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  • Book
    Kuldeep Bauddh, Sanjeev Kumar, Rana Pratap Singh, John Korstad, editors.
    Summary: Rampant industrialization, urbanization, and population growth have resulted in increased global environmental contamination. The productivity of agricultural soil is drastically deteriorated and requires a high dose of fertilizers to cultivate crops. To ensure food security, farmers are compelled to apply excess chemical fertilizers and insecticides that contaminate soil, air, and water. Heavy loads of chemical fertilizers not only degrade the quality of agricultural land but also pollute water and air. Use of chemical fertilizers also accelerate the release of greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide and methane along with nutrient runoff from the watershed in to lower elevation rivers and lakes, resulting in cultural eutrophication. Farming practices globally in developed, developing, and under-developing countries should utilize and promote sustainable methods through viable combined environmental, social, and economic means that improve rather than harm future generations. This can include use of non-synthetic fertilizers like compost, vermicompost, slow-release fertilizers, farmyard manures, crop rotations that include nitrogen-fixing legumes. Organic fertilizers like compost and vermicompost improve soil properties like texture, porosity, water-holding capacity, organic matter, as well as nutrient availability. The purpose of this book is to document the available alternatives of synthetic fertilizers, their mode of action, efficiency, preparation methodology, practical suggestions for sustainable practices, and needed research focus. The book will cover major disciplines like plant science, environmental science, agricultural science, agricultural biotechnology and microbiology, horticulture, soil science, atmospheric science, agro-forestry, agronomy, and ecology. This book is helpful for farmers, scientists, industrialists, research scholars, masters and graduate students, non-governmental organizations, financial advisers, and policy makers.

    About the Editors
    1: Sustainable Agricultural Approaches for Enhanced Crop Productivity, Better Soil Health, and Improved Ecosystem Services
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Crop Productivity Along with Soil Health
    1.3 High-Yielding Varieties (HYVs) and Genetically Modified Varieties (GMVs)
    1.4 Modern Agricultural Practices and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services (ES)
    1.5 Environmentally Friendly Agricultural Practices and Ecosystem Services
    1.6 Soil-Friendly Crops
    1.7 Soil-Friendly Fertilizers and Pesticides
    1.7.1 Biofertilizer 1.7.2 Biopesticides
    1.7.3 Green Manure
    1.7.4 Farmyard Manure (FYM)
    1.7.5 Biochar
    1.7.6 Vermicompost
    1.7.7 Slow-Release Fertilizers
    1.8 Soil-Friendly Farming Practices
    1.8.1 Crop Rotation
    1.8.2 Multi-cropping
    1.8.3 Mixed Cropping
    1.8.4 Strip Cropping
    1.8.5 Zero/Low Tillage
    1.8.6 Nitrogen-Fixing Cropping
    1.9 Conclusion
    2: Ecologically Sound and Practical Applications for Sustainable Agriculture
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 The Need for Topsoil
    2.3 No-Till
    2.4 Crossbreeding and Genetics
    2.5 Case Studies Around the World
    2.6 Conclusion 2.7 Communication
    2.8 Economic Viability
    2.9 Education
    2.10 Final Thoughts
    3: Destruction of Soil Health and Risk of Food Contamination by Application of Chemical Fertilizer
    3.1 Mineral or Chemical Fertilizers
    3.2 Application of Chemical Fertilizers
    3.2.1 Direct Application Surface Feeding Foliage Feeding Indirect Application
    3.3 Contamination of Soil Health
    3.3.1 Soil Health
    3.4 Chemical Fertilizers and the Risk of Food Contamination
    3.5 Discussion
    3.6 Conclusion
    References 4: Impacts of Synthetic Pesticides on Soil Health and Non-targeted Flora and Fauna
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Need of Pesticides
    4.3 Synthetic Pesticides
    4.4 Types of Synthetic Pesticides
    4.4.1 Organochlorine Pesticides
    4.4.2 Organophosphorus Pesticides
    4.4.3 Carbamates
    4.5 Toxicity of Synthetic Pesticides
    4.5.1 Toxicity to the Animals
    4.5.2 Toxicity to Plants
    4.5.3 Toxicity to the Soil
    4.6 Impact of Synthetic Pesticides on Non-targeted Beneficial Insects
    4.7 Conclusion
    5: Ecological Consequences of Genetically Modified Crops on Soil Biodiversity 5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Genetically Modified Crops
    5.3 Role of Genetically Modified Crops in Agriculture
    5.4 Environmental Consequences of GM Crops
    5.4.1 Impact on Human Health
    5.4.2 Impact on Plants
    5.4.3 Impacts on Soil Biodiversity
    5.4.4 Impact on Non-targeted Insects
    5.5 Risk of Gene Flow
    5.6 Conclusion
    6: Application of Biochar in Agriculture: A Sustainable Approach for Enhanced Plant Growth, Productivity and Soil Health
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Biochar
    6.2.1 Synthesis of Biochar
    6.2.2 Characteristics of Biochar pH
    Digital Access Springer 2020