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  • Book
    Norihiko Misawa, editor.
    Summary: This book provides a comprehensive overview of carotenoid biosynthesis by different organisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, arthropods, and plants. Carotenoids are thought to provide health benefits in areas such as cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, NAFLD, NASH, obesity, age-related functional decline, and as a result, they have received an increasing amount of attention. With contributions from leading experts in biology, biotechnology, and chemistry of carotenoid research, this volume discusses the biological functions of carotenoids such as astaxanthin, B-cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin, in addition to paprika carotenoids, capsanthin, and capsorubin. It also reveals the technologies behind the commercial production of some functional carotenoids. The book is targeted for academic and industrial readers in biology, biotechnology, nutrient physiology and related fields.

    Preface and Introduction
    Part I: Biosynthetic Approach
    1: Commercial Production of Astaxanthin from the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Functions and Uses of Natural Astaxanthin
    1.3 Natural Sources for Astaxanthin
    1.4 Life History of H. pluvialis
    1.5 Mass Culture of H. pluvialis
    1.6 Extraction of Astaxanthin
    1.7 Future of H. pluvialis-Derived Astaxanthin
    2: Commercial Production of Astaxanthin with Paracoccus carotinifaciens
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 P. carotinifaciens 4.4.5 Reduction of Carotenoids with 4-Oxo-[beta]-End Group to 4-Hydroxy-5,6-Dihydro-[beta]-End Group in Spindle Shells
    4.4.6 Oxidative Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Double Bond at C7′-C8′ in C40 Skeletal Carotenoids to Form 8′-Apocarotenoids
    4.4.7 Novel Carotenoid Pyropheophorbide a Esters from Abalone
    4.5 Carotenoid Metabolism in Arthropoda (Crustaceans)
    4.5.1 Oxidation of [beta]-Carotene to Astaxanthin in Crustaceans
    4.5.2 Racemization of Astaxanthin and Reductive Metabolic Pathways of Carotenoids in Prawn
    4.5.3 Other Oxidative Metabolic Pathways of Carotenoids in Crustaceans 2.3 Improvement of Producing Astaxanthin with P. carotinifaciens
    2.4 Commercial Production of Astaxanthin with P. carotinifaciens
    2.5 Usage Examples of Dehydrated P. carotinifaciens
    2.6 Astaxanthin-Rich Carotenoid Extracts (ARE) Derived from P. carotinifaciens
    3: Production of Carotenoids from Cultivated Seaweed
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Cultivation of C. okamuranus Discoid Germlings in Floating Form
    3.3 Production of Fucoxanthin and Fucoxanthin Chlorophyll a/c Protein
    3.4 Cultivation of Various Brown Algae in Microalgal Forms 3.5 Cultivation of Codium intricatum Trichomes in Floating Form
    3.6 Prospects for the Future
    4: Carotenoid Metabolism in Aquatic Animals
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Carotenoids in Porifera
    4.3 Carotenoids in Coelenterata
    4.4 Carotenoid Metabolism in Mollusca (Mollusks) and Protochordata (Tunicates)
    4.4.1 Metabolism of Fucoxanthin in Bivalves and Tunicates
    4.4.2 Metabolism of Peridinin in Bivalves and Tunicates
    4.4.3 Metabolism of Diatoxanthin and Alloxanthin in Bivalves and Tunicates
    4.4.4 Oxidation of Carotenoids in Snail 4.6 Carotenoid Metabolism in Echinodermata (Echinoderms)
    4.7 Metabolism of Carotenoids in Fish
    4.7.1 Epimerization of Lutein Through 3-Hydroxy-[beta],E-Caroten-3′-One and Oxidative Metabolisms of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Cypri...
    4.7.2 Reductive Metabolism Pathway of Astaxanthin in Perciformes and Salmonidae Fish
    4.7.3 Hydrogenation of Double Bond at C7-C8 (C7′-C8′) in Catfish Silurus asotus
    4.7.4 Oxidation of Hydroxy Groups and Retro Rearrangement of Polyene Chain of Zeaxanthin in Tilapia Tilapia nilotica
    4.7.5 Other Unique Structures of Carotenoids in Fish
    Digital Access Springer 2021