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    Wangxiang Zhang [and others].
    Summary: This book focuses on the morphology, exine ornamentation and the associated evolutionary trends of crabapple pollen and anatomical developmental patterns. To examine the genetic evolutionary patterns of crabapple pollen traits, we constructed an interval distribution function based on characteristic pollen parameters and used a binary trivariate data matrix (Xi Yi Zi) to reflect the exine ornamentation regularity of the pollen. Our findings should inform the taxonomic status of the genus Malus. Pollen electron micrographs from a total of 26 species and 81 cultivars of Malus were recorded in this book. All 107 figures and 642 scanned pollen images constitute primary data obtained by the authors. The images in this book are clear, three-dimensional, and aesthetically pleasing. They are accompanied with text descriptions and provided a method for the indication of the different types of information that can be expected. This book can provide a reference for scientific researchers, students, and teachers in tertiary institutions that are engaged in research concerning crabapple production.

    Pollen morphological characteristics of ornamental crabapples
    Evolutionary law for ornamental crabapple pollen traits
    Evolutionary of pollen ornamentation in ornamental crabapples
    Ultrastructure observation of m. halliana pollen during development
    Electron microscope of crabapple pollen.
    Digital Access Springer 2019