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  • Book
    Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos, Thomas A. Kufer, editors.
    Summary: This book focuses on the multitude of functions bacterial membrane vesicles perform in bacterial ecology and pathogenesis as well as in emerging medical and biotechnological applications. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria produce membrane-bound nanostructures, known as membrane vesicles, which have a range of functions that include serving as delivery vehicles, providing a means of communication over both spatial and temporal scales, and contributing to bacterial survival and evolution. Topics covered in this book range from the biogenesis and composition of bacterial membrane vesicles to their abundance and biological roles in microbial ecosystems, such as marine environments. In the individual chapters, the involvement of bacterial membrane vesicles in host-pathogen interactions, promoting virulence and in facilitating the establishment of infection is explained. In addition, current knowledge regarding membrane vesicles produced by commensal bacteria and their role in the maturation of the host immune system, as well as the therapeutic potential of bacterial membrane vesicles as delivery systems and innovative nanotechnology-based therapeutics are discussed. This work appeals to a wide readership of students and researchers interested in microbial ecology, mechanism underlying pathogenesis and new avenues in applied microbiology and nanotechnology.

    Editors and Contributors
    Chapter 1: Introduction, History, and Discovery of Bacterial Membrane Vesicles
    1.1 Introduction to Gram-Negative OMVs
    1.1.1 The First Observations of OMVs
    1.1.2 Advances in OMV Research
    1.1.3 Outer Membrane Vesicles Research in the Last Decade
    1.1.4 Biogenesis of OMVs
    1.1.5 Outer Membrane Vesicles in Bacterial Communication
    1.1.6 Outer Membrane Vesicles in Host-Pathogen Interactions
    1.1.7 Distribution of OMVs in the Environment
    1.2 Introduction to Gram-Positive MVs 1.2.1 Production and Biogenesis of Gram-Positive MVs
    1.2.2 Contents of Gram-Positive MVs
    1.2.3 Role of MVs in Inter-Bacterial Communication
    1.2.4 Role of MVs in Host-Pathogen Interactions
    1.3 Conclusions
    Chapter 2: Biogenesis of Gram-Negative OMVs
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Modulation of Outer Membrane-Peptidoglycan Linkages
    2.2.1 Braunś Lipoprotein (Lpp)
    2.2.2 Outer Membrane Protein A (OmpA)
    2.2.3 Tol-Pal Complex
    2.3 Bacterial Stress Responses Affecting Vesiculation
    2.3.1 Envelope Stress Response
    2.3.2 Cell Wall-Directed Agents 2.3.3 SOS Response and Bacteriophages
    2.4 Filamentous or Tubular Surface Structures
    2.5 Modulation of Outer Membrane Components or Composition
    2.5.1 Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS)
    2.5.2 LPS Modifications Lipid A Modifications LPS Core Modifications O-Antigen Modifications
    2.5.3 Modulation of Phospholipid Composition
    2.6 Conclusion
    Chapter 3: Biogenesis and Function of Extracellular Vesicles in Gram-Positive Bacteria, Mycobacteria, and Fungi
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Evidence for MVs in Cell-Walled Organisms 3.3 Methods for the Study of MVs in Organisms with a Thick Cell Wall
    3.3.1 Methods of Isolation
    3.3.2 Cargo Identification Identification of MV-Associated Proteins Identification of MV-Associated Lipids Identification of MV-Associated Nucleic Acids
    3.3.3 Quantification, Labeling, and Visualization of MVs
    3.4 Mechanisms of MV Biogenesis in Cell-Walled Microorganisms
    3.4.1 Fungi
    3.4.2 Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mycobacteria
    3.5 MV Cargo
    3.5.1 Fungi
    3.5.2 Gram-Positive Bacteria
    3.5.3 Mycobacteria 3.6 Cell-Walled Organisms-Derived MV Functions
    3.6.1 Fungi
    3.6.2 Gram-Positive Bacteria
    3.6.3 Mycobacteria
    3.7 MVs in Medicine
    3.7.1 Clinical Implications of MVs
    3.7.2 MVs as Vaccine
    3.7.3 MVs in Biofilm Production
    3.7.4 MVs in Diagnosis
    3.8 Unsolved Problems and Concluding Remarks
    3.8.1 Cell Wall Transport
    3.8.2 Mechanism of Vesicle Production and Sorting Contents
    3.8.3 Role of Vesicles in Pathogenesis and Vaccines
    3.9 Concluding Remarks
    Chapter 4: Extracellular Vesicles in the Environment
    4.1 Introduction
    Digital Access Springer 2020