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    Mark W. Leitman, MD.
    "The eye exam depends on many sophisticated, and costly instruments, together with highly trained professionals to operate them. Ophthalmologist - The ophthalmologist attended 4 years of college, 4 years of medical (MD) or osteopathic (DO) school, and 3 years of specialty eye residency training. They may remain general ophthalmologists, but now, more often than not, spend an additional 1-2 years subspecializing in corneal and external disease, vitreoretinal disease, cataracts, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, oculoplastic surgery, pathology, pediatric (strabismus), or uveitis. Optometrist (OD) - The optometrist completes 4 years of college and 4 years of optometry school. They perform similar tasks to the ophthalmologist, with subspecialty fellowships similar to ophthalmology, but with stress on medical, rather than surgical skills.Opticians (ABO, American Board of Opticians) - Opticians grind the lenses and put them in frames (laboratory optician) or fit them on the patient (dispensing optician). Their training and certification is highly variable from state to state, but often includes 2 years at a community college. Ocularists (BCO, BRDO, FASO) - Ocularists are few in number and often learn their craft by apprenticeship. They have to pass tests for certification. Their job is to fit the rarely needed sclera shell after removal of an eye. (Fig. 423-426). Ophthalmic technicians - Ophthalmic technicians have varying degrees of licensure. With medical supervision, they may take medical histories; measure eye pressure; do refractions and visual field testing; take visual activities; teach contact lens fitting; and often assist in using the following diagnostic tests"-- Provided by publisher.
    Digital Access  Wiley 2021