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  • Book
    Sandra M. Schmöckel, editor.
    Summary: This book focuses on quinoa, providing background information on its history, summarizing recent genetic and genomic advances, and offering directions for future research. Meeting the caloric and nutritional demands of our growing population will not only require increases in overall food production, but also the development of new crops that can be grown sustainably in agricultural environments that are increasingly susceptible to degradation. Quinoa is an ancient crop native to the Andean region of South America that has recently gained international attention because its seeds are high in protein, particularly in essential amino acids. Quinoa is also highly tolerant of abiotic stresses, including drought, frost and salinity. For these reasons, quinoa has the potential to help address issues of food security - a potential that was recognized when the United Nations declared 2013 the International Year of Quinoa. However, more effort is needed to improve quinoa agronomically and to understand the mechanisms of its abiotic stress tolerance; the recent development of genetic and genomic tools, including a reference genome sequence, will now help accelerate research in these areas.

    Preface to the Series
    Compendium of Plant Genomes: Quinoa
    1 History of the Quinuas in South America
    1.1 Origin
    1.2 Geographical Distribution
    1.3 Current Production Centers
    1.3.1 Colombia
    1.3.2 Ecuador
    1.3.3 Peru
    1.3.4 Bolivia
    1.3.5 Chile
    1.3.6 Argentina
    1.4 Main Types of Quinuas
    1.5 Research Advances
    1.6 Traditional Quinoa Utilization
    1.6.1 Preparation of the Llipt'a O (Llujt'a)
    1.6.2 Traditional Use of Leaves
    References 2 Botanical Context for Domestication in South America
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Quinoa Wild Ancestors and Relationships with Related Species
    2.3 Quinoa Genetic Structure
    2.4 Where and When Domestication Occurred
    2.4.1 Geographic Patterns of Variation in Genetic Variability
    2.4.2 Archaeological Evidence
    2.5 Traits Affected by Domestication
    2.5.1 Seed Size and Morphology
    2.5.2 Starch Forms
    2.5.3 Seed Shattering
    2.5.4 Plant Architecture
    2.5.5 Roots
    2.5.6 Climate Adaptation
    2.5.7 Aesthetic Selection
    2.5.8 Saponin Content 2.6 Geographical Distribution of the Domestication Syndrome. An Example in North West Argentina
    2.7 Concluding Remarks and Some Topics for Research
    3 Botanical Context for Domestication in North America
    3.1 Introduction
    3.1.1 Ecological Context of C. berlandieri
    3.1.2 Molecular Studies of C. berlandieri
    3.1.3 Potential Diploid Progenitor Gene Pools of the ATGC in North America
    3.2 Descriptions of C. berlandieri Subspecies and Botanical Varieties
    3.2.1 C. berlandieri subsp. berlandieri var. boscianum 3.2.2 C. berlandieri subsp. berlandieri var. berlandieri
    3.2.3 C. berlandieri subsp. berlandieri var. macrocalycium
    3.2.4 C. berlandieri subsp. berlandieri var. sinuatum
    3.2.5 C. berlandieri subsp. berlandieri var. zschackei
    3.2.6 C. berlandieri subsp. jonesianum
    3.2.7 C. berlandieri subsp. nuttaliae
    3.3 Breeding Potential of C. berlandieri
    3.4 Conclusions
    4 Quinoa Cytogenetics
    4.1 Genome Constitution of Polyploid C. Quinoa and Related Species
    4.2 Karyotype and Chromosome Banding
    4.3 Genome Size 4.4 Repetitive Sequence Organization and Evolution
    4.4.1 Tandem Repetitive Sequences
    4.4.2 Disperse Repetitive Sequences
    4.5 Chenopodium quinoa Is a Polysomatic Plant
    5 A Chromosome-Scale Quinoa Reference Genome Assembly
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Quinoa Accession PI 614886
    5.3 Primary Sequencing by PacBio SMRT® Sequencing Technology
    5.3.1 PacBio SMRT Sequencing Technology
    5.3.2 Quinoa Genomic DNA Preparation and PacBio Sequencing
    5.4 Scaffolding of the Assembly with BioNano Genomics (Optical Maps)
    Digital Access Springer 2021