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  • Book
    Albert Martin Li, Kate Ching-Ching Chan, editors.
    Summary: This book aims to provide readers with updated information on the diagnosis and management of common sleep disorders in children. An overview of sleep physiology and sleep disorders evaluation followed by an in-depth discussion with illustrative case examples of the most frequent sleep disorders encountered in children. A section on sleep disorders in children with neuromuscular and developmental diseases has also been included. Written by members of the Asia Pacific Paediatric Sleep Alliance and experts from the region, this case-based textbook will be a valuable reference for sleep researchers, paediatricians, and child neurologists, as well as those who are interested in this field of medicine.

    Contents:
    Intro
    Preface
    Contents
    Part I: Introduction
    1: Functions and Control of Sleep
    1.1 The Need to Sleep
    1.2 Control of Sleep
    1.2.1 Generation of Circadian Rhythm
    1.2.2 Sleep and Arousal
    1.2.3 The NREM and REM Sleep
    1.2.3.1 NREM Circuit
    1.2.3.2 REM Circuit
    1.2.3.3 The Role of Hypocretin/Orexin
    1.3 Functions of Sleep
    1.3.1 Sleep and EEG Recovery
    1.3.2 Sleep, Brain Energy Replenishment, Molecular Regeneration
    1.3.3 Sleep and Toxin Removal Within the Brain
    1.3.4 Sleep and Memory
    1.3.5 Sleep and Immunity 1.3.6 Sleep, Mood, and Emotion
    1.3.7 Sleep: The Developmental Perspective
    References
    2: Sleep Physiology and Architecture
    2.1 Sleep Architecture
    2.2 Sleep Physiology
    References
    3: Sleep Needs: Cross-Cultural Comparisons and Problems with Sleep Deprivation
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Sleep Duration
    3.2.1 Developmental Alteration of Sleep Duration
    3.2.2 Cross-Cultural Difference of Sleep Duration
    3.2.3 Factors Associated with Sleep Duration
    3.2.4 Problems Associated with Decreased Sleep Duration
    3.3 Sleepiness
    3.3.1 Sleepiness vs. Sleep Duration 3.3.2 Factors Associated with Sleepiness
    3.4 Sleep Need Index (SNI)
    3.5 Conclusion
    References
    Part II: Evaluation of Sleep Disorders
    4: Clinical Assessment
    4.1 Preparation
    4.2 History Taking
    4.2.1 Chief Complaint and Associated Symptoms
    4.2.2 Sleep Patterns and Sleep-Wake Schedule
    4.2.3 Treatment History, Medical History, Developmental History, and Psychiatric History
    4.2.4 Family History
    4.3 Physical Examination
    4.3.1 Sleep-Associated Physical Examination
    4.4 Questionnaire and Scale 4.4.1 Bedtime Problems, Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Awakenings, Regularity and Snoring Screener (BEARS)
    4.4.2 Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire: Preschool and School Ages (CSHQ)
    4.4.3 Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC)
    4.4.4 Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS)
    4.4.5 Children's Sleep Comic
    4.4.6 Sleep Diary and Sleep Log
    4.4.7 Structured Interview
    4.5 Laboratory Test
    4.5.1 Blood Test
    4.5.2 Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO)
    4.5.3 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Hypocretin (Orexin) Level
    4.6 Imaging Test
    4.6.1 Cephalometry 4.6.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    4.7 Conclusions
    References
    5: Sleep Diagnostics
    5.1 Diagnosis
    5.2 Home Audio and Video Recording
    5.3 Pulse Oximetry
    5.3.1 Technology Behind Pulse Oximetry
    5.3.2 Limitations of Pulse Oximetry
    5.4 Actigraphy
    5.4.1 Indications for Actigraphy
    5.4.2 Limitations
    5.5 Paediatric Polysomnography
    5.5.1 Mechanics of Polysomnography
    5.5.2 Interpretation and Scoring
    5.5.3 Indications for Paediatric Polysomnography
    5.5.4 Limitations of Polysomnography
    5.5.5 Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)
    Digital Access Springer 2022