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  • Book
    Masaki Sakai, editor.
    Summary: This book examines the mechanisms and functions of tonic immobility, the so-called death feigning behavior, or thanatosis, or animal hypnosis. The chapters cover the neurophysiological and experimental studies on insects, the functional significance of death-feigning, examination of the freezing and immobility behavior in insects through environment, physiology, genetics, and responses to ultrasound and vibration. It also covers tonic immobility and freezing behavior in fish from the perspective of vertebrates study. Tonic immobility is an interesting behavior that occurs reflexively in various animals under physical restraint by predators. The physiological mechanism of thanatosis was extensively investigated during 1960-1980. Researchers have proposed hypotheses to explain the mechanism underlying tonic immobility in vertebrates; local inhibition of the central nervous system, acceleration of the limbic system, abnormal control of the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, the peripheral and central mechanisms of tonic immobility were intensely investigated at a behavioral and a neuronal level in stick insects and crickets. In the 1970s, behavioral ecology has shed light on the aspect of an ultimate factor for tonic immobility. Ethologists and ecologists challenged this matter in the laboratory and natural habitats, and have collected evidence for its functional roles using mainly insects such as beetles, moths, locusts. More recently, studies of tonic immobility in humans are drawing attention, as clinicians are trying to explain the defencelessness of rape victims from the viewpoint of animal hypnosis. This timely publication provides an understanding of the past and present research of the mechanisms and functions of tonic immobility. This book is intended for researchers and undergraduate/ graduate students in the field of zoology including physiology, ethology, ecology, and human behavior. It will also appeal to the public audience who has an interest in animal behavior, including human behavior.

    Chapter 1: Freezing and Tonic Immobility: Their Definitions and Naming
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Freezing and TI
    1.2.1 A Rat and a Cat Step 1 (Encounter, Fig. 1.1A-1) Step 2 (Approach, Fig. 1.1A-2) Step 3 (Imminent Attack, Fig. 1.1A-3) Step 4 (Attack, Fig. 1.1A-4)
    1.2.2 A Beetle and a Toad Step 1 (Encounter, Fig. 1.1B-1) Step 2 (Approach, Fig. 1.1B-2) Step 3 (Attack, Fig. 1.1B-3)
    1.3 Mechanisms of Freezing
    1.3.1 Vertebrates
    1.3.2 Insects
    1.4 Mechanisms of TI 1.4.1 Animals
    1.4.2 Brief History of TI Studies
    1.4.3 General Features and Neural Mechanisms of TI Vertebrates Hypotheses of TI Based on Vertebrate Study Insects
    1.5 Naming
    1.5.1 Freezing
    1.5.2 TI
    Chapter 2: Historical Review on Thanatosis with Special Reference to the Work of Fritz Steiniger
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Which Kind of Stimuli Induce or Abolish the Cataleptic State?
    2.3 Localization of "Center of Cataleptic State"
    2.4 The Ecological Importance of the Cataleptic State
    2.5 Evolutionary Considerations 2.6 Definitions of Various Animal Immobilities by Steiniger
    2.7 Conditions for Inducing Immobility in an Animal
    2.8 Problems with the Term "Animal Hypnosis"
    Chapter 3: The Function of Tonic Immobility: Review and Prospectus
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Problems in the Study of the Function of TI
    3.2.1 Confusion with Similar Concepts
    3.2.2 Misunderstandings Due to the Meanings Contained in the Terms
    3.3 Case Studies of the Function of TI
    3.3.1 Specialized TI Posture for Gape-Limited Predators Defensive Mechanism of TI Effectiveness of the Defense Predator Specificity of TI Defense Generality of Function
    3.3.2 Instantaneous Switching of Defensive Coloration
    3.3.3 Proactive Dropping and TI as a "Side Effect"
    3.3.4 Other Studies on TI Functions
    3.4 Future Perspective
    Chapter 4: Environmental, Physiological, and Genetic Effects on Tonic Immobility in Beetles
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 General Feature of Tonic Immobility in the Beetles Used
    4.3 Taxonomic Distribution
    4.4 Phenotypic Plasticity: Two Modes in Insects
    4.4.1 Pre-Stimulus Behaviors 4.4.2 Circadian Rhythm
    4.4.3 Mating
    4.4.4 Starvation
    4.4.5 Ambient Temperature
    4.4.6 Body Size
    4.4.7 Age
    4.4.8 Season
    4.4.9 Conclusion
    4.5 Artificial Selection for Duration of Tonic Immobility and the Correlated Responses
    4.5.1 Model Study 1: Tribolium Species Direct Responses Correlated Response I: Cost of Tonic Immobility Correlated Response II: Activity Correlated Response III: Dopamine and Biogenic Amines Transcriptomic Comparison Arousal from Tonic Immobility
    4.5.2 Model Study 2: Callosobruchus chinensis.
    Digital Access Springer 2021