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  • Book
    Jean Marc Vital, Derek T. Cawley, editors.
    Summary: This richly illustrated and comprehensive book covers a broad range of normal and pathologic conditions of the vertebral column, from its embryology to its development, its pathology, its dynamism and its degeneration. The dynamic anatomy of the living subject is viewed using the latest technologies, opening new perspectives to elucidate the pathology of the spine and improve spinal surgery. The respective chapters review in depth all sections of the vertebral column and offer new insights, e.g. the 3D study of vertebral movements using the "EOS system," which makes it possible to define an equilibrium of posture and its limits. New histological and chemical findings on the intervertebral disc, as well as detailed descriptions of the aponeuroses and fasciae, are also provided. Bringing together the experience of several experts from the well-known French school, this book offers a valuable companion for skilled experts and postgraduate students in various fields: orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, physiotherapy, rheumatology, musculoskeletal therapy, rehabilitation, and kinesiology.

    Part I: Phylogenesis and Ontogenesis
    Comparative Anatomy of the Axial Skeleton of Vertebrates
    The Organization Plan for the Vertebrates
    Adaptive Constraints of the Living Environment
    Constraints of the Aquatic Environment
    Constraints of the Terrestrial Air Environment
    Terrestrial Vertebrates
    Amphibians (About 7000 Species)
    Reptiles (Approximately 8950 Species)
    The Cervical Spine
    Birds (Approximately 10,000 Species)
    Mammals (About 5500 Species)
    The Cervical Spine
    Movements The Craniovertebral Musculature
    Thoracic Spine and Lumbosacral
    Embryology of the Vertebral Column
    Genetic and Biochemical Considerations
    Embryology of the Vertebromedullary Axis
    Early Development
    Trilaminar Embryo
    The Notochord
    Primary Neurulation
    Secondary Neurulation
    Formation and Differentiation of Somites
    The Growing Spine
    A Mosaic of Growth Cartilage
    Vertebral Growth Is Growth by Endochondral Ossification
    Embryology Holds First Truths The Fetal Period: The Strongest of All Growth Is the Intra-Uterine Period
    Vertebral Curves Are Not Primitive But Acquired
    At Birth, 30% of the Spine Is Ossified
    The First Five Years of Life Are Decisive: Living Growth
    Growth Between 5 Years and the Beginning of the Puberty
    Puberty, a Decisive Turn: New Acceleration
    Each Level of the Spine: A Different Growth
    The Cervical Spine
    Central Spinal Canal at the End of Growth
    Cervical Spine Height
    The Superior Cervical Spine
    The Growth of the Atlas (Figs. 27, 28, and 29)
    The Growth of the Axis Is Even More Complex The Lower Cervical Spine
    The T1-S1 Segment (Figs. 31a, b, 32, and 33)
    The Thoracic Spine T1-T12 (Figs. 34 and 35)
    The Lumbar Spine L1-L5 (Figs. 36 and 37)
    The Sacrum
    The Intervertebral Disc
    The Growth of the Thorax: 4th Dimension of the Spine
    Parasol Effect
    What Size Deficit for Which Arthrodesis?
    First Scenario: Arthrodesis of the Thoracic Spine
    Second Scenario: Arthrodesis of the Lumbar Spine
    All Scoliosis Will in Time Become Identified as a Growth Cartilage Disease
    The Growth of the Spine: From Normal to Pathological Managing Infantile Scoliosis Is Controlling the Vilebrequin Effect
    Suggested Readings
    The Growth Cartilages of the Spine and Pelvic Vertebra
    Neurocentral Cartilage (NCC)
    The Ring Apophysis
    Ossification of the Pelvic Vertebra
    Bone Age During Puberty
    Morphologic and Functional Evolution of the Aging Spine
    Age-Related Structural Alterations
    The Intervertebral Disc
    Structural Modifications
    A Fragile Avascular Tissue
    A Genetic Predisposition?
    Genesis and Contributions to Aging on Histomorphological Features
    Aggravating Factors
    Digital Access Springer 2020