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  • Book
    Kubale, Reinhard; Stiegler, Hubert; Weskott, Hans-Peter.
    Summary: An interdisciplinary guide to vascular color flow imaging and CEUS organized by anatomic region The indications for vascular color duplex sonography (CDS) have expanded in recent years due to the availability of power Doppler, B-flow, ultrasound contrast agents, 3D reconstruction techniques, and fusion with other imaging modalities. CDS enables close-interval follow-ups after interventional procedures with improved prognoses. Edited by Reinhard Kubale, Hube.

    Contents:
    Vascular Ultrasound
    MedOne Access Information
    Title
    Copyright
    Contents
    Preface
    Contributors
    Part I Basic Principles
    Chapter 1 Principles of Physics and Technology in Diagnostic Ultrasound
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Overview of Ultrasound Techniques
    1.2.1 A-Mode
    1.2.2 B-Mode
    1.2.3 M-Mode
    1.2.4 Color Duplex Sonography (CDS)
    1.2.5 Power Doppler
    1.2.6 Tissue Doppler
    1.2.7 B-Flow
    1.2.8 Color M-Mode
    1.2.9 Doppler Spectral Analysis
    1.2.10 Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Techniques
    1.2.11 (Tissue) Harmonic Imaging 1.3 General Physical Properties
    1.4 Formation of the Ultrasound Image
    1.4.1 Frame Rate, Pulse Repetition Frequency, Penetration Depth, and Number (Density) of Scan Lines
    1.5 Transducers
    1.5.1 Transducer "Frequency"
    1.6 The Doppler Effect
    1.6.1 Problem of Pulsed Sampling-Aliasing
    1.7 Components of an Ultrasound System
    1.7.1 Interpretation of Color Duplex Images
    1.8 Innovations
    1.8.1 Harmonic Imaging
    1.8.2 Tissue Doppler
    1.8.3 Power Doppler
    1.8.4 Real-Time Compound B-Mode
    1.8.5 Spatial Compound Imaging
    1.8.6 Elastography
    1.8.7 PlaneWave Imaging 1.9 Documentation
    Chapter 2 Ultrasound Device Settings, Examination Technique, and Artifacts
    2.1 Introduction
    2.1.1 Color Flow Imaging (CFI)
    2.2 Transducer Selection and Instrument Settings
    2.2.1 Prerequisites
    2.2.2 Transducer Selection
    2.2.3 Transducers
    2.2.4 Optimizing the Image with Operator-Controlled Settings
    2.3 Examination Technique, Limitations, and Artifacts
    2.3.1 Examination Protocol
    2.3.2 Limitations and Artifacts
    2.4 Effect of Imaging Technique on Spatial Resolution and Lesion Detectability
    Chapter 3 Hemodynamics
    3.1 Introduction 3.2 Flow Characteristics in Steady Volume Flow
    3.2.1 Shear Rate
    3.2.2 Flow Resistance, Hagen-Poiseuille Law
    3.2.3 Fahraeus-Lindqvist Effect, Apparent Viscosity, and Axial Migration
    3.3 Flow Characteristics in Straight Vessels of Constant Cross Section
    3.3.1 Reynolds Number as the Determinant of Laminar or Turbulent Flow
    3.4 Flow Characteristics in Vessels of Variable Cross Section
    3.4.1 Bernoulli Principle
    3.4.2 Flow Profile at Constrictions and Expansions
    3.4.3 Flow Separation, Separation Zones, and Turbulent Zones
    3.5 Characteristics of Pulsatile Volume Flow 3.5.1 Velocity Profile of Pulsatile Flow
    3.5.2 Approach to the Flow Complexity
    3.5.3 Waveforms of Pulsatile Flow/Helical Flow
    3.6 Blood Flow through Stenoses
    3.6.1 Relationship between Vessel Cross Section and Flow Velocity
    3.6.2 Quantification of Stenosis
    3.6.3 Intra- and Poststenotic Flow Changes
    3.6.4 Hemodynamic Significance
    3.7 Evaluation of Stenoses by Color Duplex Imaging
    3.7.1 Criteria for Vascular Findings
    3.7.2 Instrument Settings
    3.7.3 Envelope Curves of Doppler Spectrum
    3.7.4 Spectral Window in Doppler Frequency Analysis