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    Randy L. King.
    Ultrasound-induced neurostimulation has recently gained increasing attention. Developments in the use of ultrasound to stimulate and modulate neural activity have raised the possibility of using ultrasound as a new investigative and therapeutic tool in brain research. Little is known about the mechanisms by which it affects neural activity or about the range of acoustic parameters and stimulation protocols that elicit responses. In this thesis, conditions are established for transcranial stimulation of the nervous system in vivo, using the mouse somatomotor response. It is reported that (1) continuous-wave stimuli are as effective as or more effective than pulsed stimuli in eliciting responses, and responses are elicited with stimulus onset rather than stimulus offset; (2) stimulation success increases as a function of both acoustic intensity and acoustic duration; (3) interactions of intensity and duration suggest that successful stimulation results from the integration of stimulus amplitude over a time interval of 50 to 150 ms; (4) the motor response elicited appears to be an all-or-nothing phenomenon, meaning stronger stimulus intensities and durations increase the probability of a motor response without affecting the duration or strength of the response; and (5) motor responses, measured by normalized EMG signals in the neck and tail regions, change signifcantly when sonicating rostral and caudal regions of the mouse motor cortex. Taken together our findings present good evidence for being able to target selective parts of the motor cortex with ultrasound neurostimulation in the mouse, steps that should provide encouragement for the development of new applications in larger animal models, including humans.
    Digital Access   2013