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  • Book
    Jean-Marc Retrouvey, Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, editors.
    Summary: This richly illustrated book is a wide-ranging guide to modern diagnostics and treatment planning in orthodontics, which are mandatory prior to the initiation of any type of comprehensive treatment. The importance of three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques has been increasingly recognized owing to the shortcomings of conventional two-dimensional imaging in some patients, such as those requiring complex adult treatment and those with temporomandibular joint dysfunctions or sleep disturbances. In the first part of this book, readers will find clear description and illustration of the diagnostic role of the latest 3D imaging techniques, including cone beam computed tomography, intra-oral scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging. The second part explains in detail the application of 3D techniques in treatment planning for orthodontic and orthognathic surgery. Guidance is also provided on the use of image fusion software for the purposes of accurate diagnosis and precise design of the most appropriate biomechanical approach in patients with malocclusions.

    Contents:
    Intro
    Introduction
    Contents
    Contributors
    Reviewers
    About the Editors
    Part I: Techniques Used in Orthodontic Diagnosis
    1: Evolution of the Orthodontic Diagnosis in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
    1.1 The Objectives of an Orthodontic Diagnosis
    1.2 Evolution of the Orthodontic Record Overtime
    1.2.1 Examination Form
    1.2.1.1 Dental Photographs
    1.2.1.2 Panoramic Radiographs
    1.2.1.3 Cephalometric Radiograph
    1.2.1.4 Orthodontic Study Models 1.3 The Rationale for 3D Digital Orthodontic Records: A More Accurate Method to Analyze the Craniofacial Complex
    1.3.1 Digital Photography
    1.3.1.1 Cone Beam Radiography
    Reformatted Panoramic and Cephalometric Radiographs
    3D Cephalometric Analysis
    1.3.1.2 Intraoral Scanner and Digital Model
    STL 3D Digital Orthodontic Models and Software Programs to Analyze the Dentition
    1.3.2 Integration of 3D Files: A Fusion of STL-DICOM
    1.4 Introduction of Data Mining, Artificial Intelligence, and Machine Learning
    1.5 Conclusions
    References 2: Use of Dental Photography in Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Components of Digital Dental Photography Equipment
    2.2.1 Camera Body
    2.2.2 Lens
    2.2.3 Flash Unit
    2.2.3.1 Built-In and Pop-Up Camera Flash
    2.2.3.2 Ring Flash
    2.2.3.3 Dual Point Flash Bracket (With or Without Bouncers)
    2.2.4 Conclusions of the Rationale to Use DSLR Cameras, Macro Lenses, and External Flashes
    2.3 Dental Photography Techniques
    2.3.1 Extraoral Photography
    2.3.1.1 Most Common Camera Settings for Portraiture Photography Used in Orthodontics 2.3.2 Intraoral Photography
    2.3.3 The Application of Digital Photography in Orthodontics
    2.3.3.1 Smile Arc Analysis
    2.3.3.2 Digital Smile Design
    2.3.3.3 Enhancing the Smile with Photographic Analysis and 3D Simulations
    Cone Beam CT
    Intraoral Scanners
    Improved Patient Outcomes
    2.3.4 Guidelines for the Alignment of Teeth in 3D Design, Starting from 2D Design
    2.3.4.1 Guiding the Esthetic Plan Using Specialized Algorithms
    2.3.4.2 Facial Planning Through DSD Software
    2.3.4.3 Alignment of the Upper Anterior Teeth Without the Markers Provided by the Software 2.3.4.4 The Orthodontic Digital Alignment
    2.3.4.5 Planning Miniesthetics Using Digital Smile Design
    2.3.5 Converting 2D Images into 3D Digital Models
    2.3.5.1 Digital Guidance Using Transfer Software
    2.3.6 Monitoring Treatment Results Using DSD Connect/G Design
    2.4 Conclusions
    References
    3: 3D Radiographic Assessment of Dental Anomalies and Management
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Maxillary Impacted Canine
    3.2.1 Development and Eruption Pathway of Maxillary Canine
    3.2.2 Etiology of Maxillary Canine Impaction
    3.2.3 Palatal Versus Labial Impaction
    Digital Access Springer 2021