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  • Book
    Azamal Husen, Muhammad Iqbal, editors.
    Summary: This book discusses the latest developments in plant-mediated fabrication of metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles, and their characterization by using a variety of modern techniques. It explores in detail the application of nanoparticles in drug delivery, cancer treatment, catalysis, and as antimicrobial agent, antioxidant and the promoter of plant production and protection. Application of these nanoparticles in plant systems has started only recently and information is still scanty about their possible effects on plant growth and development. Accumulation and translocation of nanoparticles in plants, and the consequent growth response and stress modulation are not well understood. Plants exposed to these particles exhibit both positive and negative effects, depending on the concentration, size, and shape of the nanoparticles. The impact on plant growth and yield is often positive at lower concentrations and negative at higher ones. Exposure to some nanoparticles may improve the free-radical scavenging potential and antioxidant enzymatic activities in plants and alter the micro-RNAs expression that regulate the different morphological, physiological and metabolic processes in plant system, leading to improved plant growth and yields. The nanoparticles also carry out genetic reforms by efficient transfer of DNA or complete plastid genome into the respective plant genome due to their miniscule size and improved site-specific penetration. Moreover, controlled application of nanomaterials in the form of nanofertilizer offers a more synchronized nutrient fluidity with the uptake by the plant exposed, ensuring an increased nutrient availability. This book addresses these issues and many more. It covers fabrication of different/specific nanomaterials and their wide-range application in agriculture sector, encompassing the controlled release of nutrients, nutrient-use efficiency, genetic exchange, production of secondary metabolites, defence mechanisms, and the growth and productivity of plants exposed to different manufactured nanomaterials. The role of nanofertilizers and nano-biosensors for improving plant production and protection and the possible toxicities caused by certain nanomaterials, the aspects that are little explored by now, have also been generously elucidated.

    Intro; Preface; Contents; Part I: Plant-Mediated Synthesis and Applications of Nanomaterials;
    Chapter 1: Nanomaterials and Plant Potential: An Overview; 1.1 Introduction; 1.2 Type of Engineered NMs; 1.3 Characterization Techniques; 1.4 Physical and Chemical Characters of NMs; 1.5 Application and Impact of NMs; 1.6 Conclusion; References;
    Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry and Biomedical Significance of Nanomaterials; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Importance of Nanoscale; 2.3 Nanochemistry; 2.3.1 Quantum Confinement; 2.3.2 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR); 2.3.3 Nanoparticle Size Effects 2.3.4 Size Distribution of Nanostructures2.3.5 Shape of Nanoparticles; 2.3.6 Agglomeration of Nanoparticles; 2.3.7 Effect of pH, Ionic Strength, and Temperature on Agglomeration; 2.3.8 Solubility and Phase Transition of Nanoparticles; 2.4 Nanomaterials in Bio-systems; 2.4.1 Micelles and Liposomes; 2.4.2 Microemulsions; 2.4.3 Other Relevant Materials; 2.5 Preparation of Nanostructures for Use in Medicine; 2.5.1 Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method; 2.5.2 Double Emulsion and Evaporation Method; 2.5.3 Salting-Out Method; 2.5.4 Emulsion-Diffusion Method 2.5.5 Solvent Displacement/Precipitation Method2.6 Nanoencapsulation and Nanoencapsulated Materials; 2.7 Medical Significance of Nanostructures; 2.8 Conclusion; References;
    Chapter 3: Plant-Mediated Fabrication of Gold Nanoparticles and Their Applications; 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Fabrication and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles; 3.2.1 Fabrication of Gold Nanoparticles; 3.2.2 Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles; Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy; Microscopy; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD); Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Zeta Potential Analysis Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)3.3 Factors Affecting the Fabrication; 3.3.1 Temperature; 3.3.2 pH; 3.3.3 Incubation Time; 3.3.4 Plant Biomass Concentration; 3.4 Applications of Gold Nanoparticles; 3.4.1 Antimicrobial Agents; 3.4.2 Catalytic Activity and Water Purification; 3.4.3 Antioxidant Potential; 3.4.4 Photochemical Agents; 3.4.5 Plant Response to Gold Nanoparticles; 3.4.6 Biomedical Application; 3.5 Conclusion; References;
    Chapter 4: Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Using Natural Gums; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Description of Various Gums 4.3 Synthesis of AuNPs4.3.1 Reaction Mechanism; 4.4 Characterization of AuNPs; 4.4.1 EDX Analysis; 4.4.2 Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); 4.4.3 XRD Analysis; 4.5 Applications; 4.6 Conclusion; References;
    Chapter 5: Plant-Based Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Application; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Fabrication and Characterization of Ag NPs; 5.3 Factors Affecting Fabrication of Ag NPs; 5.3.1 Temperature; 5.3.2 pH; 5.3.3 Incubation Time; 5.3.4 Plant Biomass Concentration; 5.4 Applications of Ag NPs; 5.4.1 Antimicrobial; 5.4.2 Biomedical Application
    Digital Access Springer 2019