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    Susan J. Hall, Ph. D., College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware.
    Summary: This edition has been significantly updated from the previous edition. The approach taken remains an integrated balance of qualitative and quantitative examples, applications, and problems designed to illustrate the principles discussed. The seventh edition also retains the important sensitivity to the fact that some beginning students of biomechanics possess weak backgrounds in mathematics. For this reason, it includes numerous sample problems and applications, along with practical advice on approaching quantitative problems. With balanced, integrated coverage of applied anatomy, mechanical principles, and relevant sport and daily living applications, this text introduces you to the basics of biomechanics. The quantitative aspects of biomechanics are presented in a manageable, progressive fashion, with practical advice on approaching both qualitative and quantitative problems in biomechanics.

    Contents:
    What Is Biomechanics?
    Kinematic Concepts for Analyzing Human Motion
    Kinetic Concepts for Analyzing Human Motion
    The Biomechanics of Human Bone Growth and Development
    The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Articulations
    The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Muscle
    The Biomechanics of the Human Upper Extremity
    The Biomechanics of the Human Lower Extremity
    The Biomechanics of the Human Spine
    Linear Kinematics of Human Movement
    Angular Kinematics of Human Movement
    Linear Kinetics of Human Movement
    Equilibrium and Human Movement
    Angular Kinetics of Human Movement
    Human Movement in a Fluid Medium. Machine generated contents note: 1. What Is Biomechanics?
    Biomechanics: Definition and Perspective
    What Problems Are Studied by Biomechanists?
    Why Study Biomechanics?
    Problem-Solving Approach
    Quantitative versus Qualitative Problems
    Solving Qualitative Problems
    Formal versus Informal Problems
    Solving Formal Quantitative Problems
    Units of Measurement
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    2. Kinematic Concepts for Analyzing Human Motion
    Forms of Motion
    Linear Motion
    Angular Motion
    General Motion
    Mechanical Systems
    Standard Reference Terminology
    Anatomical Reference Position
    Directional Terms
    Anatomical Reference Planes
    Anatomical Reference Axes
    Joint Movement Terminology
    Sagittal Plane Movements
    Frontal Plane Movements
    Transverse Plane Movements
    Other Movements
    Spatial Reference Systems
    Analyzing Human Movement. Contents note continued: Prerequisite Knowledge for a Qualitative Analysis
    Planning a Qualitative Analysis
    Conducting a Qualitative Analysis
    Tools for Measuring Kinematic Quantities
    Video and Film
    Other Movement-Monitoring Systems
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    3. Kinetic Concepts for Analyzing Human Motion
    Basic Concepts Related to Kinetics
    Inertia
    Mass
    Force
    Center of Gravity
    Weight
    Pressure
    Volume
    Density
    Torque
    Impulse
    Mechanical Loads on the Human Body
    Compression, Tension, and Shear
    Mechanical Stress
    Torsion, Bending, and Combined Loads
    The Effects of Loading
    Repetitive versus Acute Loads
    Tools for Measuring Kinetic Quantities
    Vector Algebra
    Vector Composition
    Vector Resolution
    Graphic Solution of Vector Problems
    Trigonometric Solution of Vector Problems
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems. Contents note continued: Laboratory Experiences
    4. The Biomechanics of Human Bone Growth and Development
    Composition and Structure of Bone Tissue
    Material Constituents
    Structural Organization
    Types of Bones
    Bone Growth and Development
    Longitudinal Growth
    Circumferential Growth
    Adult Bone Development
    Bone Response to Stress
    Bone Modeling and Remodeling
    Bone Hypertrophy
    Bone Atrophy
    Osteoporosis
    Postmenopausal and Age-Associated Osteoporosis
    Female Athlete Triad
    Preventing and Treating Osteoporosis
    Common Bone Injuries
    The Biomechanics of Bone Fractures
    Epiphyseal Injuries
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    5. The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Articulations
    Joint Architecture
    Immovable Joints
    Slightly Movable Joints
    Freely Movable Joints
    Articular Cartilage
    Articular Fibrocartilage
    Articular Connective Tissue
    Joint Stability. Contents note continued: Shape of the Articulating Bone Surfaces
    Arrangement of Ligaments and Muscles
    Other Connective Tissues
    Joint Flexibility
    Measuring Joint Range of Motion
    Factors Influencing Joint Flexibility
    Flexibility and Injury
    Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility
    Neuromuscular Response to Stretch
    Active and Passive Stretching
    Ballistic, Static, and Dynamic Stretching
    Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
    Common Joint Injuries and Pathologies
    Sprains
    Dislocations
    Bursitis
    Arthritis
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Osteoarthritis
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    6. The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Muscle
    Behavioral Properties of the Musculotendinous Unit
    Extensibility and Elasticity
    Irritability and the Ability to Develop Tension
    Structural Organization of Skeletal Muscle
    Muscle Fibers
    Motor Units
    Fiber Types
    Fiber Architecture. Contents note continued: Skeletal Muscle Function
    Recruitment of Motor Units
    Change in Muscle Length with Tension Development
    Roles Assumed by Muscles
    Two-Joint and Multijoint Muscles
    Factors Affecting Muscular Force Generation
    Force-Velocity Relationship
    Length-Tension Relationship
    Stretch-Shortening Cycle
    Electromyography
    Electromechanical Delay
    Muscular Strength, Power, and Endurance
    Muscular Strength
    Muscular Power
    Muscular Endurance
    Muscle Fatigue
    Effect of Muscle Temperature
    Common Muscle Injuries
    Strains
    Contusions
    Cramps
    Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
    Compartment Syndrome
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    7. The Biomechanics of the Human Upper Extremity
    Structure of the Shoulder
    Sternoclavicular Joint
    Acromioclavicular Joint
    Coracoclavicular Joint
    Glenohumeral Joint
    Scapulothoracic Joint
    Bursae
    Movements of the Shoulder Complex. Contents note continued: Muscles of the Scapula
    Muscles of the Glenohumeral Joint
    Flexion at the Glenohumeral Joint
    Extension at the Glenohumeral Joint
    Abduction at the Glenohumeral Joint
    Adduction at the Glenohumeral Joint
    Medial and Lateral Rotation of the Humerus
    Horizontal Adduction and Abduction at the Glenohumeral Joint
    Loads on the Shoulder
    Common Injuries of the Shoulder
    Dislocations
    Rotator Cuff Damage
    Rotational Injuries
    Subscapular Neuropathy
    Structure of the Elbow
    Humeroulnar Joint
    Humeroradial Joint
    Proximal Radioulnar Joint
    Carrying Angle
    Movements at the Elbow
    Muscles Crossing the Elbow
    Flexion and Extension
    Pronation and Supination
    Loads on the Elbow
    Common Injuries of the Elbow
    Sprains and Dislocations
    Overuse Injuries
    Structure of the Wrist
    Movements of the Wrist
    Flexion
    Extension and Hyperextension
    Radial and Ulnar Deviation
    Structure of the Joints of the Hand. Contents note continued: Carpometacarpal and Intermetacarpal Joints
    Metacarpophalangeal Joints
    Interphalangeal Joints
    Movements of the Hand
    Common Injuries of the Wrist and Hand
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    8. The Biomechanics of the Human Lower Extremity
    Structure of the Hip
    Movements at the Hip
    Muscles of the Hip
    Flexion
    Extension
    Abduction
    Adduction
    Medial and Lateral Rotation of the Femur
    Horizontal Abduction and Adduction
    Loads on the Hip
    Common Injuries of the Hip
    Fractures
    Contusions
    Strains
    Structure of the Knee
    Tibiofemoral Joint
    Menisci
    Ligaments
    Patellofemoral Joint
    Joint Capsule and Bursae
    Movements at the Knee
    Muscles Crossing the Knee
    Flexion and Extension
    Rotation and Passive Abduction and Adduction
    Patellofemoral Joint Motion
    Loads on the Knee
    Forces at the Tibiofemoral Joint
    Forces at the Patellofemoral Joint. Contents note continued: Common Injuries of the Knee and Lower Leg
    Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
    Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
    Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries
    Meniscus Injuries
    Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome
    Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
    Shin Splints
    Structure of the Ankle
    Movements at the Ankle
    Structure of the Foot
    Subtalar Joint
    Tarsometatarsal and Intermetatarsal Joints
    Metatarsophalangeal and Interphalangeal Joints
    Plantar Arches
    Movements of the Foot
    Muscles of the Foot
    Toe Flexion and Extension
    Inversion and Eversion
    Pronation and Supination
    Loads on the Foot
    Common Injuries of the Ankle and Foot
    Ankle Injuries
    Overuse Injuries
    Alignment Anomalies of the Foot
    Injuries Related to High and Low Arch Structures
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    9. The Biomechanics of the Human Spine
    Structure of the Spine
    Vertebral Column. Contents note continued: Vertebrae
    Intervertebral Discs
    Ligaments
    Spinal Curves
    Movements of the Spine
    Flexion, Extension, and Hyperextension
    Lateral Flexion and Rotation
    Muscles of the Spine
    Anterior Aspect
    Posterior Aspect
    Lateral Aspect
    Loads on the Spine
    Common Injuries of the Back and Neck
    Low Back Pain
    Soft-Tissue Injuries
    Acute Fractures
    Stress Fractures
    Disc Herniations
    Whiplash Injuries
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    10. Linear Kinematics of Human Movement
    Linear Kinematic Quantities
    Distance and Displacement
    Speed and Velocity
    Acceleration
    Average and Instantaneous Quantities
    Kinematics of Projectile Motion
    Horizontal and Vertical Components
    Influence of Gravity
    Influence of Air Resistance
    Factors Influencing Projectile Trajectory
    Projection Angle
    Projection Speed
    Relative Projection Height. Contents note continued: Optimum Projection Conditions
    Analyzing Projectile Motion
    Equations of Constant Acceleration
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    11. Angular Kinematics of Human Movement
    Observing the Angular Kinematics of Human Movement
    Measuring Angles
    Joint Angles and Body Segment Orientations
    Tools for Measuring Body Angles
    Instant Center of Rotation
    Angular Kinematic Relationships
    Angular Distance and Displacement
    Angular Speed and Velocity
    Angular Acceleration
    Angular Motion Vectors
    Average versus Instantaneous Angular Quantities
    Relationships Between Linear and Angular Motion
    Linear and Angular Displacement
    Linear and Angular Velocity
    Linear and Angular Acceleration
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    12. Linear Kinetics of Human Movement
    Newton's Laws
    Law of Inertia
    Law of Acceleration. Contents note continued: Law of Reaction
    Law of Gravitation
    Mechanical Behavior of Bodies in Contact
    Friction
    Momentum
    Impulse
    Impact
    Work, Power, and Energy Relationships
    Work
    Power
    Energy
    Conservation of Mechanical Energy
    Principle of Work and Energy
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    13. Equilibrium and Human Movement
    Equilibrium
    Torque
    Resultant Joint Torques
    Levers
    Anatomical Levers
    Equations of Static Equilibrium
    Equations of Dynamic Equilibrium
    Center of Gravity
    Locating the Center of Gravity
    Locating the Human Body Center of Gravity
    Stability and Balance
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    14. Angular Kinetics of Human Movement
    Resistance to Angular Acceleration
    Moment of Inertia
    Determining Moment of Inertia
    Human Body Moment of Inertia
    Angular Momentum. Contents note continued: Conservation of Angular Momentum
    Transfer of Angular Momentum
    Change in Angular Momentum
    Angular Analogues of Newton's Laws of Motion
    Newton's First Law
    Newton's Second Law
    Newton's Third Law
    Centripetal Force
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    15. Human Movement in a Fluid Medium
    The Nature of Fluids
    Relative Motion
    Laminar versus Turbulent Flow
    Fluid Properties
    Buoyancy
    Characteristics of the Buoyant Force
    Flotation
    Flotation of the Human Body
    Drag
    Skin Friction
    Form Drag
    Wave Drag
    Lift Force
    Foil Shape
    Magnus Effect
    Propulsion in a Fluid Medium
    Propulsive Drag Theory
    Propulsive Lift Theory
    Stroke Technique
    Summary
    Introductory Problems
    Additional Problems
    Laboratory Experiences
    Appendices
    A. Basic Mathematics and Related Skills
    B. Trigonometric Functions
    C.Common Units of Measurement. Contents note continued: D. Anthropometric Parameters for the Human Body.
    Digital Access AccessPhysiotherapy 2015