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  • Book
    Richard M. Schwend, William L. Hennrikus, editors.
    Contents:
    Intro
    Preface
    Contents
    Contributor List
    Part I: Background
    Chapter 1: Epidemiology of Pediatric Back Pain
    Introduction
    Defining Back Pain
    Prevalence
    Back Pain
    Neck and Thoracic Pain
    Low Back Pain
    Incidence
    Pain Frequency, Duration, and Intensity
    Disability
    Medical Attention
    Natural History
    Risk Factors
    Physical Domain
    Trunk Muscles
    Trunk Mobility
    Posture
    Trunk Asymmetry
    Muscle and Joint Flexibility
    Trunk Stability
    Biological Domain
    Weight and Height
    Gender
    Family History
    Lifestyle Domain
    Activity Sedentary Activity
    Physical Activity
    Sport
    Occupational Activity
    Sleep
    Smoking and Alcohol
    Backpacks
    Psychosocial Domain
    Psychological, Behavioral, and Cognitive Factors
    Social Factors
    Approaching Back Pain from a Multidimensional Perspective
    Prevention
    Brief Summary
    Conclusion
    Editor Discussion
    References
    Chapter 2: Anatomy of the Pediatric Spine
    Cervical Spine (Fig. 2.5)
    Thoracic Spine (Fig. 2.3)
    Lumbar Spine (Fig. 2.6)
    Editor Discussion
    References Chapter 3: Medical and Non-surgical Conditions That Can Cause or Contribute to Back Pain in a Child or Adolescent
    Mechanical Back Pain (Non-specific or Muscular Back Pain)
    Scoliosis
    Back Pain in Children with Neuromuscular Disease
    Muscle Strain and Spasm
    Spondylolysis/Spondylolisthesis
    Scheuermann Disease
    Degenerative Disease
    Bertolotti Syndrome
    Spinal Dysraphism
    Benign but Locally Aggressive Tumors of the Spine
    Osteoid Osteoma/Osteoblastoma
    Histiocytosis
    Malignancy
    Leukemia
    Ewing Sarcoma
    Spinal Cord Tumor
    Infection
    Discitis
    Osteomyelitis Systemic Disease
    Osteoporosis/Metabolic Bone Disease
    Sickle Cell Disease
    Spondyloarthropathy
    Extra-skeletal Causes of Back Pain
    Editor Discussion
    References
    Chapter 4: History Evaluation of the Child or Adolescent with Back Pain Including Ten Red Flags
    Introduction
    Summary
    Editor Discussion
    References
    Chapter 5: Physical Examination of the Child or Adolescent with Back Pain
    Editor Discussion
    References
    Chapter 6: Radiologic Imaging and Laboratory Evaluation of Back Pain in Children and Adolescents
    Introduction
    Imaging
    Role of Plain Radiography Radiation Exposure
    Special Views
    Role of Computerized Tomography (CT Scan)
    Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality (SCIWORA)
    Technetium Nuclear Bone Scan
    PET-CT
    Imaging Findings on Plain Radiography
    Initial Approach to Reading Plain Radiographs of the Spine
    Disc Disease and Schmorl's Nodes
    Fracture or Dislocation
    Scheuermann's Kyphosis
    Transitional Vertebra
    Spina Bifida Occulta
    Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis
    Spinal Deformity
    Vertebra Plana
    MRI
    Examples of Commonly Encountered Pediatric Variations and Abnormalities
    Digital Access Springer 2021