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  • Book
    Ram Prasad, Busi Siddhardha, Madhu Dyavaiah, editors.
    Summary: In the pursuit of technological advancement in the field of biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to counteract health issues, bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The ability of bacterial pathogens to form biofilms further agglomerates the situation by showing resistance to conventional antibiotics. To overcome this serious issue, bioactive metabolites and other natural products were exploited to combat bacterial infections and biofilm-related health consequences. Natural products exhibited promising results in vitro, however; their efficacy in in vivo conditions remain obscured due to their low-solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility issues. In this scenario, nanotechnological interventions provide a multifaceted platform for targeted delivery of bioactive compounds by slow and sustained release of drug-like compounds. The unique physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility and eco-friendly nature of bioinspired nanostructures has revolutionized the field of biology to eradicate microbial infections and biofilm-related complications. The green-nanotechnology based metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and polymeric nanoparticles have been regularly employed for antimicrobial and antibiofilm applications without causing damage to host tissues. The implications of these nanoparticles toward achieving sustainability in agriculture by providing systemic resistance against a variety of phytopathogens therefore plays crucial role in growth and crop productivity. Also the advent of smart and hybrid nanomaterials such as metal-based polymer nanocomposites, lipid-based nanomaterials and liposomes have the inherent potential to eradicate bacterial biofilm-related infections in an efficient manner. The recent development of carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silica based nanomaterials such as mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) also exploit a target of dreadful healthcare conditions such as cancer , immunomodulatory diseases, and microbial infections, as well as biofilm-related issues owing to their stability profile, biocompatibility, and unique physio-chemical properties. Recently novel physical approaches such as photothermal therapy (PTT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) also revolutionized conventional strategies and are engaged in eradicating microbial biofilm-related infections and related health consequences. These promising advancements in the development of novel strategies to treat microbial infections and biofilm-related multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon may provide new avenues and aid to conventional antimicrobial therapeutics.

    About the Editors
    Chapter 1: Nanomaterials: Therapeutic Agent for Antimicrobial Therapy
    1.1 Introduction
    1.1.1 Basic Discussion About Bacterial Cells
    1.1.2 How Nanomaterials or Antibacterial Agent Interact with Bacteria: Probable Mechanism Interaction of Nanomaterials with Bacterial Cell Membrane Release of Compounds/Metal Toxic to the Bacterial Cell Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Cell Damage Obstacle in Electron Transport and Protein Oxidation 1.2 Essay for Measuring the Antimicrobial Activity of Nanomaterials
    1.2.1 Susceptibility of Nanomaterials Toward Microorganisms Dilution Method Disc-Diffusion Method
    1.2.2 Methods for Quantification of Antibacterial Activity Optical Density (OD) Measurement Cell Counting Method Spread-Plate Colony Counts Crystal Violet Staining Live/Dead Cell Staining and Imaging Tetrazolium Salt Reduction
    1.3 Role of Nanomaterials as Antimicrobial Agent
    1.3.1 The Ancient Era 1.3.2 Why Nanomaterials Have Replaced the Ancient Antimicrobial Agents?
    1.4 Different Class of Nanomaterials Used as an Antimicrobial Agent
    1.4.1 Antimicrobial Properties of Silver-Based Nanomaterials
    1.4.2 Antimicrobial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials (ZnO)
    1.4.3 Antimicrobial Activity of Titanium Oxide (TiO2) Nanomaterials
    1.4.4 Copper Nanomaterials as an Antimicrobial Agent
    1.4.5 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Antimicrobial Agent Fullerene Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Graphene Oxide (GO) Activated Carbon-Based Nanomaterials (ACNMs)
    1.5 Challenges of Nanomaterials in Antibacterial Treatments
    Chapter 2: A Review on Next-Generation Nano-Antimicrobials in Orthopedics: Prospects and Concerns
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Orthopedic Implants and Infections
    2.2.1 Planktonic
    2.2.2 Biofilm
    2.2.3 Invasive and Intracellular
    2.3 Bacterial Growth and Related Clinical Complications
    2.3.1 Cell Adhesion
    2.3.2 Cellular Aggregation
    2.3.3 Biofilm Maturation
    2.3.4 Cellular Detachment
    2.4 Conventional Techniques for Treating Infections 2.5 Nanomaterials in Eradicating Infections
    2.6 Mechanism of Action for Nanobiotics
    2.7 Future Perspectives and Concerns
    Chapter 3: Antibacterial Activity by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Synthesis of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
    3.3 Characterization of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
    3.4 Antimicrobial Activity of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
    3.4.1 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
    3.4.2 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
    3.5 Mechanisms of Action by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes
    3.6 Conclusion
    Digital Access Springer 2020