata Sangha -- 5. Cell isolation through whole-liver perfusion and preparation of hepatocytes for cytochrome P450 analysis / Sonya O. Meheux -- 6. Ex vivo culture and separation of functional renal cells / Andrew T. Bruce, Kelly I. Guthrie, and Rusty Kelley -- 7. Isolation and myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for urologic tissue engineering / Rongpei Wu, Guihua Liu, Shantaram Bharadwaj and Yuanyuan Zhang -- 8. Xeno-free adaptation and culture of human pluripotent stem cells / Tori Sampsell-Barron -- 9. Reverse engineering life : physical and chemical mimetics for controlled stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes / Gary R. Skuse and Kathleen A. Lamkin-Kennard -- 10. Phenotypic analysis of bioactive cells for application in regenerative medicine / Teresa Bora Burnette and Andrew T. Bruce -- 11. Preparation and evaluation of natural scaffold materials for kidney regenerative applications / Monica A. Serban, Toyin A. Knight, and Richard G. Payne -- 12. Rapid production of autologous fibrin hydrogels for cellular encapsulation in organ regeneration / Adelola O. Oseni, Peter E. Butler, and Alexander M. Seifalian -- 13. Electrospinning tubular scaffolds with tissue-like mechanical properties and biomimetic surface features / Scott Rapoport -- 14. Design, fabrication, and preparation of synthetic scaffolds for urologic tissue engineering / Richard G. Payne and Toyin A. Knight -- 15. Characterization of a PGA-based scaffold for use in a tissue-engineered neo-urinary conduit / Toyin A. Knight and Richard G. Payne -- 16. Migration assay to evaluate cellular interactions with biomaterials for tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications / Kelly I. Guthrie, Namrata Sangha, Christopher W. Genheimer, Joydeep Basu, and John W. Ludlow -- 17. Care of rodent models used for preclinical evaluation of tissue-engineered/regenerative medicine product candidates / Kim L. Mihalko -- 18. Bioreactor design considerations for hollow organs / Jeff Fish, Craig Halberstadt, Darell W. McCoy and Neil Robbins -- 19. Construction of a multicoaxial hollow fiber bioreactor / Randall McClelland, Katherine Tech, and Jeffrey M. Macdonald -- 20. Isolation of human cadaveric pancreatic islets for clinical transplantation / Craig Halberstadt, Deana Williams, and Paul Gores -- 21. Microencapsulation of pancreatic islets for use in a bioartificial pancreas / Emmanuel C. Opara, John P. McQuilling, and Alan C. Farney -- 22. Bioengineered skin substitutes / Pedro Lei, Hui You, and Stelios T. Andreadis -- 23. Formulation of selected renal cells for implantation into a kidney / Craig Halberstadt, Neil Robbins, Darrell W. McCoy, Kelly I. Guthrie, Andrew T. Bruce, Toyin A. Knight and Richard G. Payne -- 24. Human liver bioengineering using a whole liver decellularized bioscaffold / Pedro M. Baptista, Dipen Vyas, Emma Moran, Zhan Wang and Shay Soker -- 25. A "living bioreactor" for the production of tissue-engineered small intestine / Daniel E. Levin, Frederic G. Sala, Erik R. Barthel, Allison L. Speer, Xiaogang Hou, Yasuhiro Torshima and Tracy C. Grikscheit -- 26. Tissue engineering of esophagus and small intestine in rodent injury models / Joydeep Basu, Kim L. Mihalko, Elias A. Rivera, Kelly I. Guthrie, Christopher W. Genheimer, Namrata Sangha and John W. Ludlow -- 27. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of endothelialized tissue-engineered constructs / Sandra L. Johnson -- 28. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of in vivo tissue regeneration in an animal model / Christopher W. Genheimer -- 29. Histological evaluation of tissue regeneration using biodegradable scaffold seeded by autologous cells for tubular/hollow organ applications / Elias A. Rivera and Manuel J. Jayo.
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  • pt. 1. Origins of organelle genomes -- pt. 2. Organelle genome evolution -- pt. 3. Mechanisms of organelle gene loss -- pt. 4. Origins of organelle proteomes -- pt. 5. Evolution of organelle transcription -- pt. 6. Evolution of organelle RNA processing -- pt. 7. Evolution of organelle translation, tRNAs and the genetic code.
  • Organelle proteomics 2008
    Springer Protocols
    Analysis of organelles by on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry / Edwin P. Romijn and John R. Yates III -- Purification and proteomic analysis of chloroplasts and their sub-organellar compartments / Daniel Salvi ... [et al.] -- Proteomic analysis of the stacked golgi complex / Mark S. Lowenthal, Kathryn E. Howell, and Christine C. Wu -- Purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria by zone electrophoresis in a free flow device / Hans Zischka ... [et al.] -- Preparation of respiratory chain complexes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type and mutant mitochondria : activity measurement and subunit composition analysis / Claire Lemaire and Geneviève Dujardin -- Mitochondrial proteomics : analysis of a whole mitochondrial extract with two-dimensional electrophoresis / Thierry Rabilloud -- Purification and proteomic analysis of the mouse liver mitochondrial inner membrane / Sandrine Da Cruz and Jean-Claude Martinou -- Subcellular fractionation and proteomics of nuclear envelopes / Laurence Florens, Nadia Korfali, and Eric C. Schirmer -- Purification and proteomic analysis of a nuclear-insoluble protein fraction / Tsuneyoshi Horigome, Kazuhiro Furukawa, and Kohei Ishii -- Preparation methods of human metaphase chromosomes for their proteome analysis / Kiichi Fukui, Hideaki Takata, and Susumu Uchiyama -- Purification and proteomic analysis of plant plasma membranes / Erik Alexandersson ... [et al.] -- Protocol to enrich and analyze plasma membrane proteins from frozen tissues / Jacek R. Wiśniewski -- Proteomic characterization of membrane protein topology / Adele R. Blackler and Christine C. Wu -- Free flow isoelectric focusing : a method for the separation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteins of rat liver peroxisomes / Markus Islinger and Gerhard Weber -- Use of gas-phase fractionation to increase protein identifications : application to the peroxisome / Jacob Kennedy and Eugene C. Yi -- Purification and proteomic analysis of lysosomal integral membrane proteins / Huiwen Zhang ... [et al.] -- Affinity purification of soluble lysosomal proteins for mass spectrometric identification / Sylvie Kieffer-Jaquinod ... [et al.] -- Purification and proteomic analysis of synaptic vesicles / Holly D. Cox and Charles M. Thompson -- Purification and proteomics analysis of pancreatic zymogen granule membranes / Xuequn Chen and Philip C. Andrews -- Isolation and proteomic analysis of chlamydomonas centrioles / Lani C. Keller and Wallace F. Marshall -- Purification and proteomic analysis of 20S proteasomes from human cells / Marie-Pierre Bousquet-Dubouch ... [et al.] -- Characterization of E. coli ribosomal particles : combined analysis of whole proteins by mass spectrometry and of proteolytic digests by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry / Isabelle Iost ... [et al.] -- Assessment of organelle purity using antibodies and specific assays : the example of the chloroplast envelope / Daniel Salvi ... [et al.] -- Identifying bona fide components of an organelle by isotope-coded labeling of subcellular fractions : an example in peroxisomes / Marcello Marelli, Alexey I. Nesvizhskii, and John D. Aitchison -- Determination of genuine residents of plant endomembrane organelles using isotope tagging and multivariate statistics / Kathryn S. Lilley and Tom P.J. Dunkley -- Quantitative proteomic analysis to profile dynamic changes in the spatial distribution of cellular proteins / Wei Yan, Daehee Hwang, and Ruedi Aebersold -- Use of transcriptomic data to support organelle proteomic analysis / Wallace F. Marshall.
  • Photochemistry and photophysics of highly excited valence states of polyatomic molecules: nonalternant aromatics, thioketones, and metalloporphyrins / G. Burdzinski ... [et al.] -- Proton transfer reactions in the excited states / Haruo Shizuka and Seiji Tobita -- Photoreactivity of n,[pi]*-excited azoalkanes and ketones / Werner M. Nau and Uwe Pischel -- Photonucleophilic substitution reactions / Maurizio Fagnoni and Angelo Albini -- Mechanistic and synthetic aspects of SET-promoted photocyclization reactions of silicon substituted phthalimides / Ung Chan Yoon and Patrick S. Mariano -- Photoanimation with ammonia and amines / Masahide Yasuda ... [et al.] -- DNA-templated assembly of helical multichromophore aggregates / Bruce A. Armitage.
  • Fulltext (pt. 2) Google Books
  • The origin of modern intensive care units (ICUs) has frequently been attributed to the widespread provision of mechanical ventilation within dedicated hospital areas during the 1952 Copenhagen polio epidemic. However, modern ICUs have developed to treat or monitor patients who have any severe, life-threatening disease or injury. These patients receive specialized care and vital organ assistance such as mechanical ventilation, cardiovascular support, or hemodialysis. ICU patients now typically occupy approximately 10% of inpatient acute care beds, yet the structure and organization of these ICUs can be quite different across hospitals. In The Organization of Critical Care: An Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Quality, leaders provide a concise, evidence-based review of ICU organizational factors that have been associated with improved patient (or other) outcomes. The topics covered are grouped according to four broad domains: (1) the organization, structure, and staffing of an ICU; (2) organizational approaches to improving quality of care in an ICU; (3) integrating ICU care with other healthcare provided within the hospital and across the broader healthcare system; and (4) international perspectives on critical care delivery. Each chapter summarizes a different aspect of ICU organization and targets individual clinicians and healthcare decision makers. A long overdue contribution to the field, The Organization of Critical Care: An Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Quality is an indispensable guide for all clinicians and health administrators concerned with achieving state-of-the-art outcomes for intensive care.
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  • My Ph.D. work primarily involves the synthesis of ethylene-based oligomers and ethylene-styrene copolymers using organometallic catalysis. Chapter 1 reviews selective ethylene oligomerization that produces 1-hexene and 1-octene, with particular emphasis on the chromium-based catalytic systems and the mechanism by which they operate. Its application to the preparation of value-added chemicals is also covered. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 present investigations on selective ethylene oligomerization with a Cr(PNP)Cl3/MAO catalyst system (PNP = Ph2PN(iPr)PPh2) in the presence of dialkyl zinc as an effective strategy for the co-generation of 1-octene and functionalized ethylene oligomers. Transmetallation with ZnMe2 during Cr-catalyzed ethylene tetramerization generated end-labeled 1-alkenes in Cn> 10 along with 1-octene, while that with ZnEt2 or ZnBu2 produced a mixture of end-labeled linear alkanes and 1-alkenes in Cn> 10 as well as 1-octene. Labeling studies with D2O provided a mechanistic test for metallacycle intermediates. Mechanistic proposals are presented to explain the formation of end-labeled products in the presence of various types of zinc alkyls. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 examine a series of titanocenes [CpTiCl3, CpTiCl2TEMPO, CpNTiCl3, CpNTiCl2TEMPO, where Cp = C5H5, CpN = C5H4CH2CH2N(CH3)2, and TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl] for styrene homopolymerization and ethylene-styrene (ES) copolymerization at 70 °C and 120 °C to determine the influence of the pendant amine group and the hydroxylaminato ligand on comonomer incorporation and distribution. Titanocenes bearing the pendant amine ligand were active for ES copolymerization, whereas complexes lacking the pendant group afforded only mixtures of homopolymers, revealing the critical role of the pendant amine donor on the copolymerization behavior. At 120 °C, the titanocene complexes with the amine group generated high molecular weight ES copolymers along with an atactic polystyrene (aPS) byproduct. The molecular weight of the ES copolymers produced by a coordination mechanism was found to coincide with that of the aPS produced by a radical polymerization mechanism. A method to separate these two components was developed by the addition of a catalytic chain-transfer agent, cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin, successfully decreasing the molecular weight of the radically-produced aPS and offering expedient separation of the ES copolymer from the aPS. Chapter 6 describes a series of new mono-, bi-, and trimetallic complexes based on the dinucleating ligand, N, N'-bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl] formamidine (PNNP), which provides two binding sites suitable for accommodating Pd, Ni, Co, Fe, and Cu. Definitive evidence for the structures of all complexes were given by X-ray crystal structures. The synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of each complex are discussed.
  • A fundamental characteristic of metazoans is the formation of a simple, polarized epithelium. In higher animals, the structural integrity and functional polarization of simple epithelia require a cell-cell adhesion complex containing a classical cadherin, the Wnt-signaling protein [Beta]-catenin and the actin-binding protein [Alpha]-catenin. I have investigated the evolutionary origins of epithelial cell polarity and of the cadherin-catenin complex. I show that the non-metazoan Dictyostelium discoideum forms a polarized epithelium that is essential for multicellular development. Although D. discoideum lacks a cadherin homolog, I have identified and characterized an [Alpha]-catenin ortholog that binds a [Beta]-catenin-related protein. Both proteins are essential for formation of the epithelium, polarized protein secretion and proper multicellular morphogenesis. Thus the organizational principles of metazoan multicellularity may be more ancient than previously recognized, and the role of the catenins in cell polarity predates the evolution of Wnt signaling and classical cadherins.
  • Also available: Print – 2010
  • An overview : identity from bacteria to belief -- The prokaryotes : viruses, hyperparasites and the origin of group identity -- Sensory systems (light, odor, pheromones) in communities of oceanic microbes -- Subjugation of the individual : prokaryotic group living : blooms, slime and mats -- Animal group identity : from slime to worms, emergence of the brain -- Group identity in aquatic animals : learning to belong -- Development of tetrapod group identity, the smell of self -- Origin of primate group identity : vision and the great ERV invasion -- Human group identity : language and a social mind.
  • The road to hydrogenosomes -- Mitochondria: key to complexity -- Origin, function,and transmission of mitochondria -- Mitochondria and their host: morphology to molecular phylogeny -- Anaerobic mitochondria: properties and origins -- Iron-sulfur proteins and iron-sulfur cluster assembly in organisms with hydrogenosomes and mitosomes -- Hydrogenosomes (and related organelles, either) are not the same -- The chimeric origin of mitochondria: photosynthetic cell enslavement, gene-transfer pressure, and compartmentation efficiency -- Constantin Merezhkowsky and the endokaryotic hypothesis -- The diversity of mitochondrion-related organelles amongst eukaryotic microbes -- Mitosomes of parasitic protozoa: biology and evolutionary significance -- index.
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  • 1. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain -- 2. Oral Health Related Quality of Life and Facial Pain -- 3. Classification and Epidemiology of Orofacial Pain -- 4. Nociceptive Chemical Mediators In Oral Inflammation -- 5. Dental Sleep Medicine and the Use of Oral Devices -- 6. Local Anesthesia in the Orofacial Region -- 7. Analgesics and adjuvants for the management of orofacial pain across age groups -- 8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pain Management -- 9. Management of Oral Ulcers and Burning Mouth Syndrome -- 10. Hypnosis and Biofeedback for Orofacial Pain Management -- 11. Headaches, Migraine and Cluster Headache -- 12. Management of Orofacial Neuropathic Pain -- 13. Preemptive Analgesia and Multimodal Pain Management for Temporomandibular Total Joint Replacement Surgery.
  • Also available: Print – 2008
  • Focusing on clinical practice, this book explores the less common diseases affecting the airways, systematic disorders with lung involvement, interstitial lung diseases and many other orphan conditions of the lungs. It helps the reader to diagnose and manage these rare orphan diseases. Orphan Lung Diseases: A Clinical Guide to Rare Lung Disease is a practical, informative book written by a team of international authors with much experience in rare pulmonary diseases. Orphan Lung Diseases: A Clinical Guide to Rare Lung Disease provides synthesized and easily accessible information about the main orphan lung diseases, to aid clinicians in charge of patients with rare disease, or who consider the diagnosis of a rare disease in their patient.
  • Capturing the latest thinking for the evaluation and treatment of dentofacial deformities, Orthognathic Surgery: Principles and Practice, covers the basic principles and concepts of dentofacial deformities along with planning, surgical techniques, surgical complications, classic patterns, and clinical presentations. Over 5,000 clinical photos and detailed art make this a valuable reference for clinical orthodontists, craniofacial surgeons, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and residents in training. The latest in surgical protocols for OMS and Orthodontics puts you at the forefront of the orthognathic surgery field.Logically organized material aids you prior to developing treatment plans or in surgery.Over 5,000 new photos and illustrations boost your understanding of key teaching points and surgical techniques. Over 40 videos from Dr. Posnick's archive available on the companion website.
  • Forces and equilibrium -- Deformation -- Mechanical properties -- Viscoelasticity -- Properties of natural materials -- Polymers -- Metals -- Ceramics and composites -- Tissue engineering -- Hybrid, combination, and replant materials -- Friction and wear -- Corrosion and degradation -- Fixation -- Host response -- Testing and introduction of new materials -- Materials retrieval and analysis -- Self-test.
  • Basic science / Sudheer Reddy, Miltiadis H. Zgonis, and Joshua D. Auerbach -- Pediatric orthopaedics / Harish S. Hosalkar ... [et al.] -- Sports medicine / Jeffrey F. Sodl ... [et al.] -- Adult reconstruction / Sharat Kusuma and Jonathan P. Garino -- Foot and ankle / Sudheer C. Reddy, Selene G. Parekh, and Enyi Okereke -- Hand and microsurgery / Sepideh Baghian -- Adult spine / Todd A. Michener and Kingsley R. Chin -- Musculoskeletal tumors / Harish S. Hosalkar ... [et al.] -- Rehabilitation / Richard Scarlett, Samir Mehta, and Mary Ann Keenan -- Trauma / Samir Mehta -- Biostatistics / G. Russell Huffman -- Business and practice principles / Sharat Kumar Kusuma, Selene G. Parekh, and Price Chipley French -- Tips for the OITE, written and oral boards, and recertifying examinations / Sameer Nagda ... [et al.].
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    Basic science / section editor, Thay Q. Lee -- Instability and athletic injuries / section editor, Peter J. Millett -- The rotator cuff / section editor, Leesa M. Galatz -- Arthroscopy / section editors, Jeffrey S. Abrams, Benjamin Shaffer -- Arthritis and Arthroplasty / section editor, Michael Pearl -- Trauma and fractures / section editor, Herbert Resch -- Elbow trauma, fracture, and reconstruction / section editor, Matthew L. Ramsey -- Miscellaneous shoulder topics / section editor, John W. Sperling.
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  • Also available: Print – 2014
    Principles of Musculoskeletal Biopsy / Raffi S. Avedian -- Imaging Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Tumors / Nicholas Morley and Imran Omar -- Benign Bone Tumors / Robert Steffner -- Osteosarcoma / Drew D. Moore and Hue H. Luu -- Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone / Drew D. Moore and Rex C. Haydon -- Chondrosarcoma of Bone / Lee R. Leddy and Robert E. Holmes -- Evaluation and Treatment of Spinal Metastatic Disease / Shah-Nawaz M. Dodwad, Jason Savage, Thomas J. Scharschmidt and Alpesh Patel -- Evaluation and Treatment of Extremity Metastatic Disease / Aaron T. Creek, Drew A. Ratner and Scott E. Porter -- Clinical Evaluation and Management of Benign Soft Tissue Tumors of the Extremities / Andrew S. Erwteman and Tessa Balach -- Soft Tissue Sarcomas / Andre Spiguel.
  • Orthopaedic Pathology, 5th Edition, by Peter G. Bullough, MB, ChB, presents a unique, lavishly illustrated account of the pathology of arthritic disorders, metabolic disturbances, and soft tissue and bone tumors. Nearly 2,000 high-quality pathologic slides, diagnostic images, and gross specimens, side-by-side, depict the appearance of a wide range of conditions and correlate orthopaedic pathology to clinical practice for greater diagnostic accuracy. Expert Consult functionality, new to this edition, offers convenient access to the complete contents of the book online. It's the ideal resource for the orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist as well as the trainee and practicing pathologist. Provides extensive coverage of arthritic disorders, metabolic disturbances, soft tissue tumors, bone tumors, and rare disorders, not just tumors, which most books emphasize, for guidance on the most commonly seen conditions. Uses nearly 2000 high-quality illustrations, including pathology, histology, radiologic imaging, and schematic line diagrams, that present a clear visual correlation between pathology and clinical images to aid in diagnosis. Includes a chapter on imaging techniques, interpretation, and strategies that provides a foundation of knowledge in radiology. Features brief text, including bulleted lists of key points and information, that makes reference quick and learning easy.
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  • Prevent athletic injuries and promote optimal recovery using all of the latest evidence-based guidelines and protocols! Practical, expert guidance; a templated, user-friendly format; and descriptions of key rehabilitation exercises make this an ideal reference for any practitioner working with athletes! [From book jacket].
  • Approach to the Surgical Patient -- Shoulder and Arm -- Elbow and Forearm -- Wrist and Hand -- Spine -- Hip and Pelvis -- Knee and Lower Leg -- Foot and Ankle.
  • Emil Schemitsch, MD, FRCS(C), is a multimedia orthopedics resource that offers the how-to step-by-step guidance you needin both atlas and online video formatsto perform all of the latest and best procedures. The large full-color photos and diagrammable illustrations, concise text, included DVD, and companion web video make it simple to find exactly what you need, when you need it. The result is a detailed, easy-to-use reference that no orthopedic surgeon should be without.Includes access to a companion website where you can search the full text of the book, view videos of experts performing techniques, and link to PubMed for further reference.Covers the hottest topics including compartment syndrome, and the latest techniques in locking plates, management of complex periarticular fractures, difficult upper extremity fractures and acute total joint arthroplasty to help you stay on top of your field.Features step-by-step intraoperative photographs demonstrating each technique and radiographs showing presenting problems and post-surgical outcomes so youll know exactly what to do.Highlights key anatomical structures through full-color photographs and interpretive diagrams that present a real-life perspective of cases.Presents surgical tips, pearls and pitfalls from the authors enabling you to enhance your technique and optimize outcomes. Outlines positioning, exposures, instrumentation, and implants to equip you to be more thoroughly prepared for every procedure.Features a hands-on, clinical emphasis, providing just the information and guidance you need.Offers post-operative management guidelines and discussions of expected outcomes to help you avoid mistakes and offer quality patient-focused care.Includes a DVD with videos of experts performing key procedures to help you refine your technique.
  • Part 1. Upper limb -- part 2. Lower limb -- part 3. Rheumatology -- part 4. Self-assessment.
  • Spine / Ian W. Marks -- Shoulder and humerus / Jennifer A. Hart -- Elbow and forearm / Sara D. Rynders -- Wrist and hand / Amy Radigan -- Pelvis / Deana Bahrman and Katherine Sharpe -- Hip and femur / Casey Sharpe and Deana Bahrman -- Knee and lower leg / Cara B. Garrett -- Foot and ankle / Suzanne Eiss and Margaret Schick -- Pediatrics / Scott Yang -- Orthopaedic tumors and masses / Gergory Domson -- Splinting and casting / Damond A. Cromer -- Wound care / Shruti Tannan and Adam Katz.
  • Orthopantomography 2013
    Technique and Normal Anatomy -- Hints of Technique and Methodology -- Normal Anatomy -- Elementary Radiographical Semeiotics and Pathological Terminology -- Alterations of Number, Orientation, Seat, Morphology, Width and Structure of the Dental Element -- Caries -- Periapical Lesions -- The Periodontal Disease -- Cystic Lesions and Maxillary Tumours -- OPT in Post-treatment Evaluation.
  • "Orthopedic Manual Therapy presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to manual therapy for disorders of the extremities and spine. Readers will find detailed examination and treatment techniques, the newest scientific and clinical advances, and updates on pain physiology, biomechanics, neurodynamics, and the biopsychosocial model of disease as the foundation for manual therapy"--Publisher's website.
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    v.1. Initial and emergency care.
  • General principles and concepts of selected movements and special tests -- Cervical spine -- Temporomandibular joint -- Shoulder -- Elbow -- Forearm, wrist, and hand -- Thoracic spine -- Lumbar spine -- Pelvis -- Hip -- Knee -- Lower leg, ankle, and foot.
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  • Adult reconstruction -- Basic science -- Foot and ankle -- Hand -- Orthopedic oncology -- Pediatric orthopedics -- Rehabilitation and neuro-orthopedic surgery -- Shoulder and elbow -- Spine -- Sports -- Orthopedic trauma.
  • Evidence-based medicine is the future of orthopedic surgery. The escalating costs of medical care drive the need for physicians to base clinical decisions on data in order to provide optimal care to every patient. Orthopedic Traumatology: An Evidence-Based Approach provides readers a model for evidence-based decision making in orthopedic trauma. Renowned orthopedic trauma surgeons describe interesting clinical scenarios, give expert opinions on management, and include relevant imaging to create a complete picture of each fascinating case. Useful for residents and practicing physicians alike, Orthopedic Traumatology is a unique guide to orthopedic trauma and evidence-based medicine.
  • Orthopedics of the Upper and Lower Limb has been written to serve as a general introduction to the field of orthopedics and trauma for the regions of the upper and lower limb. It is composed of a number of commonly seen disorders and with a corresponding therapeutic pathway, clearly explained with numerous x-rays and diagrams to aid the reader in their understanding of these useful procedures.The book is intended as a basic resource for trainees and junior surgeons, but will also be useful to more experienced specialists who require an easy to follow clinical guide to assist in day to day practice of orthopedic and trauma disorders of the upper and lower limb.
  • The most comprehensive physical therapy text available on the topic, Orthotics & Prosthetics in Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition, is your one-stop resource for clinically relevant rehabilitation information. Evidence-based coverage offers essential guidelines on orthotic/prosthetic prescription, pre- and post-intervention gait assessment and outcome measurement, and working with special populations. Whether you are a student or a clinician, this text provides the strong foundation in and appreciation for the field of orthotics and prosthetics that will give you the critical skills needed when working with this unique client population. Inside you'll find: comprehensive coverage of rehabilitation in a variety of environments, including acute care, long-term care, home health care, and outpatient settings; authoritative information from the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, 2nd edition is incorporated throughout to keep you up to date with the recognized standard in the field; WHO International Classification of Function model provides consistent language and an international standard to describe and measure health and disability from a biopsychosocial perspective; case studies present real-life scenarios that demonstrate how key concepts apply to clinical decision making and evidence-based practice; and a visually appealing 2-color design and a wealth of tables and boxes highlight vital information for quick reference and ease of use. New to this edition: NEW! Chapter on athletics after amputation exploring advanced training and athletics, including running and athletic competition, to enhance the quality of life for persons with amputation; NEW! Chapter on the high risk foot and wound healing helps you recognize, treat, and manage wounds for the proper fit and managemnt of the patient; NEW! Chatper on advanced prosthetic rehabilitation provides more thorough rehabilitation methods beyond the early care of persons learning to use thier prostheses; updated photos and illustration reflect current clinical practice; and updated chapters covering assessment of gait with a focus on clinically useful outcome measures, motor control and motor learning incorporating new insights into neuroplasticity and functional recovery, and a NEW integrated chapter on lower extremity orthoses that assist in clincial decision making about the best options for your patients.
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    "Osborn's Brain: Imaging, Pathology, and Anatomy is the much-pleaded-for successor to Anne G. Osborn's 1993 award winning book Diagnostic Neuroradiology (a.k.a. "The Red Book"), which became one of the all-time bestselling neuroradiology texts. In this highly anticipated 1,200-page volume, Anne Osborn applies her special touch to make complex topics visually appealing and easy to understand. It wraps the "must know" aspects of brain imaging together with spectacular pathology examples, relevant anatomy, and the most up-to-date modalities and techniques in brain imaging"--Provided by publisher.
  • Print Material
  • Actin-based cell migration depends on the temporal and spatial integration of multiple force-generating systems. Polymerization of the actin network drives protrusion of the cell membrane, and the stretched membrane, in turn, exerts force on the actin network. Myosin contraction of the viscoelastic actin network is balanced by cell-substrate adhesion. The molecular components that contribute to each of these forces - actin-based protrusion, membrane tension, myosin-mediated contraction, and adhesion - have been extensively characterized, but the manner in which they are integrated in vivo to give rise to large-scale emergent properties such as cell shape and movement is not well understood. This thesis describes the role of cell-substrate adhesion in large-scale actin network organization and dynamic cell shape determination. Keratocytes exhibit several non-steady-state behaviors, including oscillatory retraction of the trailing edge, waves of protrusion at the leading edge, and symmetry breaking and motility initiation. I have shown that the mechanical and biochemical properties of adhesions contribute to each of these dynamic behaviors. Oscillatory retraction of the trailing edge emerges in fast-moving, fan-shaped keratocytes and I present evidence consistent with a mechanical model in which elastic coupling between the front of the cell and adhesions in the rear drives oscillations. In contrast, I have found that protrusion waves at the leading edge are likely the result of the biochemical, rather than mechanical, properties of adhesions. Traveling waves emerge at high adhesion strengths and adhesion maturation is required for waving. Mature adhesions have been shown previously to bind several components that contribute to leading edge protrusion, including VASP, a protein that promotes actin polymerization by preventing barbed end capping. Dynamic localization of VASP to the leading edge in waving keratocytes is consistent with a reaction-diffusion model in which global depletion of VASP by mature adhesion, in conjunction with local depletion by the polymerizing actin network, results in lateral propagation of protrusion waves. Finally, I present evidence that suggests that balance between cell-substrate adhesion and myosin contraction sets the mechanical instability threshold above which stationary, radially symmetric keratocytes break symmetry and begin to move. On the whole, the work described here represents significant progress towards elucidating the self-organization principles that underly whole cell migration.

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A repository of medical knowledge from internal medicine, cardiology, genetics, pharmacy, diagnosis and management, basic sciences, patient care, and more. Continuously expanding, all databases in the repository contain the latest editions of selected medical titles.MicroMedex: Premier pharmaceutical information source containing multiple databases and drug reference tools. Of particular value is DRUGDEX Evaluations, one of the most comprehensive drug sources available.DynaMed is a clinical information resource used by physicians to answer clinical questions quickly and easily at the point of care. Topics are updated daily as new evidence becomes available. 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