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  • Book
    edited by Rupert Lanzenberger, Georg S. Kranz, Ivanka Savic.
    Digital : ScienceDirect2020
    Intro -- Sex Differences in Neurology and Psychiatry -- Copyright -- Available titles -- Foreword -- Preface -- Contributors -- Contents -- Section I: Sex differences in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology -- Chapter 1: Structural differences between male and female brains -- Why Sex Matters: Searching for Differences Between Male and Female Brains -- A Short Detour Into the World (of Human Brain Mapping): Global, Regional, and Local -- A Mixed Bag: A Multitude of (Conflicting) Findings Based on Structural MRI -- Global measures -- Regional measures -- Some general observations A specific consideration: The corpus callosum -- Local measures -- Voxel-wise gray matter volume -- Vertex-wise cortical thickness -- Point-wise cortical gyrification -- Why Size Matters: The Possible Confounding Impact of Total Brain Volume -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 2: Beyond sex differences and a male-female continuum: Mosaic brains in a multidimensional space -- The Basis of the Mosaic Hypothesis: Studies in Laboratory Animals -- Testing the Mosaic Hypothesis -- Mosaic in human brain structure and connectivity as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Mosaic in brain connectivity -- Mosaic in neuronal numbers in the post-mortem human hypothalamus -- Mosaic in structural changes following exposure to severe real-life stress -- A Comment on the Source of Differences Between Women and Men -- Typical and Rare Brain ``Types ́́ -- Criticism of the Mosaic Hypothesis -- Questioning the analytical method used to test the mosaic hypothesis -- The question of prediction -- The straw-man criticism of the mosaic hypothesis -- Moving from a Male-Female Continuum to a Multidimension Space -- Conclusions -- References Chapter 3: Sex differences and brain development during puberty and adolescence -- Introduction -- Sex Effects on Anatomical Brain Changes Across Childhood and Adolescence -- Anatomical brain changes -- Cerebral cortex -- Subcortical structures -- White matter -- Sex effects on anatomical brain development -- Cerebral cortex -- Subcortical structures -- White matter -- Greater male variability in brain structure and development -- Behavioral and Functional Brain Changes and Sex Effects -- Behavioral changes and brain functioning -- Social and affective functioning -- Social relationships Emotion processing and amygdala responsiveness -- Behavioral control, risk-taking, and cognitive development -- Sex effects in adolescent functional brain changes and behavior -- Sex effects in affective brain functioning -- Sex effects in behavioral control, risk-taking, and cognitive functioning -- Sex steroid hormones at puberty and adolescence -- Gender Identity Development -- Gender incongruence -- Sexual orientation -- Effects of puberty suppression and gender-affirming hormones on brain and cognition -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgments -- References