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  • Book
    Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Pia López-Jornet, Elsa Lamy, editors.
    Summary: Saliva as a unique sample for health assessment is gaining attention among researchers of different fields in the last 20 years; being reflected in an impressive increase in the number of papers published studying saliva from different biological aspects in human and veterinary species. Once deemed merely a digestive juice is now considered a biological fluid capable of communicating information about physiopathological processes occurring in organisms, since saliva has been shown to contain molecular and bacterial compounds that can change in response to local and systemic pathologies. Furthermore, the interest of saliva as a diagnostic, prognostic and monitoring biofluid is forced by its non-invasive nature being of easy and inexpensive sampling, involving only minimal discomfort and allowing the collection of multiple/repeated specimens at anytime, anywhere and without need for specialized staff. In this contributed volume, the authors bring together, summarize and reflect the generated knowledge about saliva as a source of biomarkers for health and welfare evaluation in humans and animal models. This volume also highlights the importance of confounding factors, such as sampling methods, flow, total protein content, contamination, or storage. This book will serve as a manual for graduates, practitioners and researchers by providing general ideas about the possibilities and utilities of saliva in clinical practice or investigation, and indicating the main cautions each should have in mind before saliva usage.

    Part I: Saliva Basics
    Chapter 1: Salivary Glands' Anatomy and Physiology
    1.1 Salivary Glands' Anatomy and Histology
    1.1.1 Types of Salivary Glands
    1.1.2 Histology
    1.1.3 The Excretory Ducts in Major Salivary Glands
    1.2 Saliva Secretion
    1.2.1 Regulation Salivary Gland Innervation Routes Neurotransmitters Released by Autonomic Nerves Innervating Salivary Glands
    1.2.2 Pathways of Saliva Secretion
    1.3 Saliva
    1.3.1 Composition
    1.3.2 Function
    1.4 Conclusions
    References How Can Saliva Influence Food Texture Perception in Mouth?
    2.3.3 Saliva and Aroma
    2.4 Changes in Saliva Composition in Response to Ingestion: Can This Affect the Sensory Perception of Subsequently Ingested Food?
    2.5 How Saliva Changes Under Pathological States Can Affect Oral Food Perception
    2.6 Conclusion
    Chapter 3: Saliva as a Non-invasive Sample: Pros and Cons
    3.1 Collection Methods
    3.1.1 Methods for Obtaining Total Unstimulated Saliva Drainage Spitting Ejector (Saliva Aspiration) Syringe Collection Cotton
    3.1.2 Methods for Obtaining Total Stimulated Saliva Mechanical Stimulation Techniques Chemical Stimulation Techniques Stimulation with Pharmacological Substance Electrostimulation Low-Power Laser Stimulation Acupuncture
    3.1.3 Methods for Collection of Partial Saliva
    3.1.4 Saliva Collection Techniques in Animals
    3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Saliva
    3.2.1 Advantages
    3.2.2 Disadvantages
    References Chapter 2: Saliva in Ingestive Behavior Research: Association with Oral Sensory Perception and Food Intake
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Oral Food Perception
    2.2.1 Mechanisms of Basic Taste, Aroma and Oral Tactile Perception Taste Food Aroma Perception Food Texture (Tactile) Perception
    2.2.2 How Oral Food Perception Influences Food Acceptance and Choices
    2.3 Saliva Composition and Food Sensory Perception
    2.3.1 Saliva and Basic Tastes
    2.3.2 Saliva and Tactile Sensations The Role of Saliva in Astringency Development Chapter 4: Methodology Assays for the Salivary Biomarkers' Identification and Measurement
    4.1 The Concept of Biomarker and the Potential of Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid
    4.2 Methodology Assays
    4.2.1 Spectrophotometric Assays Ultraviolet and Visible (UV-Vis) Absorption Spectroscopy Atomic Spectrophotometry Near Infrared Spectrophotometry Flow Injection Spectrophotometric Analysis
    4.2.2 Immunoassays (IAs) Enzyme-Linked Immunoassays (EIAs) AlphaLisa Chemiluminescence Immunoassays (CLIA)
    Digital Access Springer 2020