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  • Book
    Chang-Hwei Chen
    Summary: This book provides a comprehensive, organized, and concise overview of Xenobiotic Metabolic Enzymes and their health implications. The subjects addressed are broad in scope with an emphasis on recent advances in research on biochemical and biomedical aspects of these enzymes. The xenobiotics discussed include not just drugs, but also food, smoke, and other environmental chemicals. The subjects covered in this work include: metabolic enzymes and their catalyzed reactions, reactive intermediates generated from metabolic activation, oxidative stress mediated by electrophilic reactive intermediates, bioactivation - mediated cellular and functional damages, activation of Nrf2 - ARE pathway, genetic variations affecting metabolic enzyme expression, enzyme polymorphisms affecting xenobiotic - mediated toxicity, induction of metabolic enzymes for health benefits, and a diversity of metabolic enzyme modulators.

    Contents:
    Intro
    Preface
    Contents
    Chapter 1: Overview
    1.1 Xenobiotics That Humans Are Exposed To
    1.1.1 Foods and Drugs
    1.1.2 Smoke and Household and Environmental Chemicals
    1.2 Metabolisms of Foreign Compounds Before Excretion
    1.2.1 Activation Enzymes
    1.2.2 Detoxification Enzymes
    1.2.3 Catalytic Reactions: Functionalization and Conjugation
    1.3 Potential Toxicity of Metabolic Reactive Intermediates
    1.3.1 Electrophiles
    1.3.2 Interactions with Cellular Components
    1.3.3 Foreign Compound-Mediated Oxidative Stress
    1.3.4 Cellular Functional Damages 1.4 Genetic and Environment Factors Affecting Xenobiotic Metabolism
    1.4.1 Genetic Polymorphisms
    1.4.2 Environment and Lifestyle
    1.5 Nrf2-ARE Pathway: Defense Mechanism
    1.6 Defenses Against Oxidative Stress Mediated by Foreign Compounds
    1.6.1 Antioxidants
    1.6.2 Modulation of Metabolic Enzymes for Health Benefits
    1.6.3 Inducibility of Metabolic Enzymes
    1.7 Dietary Inducers of Detoxification Enzymes
    1.7.1 Vegetables and Fruits
    1.7.2 Green Tea and Algae
    Bibliography
    Chapter 2: Foreign Compounds: Foods, Drugs, and Other Chemicals
    2.1 Foods Chapter 3: Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Foreign Compounds
    3.1 Lipophiles Versus Hydrophiles
    3.2 Sites of Action
    3.3 Cell Membranes
    3.4 Transport Mechanisms
    3.4.1 Passive Diffusion
    3.4.2 Facilitated Diffusion
    3.4.3 Active Transport
    3.5 Metabolic Pathways
    3.5.1 Activation Metabolism
    3.5.2 Detoxification Metabolism
    3.6 Transport to External Cell Compartment
    3.7 Metabolism Precedes Before Excretion
    3.8 Excretion
    3.8.1 Renal Excretion
    3.8.2 Reabsorption in the Kidney
    3.8.3 Hepatic Excretion
    3.8.4 Skin Excretion
    Bibliography Chapter 4: Metabolisms of Foreign Compounds
    4.1 Activation Metabolism
    4.1.1 Functionalization Reactions
    4.1.2 Metabolic Reactive Intermediates
    4.2 Detoxification Metabolism
    4.2.1 Conjugation Reactions
    4.2.2 Non-conjugation Reactions
    4.3 Defenses Against Metabolites Generated from Bioactivation
    4.3.1 Antioxidants
    4.3.2 Metabolic Detoxifying Enzymes
    Bibliography
    Chapter 5: Bioactivation Metabolism: Activation Enzymes
    5.1 Major Activation Enzymes
    5.2 Oxidative Enzymes
    5.2.1 Cytochrome P450 Oxidase
    5.2.2 Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase
    Digital Access Springer 2020