Stanford University School of Medicine and the Predecessor Schools: An Historical Perspective
Part IV: Cooper Medical college 1883-1912

Chapter 30. Consolidation with Stanford University 1906 - 1912

As early as 1901 Dr. Lane and President Jordan met several times on terms of mutual respect to discuss the feasibility of consolidation of Cooper Medical College with Stanford University. These discussions were followed by Dr. Lane's decision in 1902, just prior to his death, to remove all legal impediments to such a course. Indeed, during the last few years of his life Dr. Lane saw that there was no acceptable alternative to union with Stanford. He became convinced that the survival of free-standing propriety American medical schools such as his depended upon merging with a university. Since union with the University of California was, in view of his past experience, unthinkable, the availability of Stanford as an alternative was a godsend.

During Dr. Ellinwood's stormy tenure from 1902 to 1907 in the presidency of Cooper Medical College, growing interest in joining Stanford culminated in a strong consensus among the faculty in its favor. President Jordan was also favorably disposed to a merger of the institutions but before serious negotiations could begin he was obliged to resolve two major issues - the nature of the educational program to be adopted and the source of funds to support it.

February 1906: A Graduate School of Medical Research

On 20 February 1906 Dr. Jordan wrote to Professor Ophüls commenting on Stanford's financial dilemma and asking his advice on establishing a graduate school of medical research in the Cooper premises.[1]

20 February 1906

Dear Dr. Ophüls:
The great difficulty with us - and it tends to grow larger as we get nearer to it - is the question as to whether the University will be able to maintain the Medical School as it ought to be maintained without cramping the Engineering School and the Library, and other departments already established. . .

Would the proposition to devote the property (of Cooper Medical College) to the establishment of a graduate school of medical research, beginning with a few departments and extending them as gifts were received or as funds were acquired, be favorably considered by the Trustees of the Cooper Medical College?

Dr. Ophüls responded on 22 February to President Jordan's letter of the 20th.[2]

22 February 1906

Dear President Jordan:
I received your kind letter of February the 20th today. We understand your misgivings about the financial outlook of the undertaking, still we believe that by proper management any undue expense to the University can be avoided. If you will permit us we should like to submit more detailed plans as to the way in which the change might be best effected, and about the expenses which we would consider necessary to make a creditable beginning. We do not believe that it would be advisable to start on too large a scale but to begin with a working nucleus of good men who would be willing to spend the necessary time and energy without immediate large recompensation in gradually building up a Department which by the prestige given to it by its connection with the University and by its own efforts would soon develop successfully and if necessary attract endowment.

As the only competing Medical College on the Pacific Coast has already raised its entrance requirements to very nearly the desired level we could hope to attract a sufficient number of students to make such a Medical Department self-supporting.

In regard to your question we feel that the graduate research school should be looked upon as the highest development to be reached eventually. A substratum of several successive student generations of academic culture is necessary to evolve the desire and the capacity for research work of a higher order. From my own experience I know that at present very few men are available who are at all fitted to undertake such work in Medicine and who could successfully support by their work an institution of the kind that you suggest.

We feel that we have to make certain provisions for the coming semester, several important positions should be filled within a reasonable time in justice to our students, still our hands are tied as long as we are uncertain about the future development of our School. On this account it would be desirable from our standpoint to arrive at least at a general understanding within the near future.

Very sincerely yours,
W. Ophüls

Dr. Ophüls advised against establishment of a graduate school of medical research and outlined a process whereby Cooper Medical College's traditional program could be upgraded to university standards at modest cost - an eminently practical approach, but not sufficiently "scholarly" for Dr. Jordan who, in a letter on 24 February, again asked Dr. Ophüls to give his opinion of the graduate school proposal[3]

24 February 1906

Dear Dr. Ophüls:
I have received your kind letter of the 22nd. . . The question as to whether we should engage in elementary medical education is a very large one. . .It would seem to me desirable, if it were possible, that the two medical colleges in the city should be united, either in the name of Stanford or of the University of California (now under the presidency of Benjamin Ide Wheeler). My idea of the research school would be, not to make it dependent at all on the fees or the men who might work in it. . .

My own feeling at present is in favor of the research idea - of beginning the work without granting the medical degree or any degree other than those now granted by the University. This would mean the development in Stanford University of certain research professorships to be located in the building of the Cooper Medical College and in connection with the Lane Hospital. This college would then become the Department of Medical Research of the University.

I do not wish to put forward this opinion as one which cannot be changed, but at present I am inclined toward it as the most available way of managing the matter on our part. I feel more drawn to the development of a great school of medical research than to the development of a great medical college granting the degree of M. D.

Obviously Dr. Ophüls' letter of February 22nd had not persuaded Dr. Jordan of the advisability of building on the existing program of Cooper Medical College. On the contrary Dr. Jordan had countered by making two proposals that would have been anathema to Dr. Lane and to most, if not all, of his faculty - union with the rival Medical Department of the University of California, and abandonment of the M. D. program in which they had invested their careers.

On 5 March 1906, Dr. Jordan pressed Dr. Ophüls further for an opinion on establishing a graduate school of medical research.[4]

5 March 1906

Dear Dr. Ophüls:
Referring to the possibility of developing a school of medical research on the Cooper College Foundation, I would like to know personally what you think of it; and, if you are in favor of it, I would like to know if you could suggest a workable plan by which such an institution could begin in a small way and rise to an expenditure of fifty or sixty thousand dollars or more a year. I see a good many difficulties in the way, even if the people of the Cooper Medical College were willing to have the property used in that way.

To Dr. Jordan's second appeal for his advice on a graduate school of medical research, Dr. Ophüls again firmly advised against it, this time in considerable detail: [5]

7 March 1906

Dear President Jordan:
. . .Although in many ways it may seem desirable to have only one large Medical School in San Francisco, the practical difficulties in the way of accomplishing this end seem to me insurmountable. On the other hand, comparatively small classes are rather an advantage in a technical school because the instruction can then be a more personal one. This is for instance one of the greatest attractions in the small German Universities. It would also seem probable that two rival schools would advance more rapidly and would do better work on account of the competition between them.

Possibly on account of my education in Germany I cannot even well imagine a Medical Educational Institution which does not embrace undergraduate and graduate instruction and research. A school without research cannot survive, but I also feel that it will hardly do to separate certain features of the research work from the rest. From the research worker the students get their best inspiration and the teaching of the fundamentals of his science may be troublesome to the advanced worker, still it is very good mental exercise which constantly drives him back to essentials. . . .

I am afraid also that an attempt of developing a great School of purely Medical Research on the Pacific Coast now might be a little premature. We have no unusual opportunities in Medicine here that would attract workers from other parts of the world, such as we have them in Biology, for example. We would have to start with our own men largely and they are hardly ready. We will have to develop them from our undergraduate students. This seems to me a strong reason why the beginning could be made more advantageous with undergraduate instruction.

Another difficulty which I see is this, that if an attempt is made to start with too few departments the research faculty might suffer seriously through their isolation. The most important results can only be expected through cooperation.

If the College should stop undergraduate instruction it will almost surely lose the most valuable part of its clinical and pathological material at the City and County Hospital, because the material is offered for the express purpose of instructing students.

The Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical School was started somewhat in the same way as you suggest.-.as a Research Institution. In that case the plan was feasible on account of the large endowment which was sufficient to cover the expenses for clinical material, excellent teachers and workers in the Clinical Departments. Apart from that there was enough left to run a first class Pathological Department. In our case the means would hardly suffice for such an undertaking.

Very respectfully,
Wm. Ophüls

Dr. Jordan's attraction to the concept of "a graduate school of medical research" is traceable to the advice he received from Dr. Clarence J. Blake, Professor of Otology at Harvard. Dr. Jordan had consulted Dr. Blake as early as 1902 regarding the program to be developed on the premises of Cooper Medical College, should they be ceded to the University. In a letter to President Jordan dated 17 September 1902, Dr. Blake commented enthusiastically on the news that Stanford might fall heir to Cooper Medical College. He cited all the good reasons why proprietary schools like Cooper should be absorbed by universities like Stanford for the betterment of American medicine. He did not then propose establishing a graduate school of medical research in the Cooper facilities. That advice came later and was then, as we have seen, supported by President Jordan.[6]

Dr. Blake attended the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard and then the Harvard Medical School where he received an M. D. degree in 1865. He was interested in diseases of the ear. Finding no place in the United States to take advanced training in this field, he studied under Dr. Politzer at the Vienna Krankenhaus. Although a busy clinician in Boston he was also active in research in his specialty.[7]

Dr. Blake cited no American graduate schools devoted exclusively medical research which could serve as successful examples of the type of program he strongly recommended for Cooper Medical College, nor did he take account of the state of development of medicine on the Pacific Coast, as did Dr. Ophüls. On the whole, Dr. Blake's advice seemed more theoretical than practical .In a letter to President Jordan on 18 March 1906, he summarized his visionary plan as follows:[8]

The plan I have in mind, and for the success of which there are, I believe, reasonable grounds, begins with the establishment, by your University, of a medical department, not of undergraduate instruction, but one devoted exclusively to the teaching of graduates in medicine and to medical research, and continues, by subsequent collaboration with the University of California, in the formation of a joint medical school, or department, insuring the command of medical education upon the Pacific Coast under university control.

The time for duplication of medical schools in this country has passed, and the demand for concentration, and for unification and advance, of educational standards, as part of the general University system, is imperative because of the rapid progress of medical education, along strictly scientific lines, and the correspondingly larger sociological opportunities of the medical profession.

In spite of Dr. Ophüls' championing of enhancement of the existing program at Cooper Medical College as the course to be followed after merger with Stanford, a position shared by Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, President Jordan continued to favor the plan outlined by Dr. Blake. On 2 May 1906, two weeks after the great earthquake and fire, the President made a report to the Stanford Trustees advising union with the Cooper Medical College on the basis of the Blake plan.[9] [10]

Later in the month (20 May 1906) Dr. Jordan wrote to Dr. Ophüls saying that he had advised the Trustees to adopt the (Blake) plan for a graduate school of medical research, but that the Directors of Cooper Medical College did not approve of the proposal:[11]

20 May 1906

Dear Dr. Ophüls:
I have recommended to our Board of Trustees the acceptance of the Cooper Medical College property on condition that we could use it, at least for the present, as a school of medical research. . . . Mr. Horace Davis, President of the Stanford Board of Trustees, tells me that the authorities of the Cooper Medical College do not approve. . . . The case then remains a matter of financial ability. . . . If it would result in crippling the instruction at Palo Alto, then it would be something we could not afford to undertake. . . . The action of the Board will probably depend upon the reports made by the Finance Committee when the matter is ready for final decision. . .

On 29 May 1906 Dr. Ophüls, who was vacationing in Brooklyn, New York at the time, responded as follows to President Jordan's letter of 20 May:[12]

Brooklyn , N. Y. , 29 May 1906

Dear President Jordan:
I received your kind letter of May 20th yesterday. I was glad to hear that you favor so strongly the proposed union of Cooper College with Stanford University. I still believe that even without any large endowment the University could develop a first class Medical School and an institution for Medical Research from the present assets of Cooper Medical College. As long as the spirit is the right one from the beginning, the scope of the work can easily be enlarged in the future as means become available. . .

Prophetic words

For practical purposes, the character of the educational program to be developed under Stanford auspices in the Cooper Medical College facilities was now decided. That is, Dr. Jordan's advice to establish a graduate school of medical research had been firmly rejected by the Cooper Directors. In retrospect we can recognize in this decision their loyalty to the goals of Dr. Lane, and their historic prescience as to the best path for the College in the future. It should be noted, however, that this insistence by the Cooper College faculty on maintaining the M. D. program did not deter Dr. Jordan from continuing to explore for some months to come the possibility of establishing a graduate school of medical research.

In any case, serious consideration of consolidation of Cooper Medical College and Stanford could now begin with a view to creating a university-level M. D. program of teaching, research and patient care within the existing framework of the College, as advised by Drs. Ophüls and Wilbur - keeping in mind, of course, that financing the consolidation remained as a complex and controversial problem yet to be solved.

Committees Consider Consolidation

On 1 August 1906 the Stanford Trustees took an important step toward deciding the issue of eventual union with Cooper Medical College. They appointed a Special Committee of the Trustees to meet with a Special Committee of Cooper Directors to discuss consolidation. The Minutes of the Stanford Board of Trustees for 1 August 1906 include the following relevant entry:[13]

Upon motion of the Board and recommendation of the University Committee, it was resolved that the matter of the proposed consolidation of Cooper Medical College with Stanford University be referred by the Board to a Special Committee for further consideration, and to confer with the authorities of Cooper Medial College to ascertain what arrangements can be made with them concerning the consolidation of the institutions in case that should be found to be desirable.

After adjournment of the meeting, Trustee Horace Davis (President of the Board) appointed Trustees Crothers and Eells and Professor John M. Stillman as the Special Committee called-for in the foregoing resolution. Trustee Crothers (who was also Secretary of the Board of Trustees) was appointed Chairman of the Special Committee.

Consolidation was also discussed by the Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College at the Annual Meeting on 13 August 1906 where President Ellinwood delivered the following preamble to his Annual Report[14]

The trend of events in Medical Education continues to associate Medical Colleges more and more intimately with University Organizations.

The maintenance of expensive laboratories with a corps of salaried professors and instructors together with modern facilities to meet the requirements of first class instruction. . . . requires an expenditure of money by the Medical College which cannot be met, as formerly, by the tuition fees from students.

It naturally follows that a College independent of University affiliation as Cooper College is, without the University influence of perpetuity of organization. . . .and also its pecuniary aid and scholastic economies, must be crowded into inferior place, and finally out of existence, as unfit to survive.

This view of the situation was taken by Dr. Lane, the founder and builder of Cooper Medical College, in the latter years of his life. . .

I feel hopeful that with patience, wisdom and discretion on our part, this institution will establish such University relations as to command first rank and high achievements in Medical Education on the Pacific Coast.

Dr. Ellinwood also called it to the attention of the Cooper Directors that the Stanford Trustees had on August 1st 1906 appointed a Special Committee: (a) to consider the desirability of consolidating Cooper Medical College with Stanford University, and (b) to confer with the Cooper Directors on the subject. In response to this initiative of the Stanford Trustees, the Directors appointed a Special Committee of their own to meet with the Special Committee of the Trustees. Members of the Cooper Special Committee were Drs. Ellinwood, Barkan and Ophüls, with Dr. Rixford as an alternate.

On 23 October 1906 the Special Committees from Stanford and Cooper met in the Cooper College Building. They reached conclusions which were the basis for a Report to the Board of Trustees on 2 November 1906 to which we will shortly refer.

Meanwhile we should mention that Dr. Jordan on 17 October 1906 again approached President Wheeler of the University of California on the factious issue that simply would not rest in peace - the possibility of some form of union between the medical branches of Stanford and the University of California. On this occasion Dr. Jordan inquired of President Wheeler whether it might be possible for the two universities, while each gave preliminary medical courses on its own campus, to unite their programs in San Francisco for clinical instruction and research. President Wheeler rejected the proposal. Had he not demurred, the Cooper Directors certainly would have done so. We should also report that Dr. Jordan at this time, in his search for funded research programs, sought unsuccessfully to interest the financier, John D. Rockefeller, in the establishment of a Research School of Tropical Medicine as a branch of Stanford University.[15]

November 1906: Trustees Committee Reports

On 2 November 1906 the Trustees Special Committee on Consolidation made the following report to the Board, this being the first comprehensive exposition of the issues and assets involved in consolidation of Cooper Medical College with Stanford University:[16]

1 November 1906
To the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University,

Gentlemen:
Your Special Committee appointed by the President of the Board pursuant to a resolution adopted on the 1st day of August, 1906, for further consideration of the proposal to consolidate Cooper Medical College with the Leland Stanford Junior University . . .has conferred with the authorities of Cooper Medical College. . . and now reports as follows:

Your Special Committee met with a similar committee representing the Cooper Medical College Corporation in the Faculty room in the Cooper Medical College Building . . . on the 23rd day of October. There were present Doctors Ellinwood and Ophüls representing Cooper Medical College, neither Dr. Barkan, the third member of the Cooper committee, nor his substitute, (Dr. Rixford), being in town at the time. All of the members of your Special Committee were present and President Davis was also present during the latter part of the conference.

Dr. Ellinwood presented a copy of the Articles of Incorporation of Cooper Medical College and a copy of a deed from Dr. Levi C. Lane to the Cooper Medical College Corporation covering the real estate belonging to the College prior to Dr. Lane's death. The deed contains no restrictions. It was explained by Dr. Ellinwood that this deed was made after the Corporation had re-conveyed the property referred to therein to Dr. Lane with a view to the extinguishment of a clause in the former conveyance whereby it was provided that the College should maintain its independence.

Dr. Ellinwood made the following statements on behalf of his committee and of Cooper Medical College:

"That the Cooper Medical College properties including the special library endowment provided for by the will of Mrs. Lane, are of a value in excess of one million dollars, and consist of the following:

  • The site of the College consisting of four fifty vara lots
  • Lane Hospital and equipment,
  • Cooper College Building and equipment,
  • Nurses Home,
  • Lane Medical Library and Endowment,
  • About $75,000 cash in bank, belonging to hospital.

"That the Medical Library, consisting of about 25,000 volumes, including the acquisition of an important medical library recently secured from New York, which supplemented the former library where it was weakest, is now one of the three or four best Medical Libraries in America, and the special library endowment, now represented by a library site and a third interest in various pieces of real estate, will probably amount to two hundred thousand dollars - probably the largest medical library endowment in America; but that the Board of Trustees of Cooper Medical College are not at present unanimous in their view as to the desirability of turning over the Library and its endowment to this Board of Trustees, though both of the representatives of Cooper Medical College present were favorable to keeping the library and its endowment and the medical college under the same management".

Dr. Ellinwood was asked to state the terms upon which the Cooper Medical College would transfer all the properties to the Leland Stanford Junior University. In reply he stated, on behalf of his committee and college, in substance as follows:

That he was not sure that he could now state positively all of the conditions of the proposed consolidation as others might occur to the management, but that, reserving the right to add any such terms, it is proposed:

That the Cooper Medical College, hospital, equipment and grounds, including the cash funds, be conveyed to Stanford University for purposes of Medical Education along the lines of teaching and preparing practitioners of medicine. That the work of the college, with a view to preparing men and women for the practice of Medicine, be continued with such research as may incidentally grow out of the same. That some equitable agreement be arrived at relative to the naming of the Medical School and its laboratories, hospital, library etc. That in case the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University should fail for any cause to maintain a Medical Department for the purposes expressed, the property shall revert to the State of California for the maintenance of Medical Education.

It was agreed by your Special Committee that in case the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University accepts the Cooper Medical School Property upon conditions, there will be no objection to any such forfeiture which the Cooper trustees may desire to impose in the event of the violation of such conditions, also that due credit should be given to the founders of Cooper Medical College in the matter of names.

Dr. Ellinwood also stated that fifty beds in the Lane Hospital can be maintained for clinical purposes without making the hospital a source of expense and that these and the wards of the County Hospital under the control of the school furnish rich and ample clinical material for purposes of instruction, also that if clinical and pay beds be hereafter added in equal number the Lane Hospital should continue to be self-supporting. The college now has funds derived in part from the net earnings of the Hospital, which could probably be used to add to the number of beds in the hospital in case that should be considered desirable.

In the light of all available information as to the sources and amounts of the income and expenses of the best Medical Schools in the country, their clinical facilities, and their standards and methods of instruction, your Committee make the following recommendations:

That the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University accept the Cooper Medical College properties for the maintenance of a professional medical school upon the terms of the offer as made, provided,

First. That the Lane Library and library endowment be offered with the balance of the plant.

Second. That the Legislature of the State of California, by special act, permit the charging of fees for tuition to students in the medical courses regardless of their residences.

Third. That the Board of Trustees desires to maintain a department of medicine on a basis of scholarship and efficiency equal to that of the very best medical schools of this country.

Fourth. That the Board of Trustees considers itself financially able without unduly retarding the development of equally important departments already established to expend upon the Medical Department at the expiration of ten years, in addition to receipts, between thirty-five and forty thousand dollars per year.,

Fifth. That the classes registered in the Cooper Medical School at the time when the same is taken over shall be taught by the present Faculty under the control of the present Corporation, and be given the degree of M. D. by Cooper Medical College upon their graduation, the University agreeing to make good any deficit which may arise owing to the reduction in the number of classes and students in San Francisco while the classes in the pre-medical courses provided for under new regulations are being prepared at the University.

Sixth. That no new classes be accepted by the Cooper Medical College after the transfer and that the University do not accept any new class for instruction in medicine in San Francisco until the fourth year after the proposed consolidation shall have been effected

Seventh. That some equitable agreement be arrived at for perpetuating the names of Dr. Cooper and Dr. Lane in connection with the Medical School and its laboratories, hospital, library, etc., but that the main title of the medical school shall be "The Medical Department of the Leland Stanford Junior University."

The Committee believes, with the President of the University, that Medical Education is within the scope and purpose of the University and that the field will be sooner or later entered upon by it.

The Cooper Medical College plant is the best and most complete plant for medical education within a radius of nearly two thousand miles, its reputation for good work is widespread and its faculty has now among its number, as always, many practitioners of the highest order. It is therefore not likely that the University will ever have a better opportunity to undertake this department of its work.

In determining this question, as in determining all other questions affecting society generally, the public interest and not merely the interest and reputation of the University as such, must be the controlling factor. Numerically there is a surplus of doctors of medicine in this country, but there is an urgent need of more thoroughly trained physicians and surgeons. There are few medical schools in the country which are of the first class in both scholarship and equipment and there are none such in the Western half of the country. There is therefore a large field for more of them. If Stanford University should undertake the control of Cooper Medical College it should do so, not so much to increase the number of practitioners, as to raise the standards of scholarship and efficiency in Medical Education. There is, however, room for one or more large medical schools in California, as about forty-five percent of the medical practitioners annually admitted in California are prepared for practice in Eastern States. A number of Western States, which would be tributary to a first rate medical school in San Francisco, have no medical schools.

The clinical material offered by San Francisco is exceptionally rich in variety and ample in quantity.

The San Francisco climate is better adapted to instruction and study throughout the year than that of any other large city in the country.

Respectfully submitted,
(Signed)
Geo. E. Crothers
Charles P. Eells
J. M. Stillman
Special Committee
November 1st, 1906

Action on Report of Special Committee Deferred

After the reading of the Special Committee's Report to the Board of Trustees on 2 November 1906, it was resolved that a copy of the Report be sent to each Trustee, and that consideration of the Report be postponed to a future meeting of the Board. Consideration of the Report was then postponed from meeting to meeting until ten months had passed without action on it. Meanwhile, President Ellinwood was deposed and the Trustees were duly notified of the change in composition of the Directors Special Committee on Consolidation:[17]

San Francisco, 16 February 1907
The Hon. Horace Davis, President,
Board of Trustees, Stanford University

Dear Sir:
I have the honor to inform you that on the 5th of this month, Dr. Charles N. Ellinwood ceased to be President of Cooper Medical College, and that at the last meeting of the Directors of the College held February 11th, 1907, the Committee formerly representing Cooper College in the matter of the proposed amalgamation of the College with Stanford University was discharged and the following committee appointed in its stead: - to wit: Vice President Edward Taylor, and Drs. Henry Gibbons, Jr., Stanley Stillman, W. Ophüls and Emmet Rixford. . . .

Emmet Rixford, Secretary

September 1907: President Jordan Recommends Consolidation

In an effort to spur action on consolidation, which had been postponed for the past 10 months, President Jordan wrote to the Stanford Trustees on 14 September 1907 recommending approval of the recommendations of the Trustees Special Committee:[18]

Stanford University, Ca.
September 14, 1907
To the Honorable Board of Trustees
Leland Stanford Junior University
San Francisco, California

Gentlemen:
I am asked by a member of the faculty of the Cooper Medical College to say that an early decision in the matter of the future of that institution in relation to Stanford University would be very acceptable.

After long consideration of the various phases of the case, I have reached the conclusion that it is wise for Stanford University to accept the offer recently made by the Cooper Medical College, to take effect as soon as the present classes of the Cooper Medical College can be graduated.

My reasons for this view, briefly, are: (a) that it will be sooner or later a part of the duty of Stanford University to give medical instruction; (b) that the present good name and good property of the Cooper Medical College are worthy of serious consideration in this regard; and (c) it will be in a general way to the advantage of Stanford University to have a representation in the city of San Francisco.

I believe, also, that in time the Stanford University Medical Department and the hospitals would become objects of large donations from citizens of San Francisco.

It is understood, of course, that the present faculty and Board of Trustees of the Cooper Medical College would all tender their resignations, that the autonomy of the Cooper Medical College would be given up, that all trusts now assumed by the Cooper Medical College would be taken by Stanford University, and that the Medical College would become a department of Stanford University, the method of establishment being shown in published documents by reference to Dr. L. C. Lane and to the Cooper Medical College foundation.

In the reorganization of the proposed medical college it seems to me very desirable that it should begin from the first with the highest ideals of organization and of instruction. The degree of M. D. should not be granted in less than seven years from the date of matriculation in the freshman class, and the title of professor should be restricted to men giving their time to University work as is the case in other departments.

Very truly yours,
David S. Jordan, President

October 1907: Trustees Ponder Cost

The Report of the Trustees' Special Committee favoring consolidation with Cooper Medical College was submitted to the University Trustees on 2 November 1906; but formal consideration of the Report was deferred for eleven months - that is until the Trustees' meeting of 4 October 1907 at which President Jordan's letter of September 14th was submitted to the Board. The stumbling block causing delay in deciding on consolidation was uncertainty regarding availability of sufficient funds in the University budget to support a medical department without depriving other departments of needed resources favorable.

Some of the Trustees were convinced that the offer of Cooper Medical College was too valuable to be rejected. President Jordan's letter of September 14th made a strong impression on Horace Davis, Chairman of the Board, who said, "I am glad, very glad, to see that you have concluded in favor the Cooper Medical College. I am so sure that we have got to have a medical institution in connection with our professional teaching that it seems to me an exceedingly favorable opportunity to get what we want." [19]

Other Trustees were not so sanguine and the President's letter had the overall effect of forcing the Board finally to come to grips with the unsettled question of financing the venture. They delayed their decision by referring the matter to the Finance Committee to investigate and report. Independently, Trustee Timothy Hopkins expressed his personal opinion in the following thoughtful letter dated 13 November 1907. He doubted the financial advisability of the consolidation:[20]

To the President and Board of Trustees,
Leland Stanford Junior University
13 November 1907

Gentlemen:
A plan for the amalgamation of Cooper Medical College with Stanford University is awaiting our consideration and decision.

It is admitted that Cooper College and its adjuncts, the Lane Hospital and the Lane Library, are valuable property which, with the impetus given them by an association with Stanford, would do much to raise the standard of medical education on the Pacific Coast; also that the high ideals of Dr. Lane, their founder, would be furthered and fulfilled, in part at least, by the generous and disinterested gift to Stanford of those institutions by the Trustees of Cooper College.

It is likewise conceded that the best medical education is the result of University training, and that the acceptance of the gift would strengthen and enlarge the usefulness of Stanford.

It is questionable, however, whether we, in face of the financial obligations already assumed for the development of the University, can afford to accept even so desirable an institution as is Cooper College.

It is the aim of all of our Trustees that whatever is associated with Stanford shall be of the best. It is not expected that the proposed medical department will be self supporting, and the amount of its annual deficiency is limited only by the degree of its development and the measure of our financial capacity. It is therefore vital, before we undertake that which may be an additional financial burden, that we should not mislead ourselves either by underestimating possible deficiencies or by an overestimation of our resources to carry them. It is stated that we could maintain a moderately effective medical department for the first few years on a deficiency of $25,000 per annum, but that its ultimate expense would be $100,000 or more reduced in part by student fees - or about one eighth of our present income.

Our remoteness from the centers of population, and the existence of a rival medical school in the State University to divide the students in our somewhat limited field of influence, makes the matter of fees an uncertainty, if indeed it does not go farther, and raise the issue of the ability of the community to adequately support more than one strong school of medicine for a long time to come.

The expense of conducting a school of high standing is not proportionately reduced by the ratio of attendance, and unless we have financial leeway to meet a yearly deficit greater than $25,000, it is manifestly unwise to undertake the work; since a professional department in a state of arrested development would do us more harm than the possible loss of prestige due to its absence from the university curriculum. . . .

(Trustee Hopkins included here an estimate of University income and expenditures for the year ending 31 July 1908 showing a surplus of only $25,000.)

The problem, therefore, of conserving our income and reserve, and the curtailing of our expenses so as to permit the development of such of our present departments as we may select, would appear to have a claim upon our serious attention as a condition precedent to our assuming the further responsibilities of a Medical School.

Respectfully submitted,
Timothy Hopkins

From this time forward, and even to the present day, the cost of medical education to the University has been an ever-present and contentious issue in intramural financial circles. It has been the view from the outset, as expressed in Trustee Hopkins' letter, that the medical school has the potential for draining resources from departments more central to the mission of the University - an apprehension by no means unjustified. Hence the basic principle that the medical school at Stanford shall be essentially self-supporting has its earliest manifestations in the original articles of consolidation, the complex evolution of which we are now about to relate.

Trustees Endorse Consolidation
31 January 1908

After four months delay since the meeting on 4 October 1907 to allow for further deliberation on the issue of financing, the Trustees were at last ready on 31 January 1908 to put consolidation to the vote. The following enabling resolutions were adopted:[21]

Resolved that it is the sense of the Board of Trustees that the proposed transfer of Cooper Medical College properties be accepted by the Board of Trustees upon the terms recommended by the Special Committee (see Report of 1 November 1906) and approved by the President of the University.(See letter of 14 September 1907).

The foregoing resolution was adopted by the following vote: the following 9 Trustees voted aye: Horace Davis, Samuel F. Leib, Joseph D. Grant, Leon Sloss, Whitelaw Reid, William Babcock, Charles P. Eells, Vanderlynn Stow and George E. Crothers. The following 2 Trustees voted no: Timothy Hopkins and Charles G. Lathrop (Treasurer of the University).

Resolved that the secretary be instructed to communicate the foregoing action to the Directors of the Cooper Medical College, and that the President of this Board be instructed to confer with the attorneys for the Board with regard to such legal steps as may be necessary to effect the proposed transfer.

Resolved that in case the needs of the proposed Medical Department, over and above its own separate income from medical students and other sources, should exceed Twenty-five Thousand Dollars per annum, the wants of other now existing departments of equal importance shall have preference over such needs.

These significant decisions may be summarized as follows: On 31 January 1908 the Stanford Board of Trustees agreed by a vote of 9 to 2 to endorse the transfer of the properties of Cooper Medical College to Stanford University on terms previously recommended by its Trustees Special Committee and by President Jordan. Furthermore, the Board instructed the President of the Board to take all legal steps necessary to effect the proposed transfer.

27 February 1908: Preconditions for Consolidation

Seeking to expedite the process of union with Stanford, the Cooper Directors authorized Secretary Rixford to inform the University of the conditions under which the Directors would relinquish the property. Accordingly, Secretary Rixford dispatched the following letter to Secretary Crothers of the Stanford Board of Trustees on 27 February 1908.[22]

Cooper Medical College, 27 February 1908
Mr. George E. Crothers, Secretary, Board of Trustees, Leland Stanford Junior University

Dear Mr. Crothers:
I have the honor to inform you that at a meeting of the Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College held this day the 27th of February 1908 in the Board Room of the College, all the Directors being present, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

Resolved that it is the sense of the Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College that all the property of said College be transferred to the Leland Stanford Junior University upon the following conditions:

That the property so transferred shall be devoted to the purposes of medical education along the lines of teaching and preparing young men and women to be practitioners of medicine and surgery.

That the transition in curriculum be gradual.

That a class be admitted to Cooper Medical College in 1908.

That the diplomas of the Medical Department of the Leland Stanford Junior University bear the words "founded as Cooper Medical College in 1882 by Levi Cooper Lane."

That the Lane Medical Lectures be continued.

That the Lane Popular Lectures be continued.

That the name "Lane Hospital" be preserved as applied to the hospital building.

That the name "Lane Hall" be preserved as applied to the College Building.

That the various trusts undertaken by the College be carried out.

That the will of Mrs. L. C. Lane be carried out.

That a suitable library building be erected in San Francisco and named as provided in said will "The Levi Cooper Lane Library of Medicine and Surgery."

That the library be maintained and conducted on broad lines for the benefit of the general medical profession.

That in event of the breech of any of the above conditions the said property shall go to the State of California for the purposes of medical education.

Resolved that the Secretary be instructed to communicate the above action to the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University.

Very respectfully,
Emmet Rixford, Secretary
Directors of Cooper Medical College

10 March 1908: President Jordan Modifies the Preconditions

President Jordan responded as follows to Dr. Rixford's letter of 27 February:[23]

Office of the President, Leland Stanford Junior University
Stanford University, Cal., 10 March 1908
Dr. Emmet Rixford,
Cooper Medical College
San Francisco, California

Dear Dr. Rixford:
The memorandum sent by you to the Board of Trustees of Stanford University (on 27 February 1908) was placed in my hands. In the form in which it was put, it was impossible for our Board to take action upon it.

As I understand the matter, our Board has formally agreed to receive the property of the Cooper Medical College, and the Lane Library, and to conduct regular instruction in the theory and practice of medicine, using these buildings as the seat of the University Department of Medicine. The work of instruction will begin at the University in Palo Alto at such time that our first class may occupy the buildings in San Francisco as soon as the class to enter Cooper Medical College in 1908 shall graduate. Meanwhile the authorities of the Cooper Medical College will be granted free use of these buildings for medical instruction until 1912, and a fund will be awarded from the present accumulation adequate to make good the necessary deficits, which will arise after elementary instruction ceases. It will also carry out the various trusts of the will of Mrs. Lane. It will also accept the names of the buildings suggested in your letter, and will use the phrase Cooper Medical College Foundation, or some similar phrase you may suggest, in all suitable places where the name of the Medical Department may be printed.

It will also continue the Lane Lectures and the Lane Popular Lectures, after 1912.

All matters of curriculum and personnel of the staff of the Medical Department must be left for the authorities of the University to settle in their own way.

It seems to me that there is no need of a forfeiture clause in the deeds of transfer from your Board to ours. Should such a clause exist, it could be applicable only to (1) our failure to teach medicine, and (2) our failure to carry out the Lane trusts. For both of these, I should think that the public pledge of the Trustees of the University should be sufficient. If a forfeiture clause is adopted, it must be very carefully drawn, and to include only such matters as pertain to the trusts executed by the Lanes, that of training practitioners in medicine being one of these.

In referring to the will of Mrs. Lane, its exact contents should be specified.

After talking with Dr. Barkan and Mr. Davis (President of the Stanford Board of Trustees), it was agreed to withdraw your former letter (of 27 February 1908), leaving the way open for a new statement. On the acceptance of the deed of gift, I am sure that our Board will pass the other matters, pledging itself as to the trusts, the names of the buildings and the Lane Lectures.

Very truly yours,
David S. Jordan

14 March 1908: Cooper Directors Accept President Jordan's Modifications

On 11 March 1908 a special meeting of the Cooper Directors was called to consider the letter from President Jordan to Secretary. Rixford of 10 March 1908 containing information of importance relative to the proposed amalgamation of Cooper Medical College and Stanford University. The Directors instructed Dr. Rixford to reply as follows to President Jordans' letter: [24][25]

San Francisco, 14 March 1908

Dear President Jordan:
Your letter of March 10th was duly presented to the Directors of Cooper College at a meeting called for the purpose of considering the same. The Directors felt that the differences between their desires and your understanding of the arrangement to be made were in reality very slight and easily to be adjusted. To this end they instructed me to arrange for a meeting with you and Mr. Davis at your convenience in Cooper College building say on Tuesday or Thursday afternoon next. May I ask you to let me know by telegraph or telephone whether one of these days would be convenient for you?

Very respectfully,
Emmet Rixford, Secretary
Directors of Cooper Medical College

27 March 1908: Trustees Endorse President Jordan's Version of Preconditions

Pursuant to the further consultation between Cooper Directors and Stanford Trustees called for in Secretary Rixford's letter of 14 March, the Stanford Trustees adopted the following resolution at their meeting on 27 March 1908:[26]

Resolved that the Board approve the statement prepared by the President of the University relative to the impending transfer of the Cooper Medical College properties to the University, which has been informally agreed to by the respective boards of trustees, as amended by the President of the Board, and that the substance of the statement worded in the same tentative manner be inserted in the Annual Register now in press.

The "substance of the statement" referred to above represented, in effect, a public announcement of the pending consolidation of Cooper Medical College with Stanford University. It was printed in May 1908 in the Annual Register of Stanford University for 1907-1908 as follows:[27]

Medicine

Arrangements are virtually completed by which the property of Cooper Medical College, founded by Dr. Levi Cooper Lane, will be turned over to Stanford University to serve as the clinical branch of the Department of Stanford University.

The property thus transferred includes the Medical College Building, the landed and other endowment, the Lane Medical Library, Lane Hospital, Lane Hall, and other properties and endowments.

The present classes at Cooper Medical College will continue their work and receive their degrees from Cooper Medical College.

It is anticipated that the University will require for admission to its Department of Medicine three years of premedical work, or the present first three years required of students having Physiology as a major subject. The first part of the course in Medicine will be given at the University. The concluding years will be given at the present buildings of Cooper Medical College in San Francisco, these being devoted chiefly to clinical studies. Formal medical instruction is expected to begin at the University not later than 1910 (later changed to 1909).

26 June 1908: President of Stanford Trustees Authorized to Proceed with Consolidation

As a result of further exchanges between the Cooper Directors and Stanford Trustees, the Trustees adopted the following resolution at their meeting on 26 June 1908: [28]

Upon motion of Trustee Crothers, seconded by Trustee Eells, it was resolved that the President of the Board of Trustees be authorized and directed to take all necessary steps toward the acceptance of, and to accept any conveyances of Cooper Medical College properties; to execute all instruments in the premises on behalf of the Board of Trustees and to carry out in detail the resolution of the Board of Trustees heretofore adopted in the premises.

10 August 1908: Cooper Directors Facilitate Consolidation

Although the President of the Stanford Trustees was now "authorized and directed to take all necessary steps" to effect consolidation, implementation continued to lag. Still lacking was a precise and mutually agreed statement of the specific commitments and responsibilities to be undertaken by each of the parties.

To complete this essential stage of the consolidation process, Dr. E. R. Taylor, now President of Cooper Medical College, who was also an attorney, drafted the following two resolutions:

Resolution A: A statement detailing the commitments to be fulfilled by the University upon transfer to it of the property and other assets of Cooper Medical College.

Resolution B: A statement by the Directors of Cooper Medical College of the rationale for transfer of the College property to the University, and of their agreement to transfer the property to the University pursuant to the commitments detailed in Resolution A.

On 10 August 1908 a special meeting of the Directors of Cooper Medical College was convened to consider these resolutions:[29]

Those present were President Taylor in the Chair and Directors Gibbons, Stillman and Rixford, absent Director Barkan who was out of the State.

Resolutions A and B, previously prepared by President Taylor, were adopted. and Secretary Rixford was directed to communicate the same to the Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University informing them that upon their adoption of Resolution A the Directors of Cooper Medical College would adopt Resolution B.

In accordance with the above decision by the Directors, Resolutions A and B were forwarded to Mr. George E Crothers, Secretary of the Stanford Trustees, on 13 August 1908:

San Francisco, August 13th 1908
Mr. George E. Crothers, Secretary
Board of Trustees, Leland Stanford Junior University.

Dear Secretary Crothers:
I have the honor to inform you that at a meeting of the Directors of Cooper Medical College on August 10th 1908 it was unanimously resolved that the Secretary be instructed to transmit to the Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University the attached Resolution A and Resolution B with the statement that:

On the adoption by the Stanford Trustees of Resolution A, the Directors of Cooper Medical College will adopt Resolution B.

I would say in addition that the Directors after mature consideration deem it best that the deeds of transfer of said properties be absolute on their face and bear no conditions.

Very respectfully,
Emmet Rixford, Secretary
Cooper Medical College

31 October 1908: Stanford Trustees Adopt Resolution A

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College on 5 November 1908, the following communication from Mr. Crothers, Secretary of the Board of Trustees of Stanford University, was received and spread on the minutes: [30][31]

San Francisco, California, 31 October 1908
Dr. Emmet Rixford, Secretary
Cooper Medical College

Dear Secretary Rixford:
I have the honor to inform you that at the regular monthly meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, . . . .the thirtieth day of October 1908,. . . .it was unanimously resolved that the following resolution be adopted in response to and in compliance with the Resolutions adopted by Cooper Medical College on August tenth 1908 as set forth in your communications as Secretary of Cooper Medical College dated August 13th 1908:

Resolution A

Whereas, Cooper Medical College, a corporation created and organized for the purpose of medical education under the laws of the State of California, and having its college buildings in the City and County of San Francisco in said State is about to convey and transfer to the Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University all the properties, both real and personal, wheresoever the same may be situated now belonging to said college to the end that all the said properties may be used by the medical department of said university for the purposes of medical education;

Now, therefore, be it resolved that we as such Trustees do accept all and singular said properties, to be used as aforesaid, including the erection and maintenance by us of a library building and library in said City and County of San Francisco said library building to be named the Levi Cooper Lane Library of Medicine and Surgery, as provided for by the will of Pauline C. Lane, and to the extent of the properties and their proceeds bequeathed to Cooper Medical College by said will for the said purpose and that all the diplomas issued by said university to those who have taken the course in said medical department shall bear upon their face the words "founded as Cooper Medical College by Levi Cooper Lane."

And it is further resolved that in the event any of the said buildings together with the lands on which they stand are sold by said Trustees then and in such event other buildings shall be erected out of the proceeds of such sale (said buildings to be used for the purpose of medical education), and on their walls shall be placed such tablets as shall in appropriate language perpetuate the name of Levi Cooper Lane;

And it is resolved, that said Trustees will maintain a perpetual fund for the maintenance of the Lane Medical Lectures, not to exceed $50,000 out of the moneys which may be transferred to said Trustees for said purpose.

Very respectfully,
George E. Crothers, Secretary
Board of Trustees of
Leland Stanford Junior University

23 November 1908: Cooper Directors Adopt Resolution B

In response to the adoption of Resolution A by the Stanford Trustees, the Directors of Cooper Medical College adopted Resolution B.[32]

San Francisco, November 23, 1908
Mr. Geo. E. Crothers, Secretary,
Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University.

Dear Secretary Crothers:
. . . .At a special meeting of the Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College your communication of October 31, 1908 announcing adoption of Resolution A by the Stanford Trustees was presented to the Directors.. . . .

On motion duly seconded and put to vote and unanimously adopted the said communication was ordered spread upon the minutes.

On motion of Director Gibbons, seconded by Director Stillman, the following resolution was put to vote and was unanimously adopted:

Resolution B

Whereas, Levi Cooper Lane, founder of Cooper Medical College, erected, pursuant to said foundation, college and hospital buildings which have for a number of years been used by Cooper Medical College, for purposes of medical education; and

Whereas, pursuant to said foundation, said Levi Cooper Lane, conveyed to said Cooper Medical College all of said buildings together with the land on which said buildings were erected; and

Whereas, after the expiration of a number of years after said properties had been conveyed as aforesaid, said Levi Cooper Lane departed this life leaving a last will and testament wherein and whereby all of his property he had not conveyed as aforesaid was left to his widow, Pauline Cook Lane; and

Whereas, within six months after the death of said Levi Cooper Lane, his said widow departed this life leaving a last will and testament, wherein and whereby she bequeathed to said Cooper Medical College a third part of all her property, both real and personal, to said Cooper Medical College for the purpose of erecting and maintaining a library, said Library Building to be named the Levi Cooper Lane Library of Medicine and Surgery; and

Whereas, ever since the foundation of said Medical College, and up to the present time the aforesaid properties conveyed to said College have been used and are now being used for the purpose of medical education; and

Whereas, before the death of said Levi Cooper Lane as aforesaid, said Lane came to the realization that by reason of said College having no endowment fund, and the further fact that medical education had reached such a high state of development that many of the members of the faculty would be required to devote their whole time to their professional duties, and by reason thereof would require salaries to be paid them and by reason of the further fact that the fees derived from the students would be wholly inadequate to pay such salaries and meet the other expenses of the College; and

Whereas, by reason of these facts said Lane fearing that the aforesaid foundation would at no distant time be brought to an end and the main object of his life frustrated, deemed it prudent and necessary to have some University of approved high standing and of great financial resources to take over said College as the medical department of said University, to the end that said College might be perpetuated as a great instrument in the cause of medical education and to that end had various interviews with David Starr Jordan, President of the Leland Stanford Junior University, with the view of having the aforesaid College become the Medical Department of said University; and

Whereas, said Lane died before the said object could be accomplished; and

Whereas, since his death and pursuant to his wishes, aforesaid in that regard, and the wishes of said Pauline Cook Lane, and realizing that the perpetuity of said College as an instrumentality of medical education depended for such perpetuity upon the consolidation of said College with said University, the Directors and Members of said College have promoted such consolidation; and

Whereas, the Directors and Members of said College fully realize that the highest development of medical education requires that the medical school be an integral part of a university; and

Whereas, the Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University have manifested their desire to take over the said properties and use the same as they have heretofore been used and are now being used, to maintain said College in perpetuity as a medical institution and carry out all the wishes of the aforesaid Levi Cooper Lane and said Pauline Cook Lane including the erection and maintenance of the aforesaid Library and to maintain and perpetuate the name of said Lane in connection with the said College, and have passed a resolution to that effect; and

Whereas, said Leland Stanford Junior University is an institution of the highest standing and of such financial resources as to enable it to bring and to keep said College up to the front rank of medical colleges;

Now therefore be it resolved that the President and Secretary of this College be and they are hereby authorized and directed to convey and transfer in the name of said College to the Trustees of said Leland Stanford Junior University all the properties both real and personal now belonging to said College wheresoever the same may be situated and to do all that may be necessary to put said Trustees in possession of the whole of said properties.

Very respectfully,
Emmet Rixford, Secretary
Cooper Medical College

25 November 1908: Stanford Trustees Affirm Adoption of Resolutions A and B

In effect, the following letter from Secretary Crothers asserts that both Resolutions A and B have been duly adopted by both parties, thus clearing the way for the final step in the process of consolidation - that is, actual delivery by the Cooper Directors to the Stanford Board of Trustees of a deed of conveyance of the entire holdings of the Cooper Medical College Corporation. [33]

Office of Secretary, Stanford Board of Trustees
San Francisco, 25 November 1908
Dr. Emmet Rixford, Secretary
Cooper Medical College

Dear Secretary Rixford:
I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 23 November 1908 in which you inform the Stanford Trustees that my communication of 31 October 1908, advising your Board of Directors of the adoption by the Stanford Trustees of (Resolution A), was presented to your Board of Directors and was unanimously adopted.

I also acknowledge receiving the information in your communication of 23 November 1908 that the Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College have unanimously adopted (Resolution B), of which a copy is set forth in your communication.

George E. Crothers, Secretary
Board of Trustees,
Leland Stanford Junior University

December 1908: Stanford Trustees Grant Free Use of Cooper Facilities to Cooper Faculty until 1 July 1912

Cooper Directors and Stanford Trustees had decided much earlier that the last class of students would be admitted to Cooper Medical College in 1908 and would graduate in June 1912. In order to accommodate this final class, the Stanford Trustees agreed for the College Faculty to use the College and Hospital facilities without charge until 1 July 1912. It was further agreed that on that date all Cooper properties would become part of the Medical Department of Stanford University. The following resolution providing for this prior arrangement was finally adopted by the Stanford Trustees on 18 December 1908 as confirmed in the following letter: [34]

Board of Trustees
Leland Stanford Junior University
18 December 1908

Dear Secretary Rixford:
I have the honor to inform you that, at the regular monthly meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford University. . . it was unanimously resolved that the following resolution be adopted:

Whereas, Cooper Medical College, pursuant to agreement with the Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University, is about to convey to said Trustees all of the property, real and personal, and whereas, as one of the considerations of said transfer it has been agreed by said Trustees that said College should remain in possession of all its said property until the first day of July 1912, and shall until said time manage all of said property and retain the income thereof; and shall, at said time, and not before, turn over to said Trustees all of the property of said College then in the hands of said College;

Now therefore be it resolved by the Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University that said Cooper Medical College shall have the right to remain in possession of the whole of the aforesaid property until the first day of July 1912, and shall, until said time, manage all of said property and retain the income thereof, and shall at said time, and not before, turn over to said Trustees all of the property of said College then in the hands of said College including all accumulated and unexpended income; and shall in the meantime from such income or funds applicable to current expenses pay all taxes, salaries, improvements, maintenance charges, insurance and all other current or extraordinary expenses of said college.

Yours Respectfully,
George Crothers, Secretary of the Board

17 December 1909: Cooper Property Legally Transferred to Stanford University

For a period of over one year (November 1908 to December 1909), no action was taken by the Cooper Directors or the Stanford Trustees on the projected consolidation of Cooper Medical College and Stanford University. This delay in effecting the actual transfer of the Cooper property to the University was the result of a law suit filed by Dr. Ellinwood against the Cooper Medical College Corporation seeking to enforce partition on his terms of the real estate awarded jointly to him and the Corporation in the will of Pauline Lane. After the parties agreed to settle by arbitration, the Cooper Directors could finally meet on 17 December 1909 to adopt the following resolution conveying the properties of Cooper Medical College Corporation to Stanford University:[35]

Meeting of Directors, Cooper Medical College, 17 December 1909

The following resolution was unanimously adopted:

Resolved that the President and Secretary of this Corporation, Cooper Medical College, . . .are hereby authorized. . . . . .to deliver to the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University the instrument in writing already prepared, and now submitted to and approved by this Board, being in form a deed of conveyance bearing date December 17th 1909, of all the lands once owned by this Corporation in the City and County of San Francisco, State of California, and in the Counties of Fresno and Los Angeles, in said State and wheresoever else situated: A copy of said instrument, including a complete inventory of the Cooper properties, is spread upon the following 16 pages of these minutes.)

The attorneys for Stanford University, having reviewed and validated the above deed of conveyance, then reported to the Stanford Board of Trustees that Cooper Medical College had duly transferred to the Board all of the real and personal properties of the College in a Deed and Bill of Sale dated 17 December 1909. Whereupon all the properties of Cooper Medical College were, on motion, formally accepted by the Stanford Board of Trustees, and became the property of Stanford University.

The attorneys for the Board were instructed to have the deed surveying the real estate duly recorded in the Offices of the County Recorders of the City and County of San Francisco and the Counties of Los Angeles and Fresno. Said Deed and Bill of Sale were ordered spread in full upon the minutes of the Board of Trustees and may be found there for reference.

In accordance with the prior agreement to loan the Cooper facilities to Cooper Faculty for continuation of their College program through June 1912, full physical possession by the University of that portion of the Cooper properties was delayed until 1 July 1912. On that date the succession of memorable institutions that celebrated the ideals and efforts of Elias Samuel Cooper and Levi Cooper Lane - second to none in the annals of medical education in the West - merged with Stanford University and became the historical antecedents of its School of Medicine.

And the consolidation of Cooper Medical College and Stanford united two institutions, each dedicated to the memory of a dearly beloved and to the service of mankind.

In the beginning, medical education in the West was born of the aspirations of a few remarkable men - Cooper, Gibbons, Sr., and Lane - Toland and Cole. May this account of their labors revive the memory of their achievements and crucial roles in the founding of the first and still thriving medical schools on the Pacific rim.

Endnotes

  1. Letter, President Jordan to Dr. Ophüls, 20 February 1906, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909, Folder Q-Z, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford.
  2. Letter, William Ophüls to David Starr Jordan, 22 February 1906 - Box 48, Folder 482, Series I-A General Correspondence, 1872-1931, David Starr Jordan Papers - SC 58, Stanford University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  3. Letter, President Jordan to Dr. Ophüls, 24 February 1906, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909, Folder Q-Z, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford.
  4. Letter, President Jordan to Dr. Ophüls, 5 March 1906, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909, Folder Q-Z, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford.
  5. Letter, William Ophüls to David Starr Jordan, 7 March 1906 - Box 48, Folder 484, Series I-A General Correspondence, 1872-1931, David Starr Jordan Papers - SC 58, Stanford University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  6. Letter, Clarence J. Blake to David Starr Jordan, 17 September 1902 - Box 33, Folder 326, Series I-A General Correspondence, 1872-1931, David Starr Jordan Papers - SC 58, Stanford University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  7. Henry K. Beecher and Mark D. Altschule , Medicine at Harvard: The First Three Hundred Years (Hanover NH: University Press of New England, 1977), p. 135. Lane Library Catalog Record
  8. Letter, Clarence J. Blake to David Starr Jordan, 18 March 1906 - Box 48, Folder 486, Series I-A General Correspondence, 1872-1931, David Starr Jordan Papers - SC 58, Stanford University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  9. Letter, Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur to President Jordan, undated draft, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909, Folder Q-Z, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford.
  10. Orrin Leslie Elliott , Stanford University: The First Twenty-five Years (Stanford University, California: Stanford University Press, 1937), p.538. Lane Library Catalog Record
  11. Orrin Leslie Elliott , Stanford University: The First Twenty-five Years (Stanford University , California: Stanford University Press, 1937), p.538. Lane Library Catalog Record
  12. Letter, William Ophüls to David Starr Jordan, 29 May 1906 - Box 49, Folder 495, Series I-A General Correspondence, 1872-1931, David Starr Jordan Papers - SC 58, Stanford University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  13. Minutes of Board of Trustees, August 1, 1906, Vol. 2, pp. 361-362, Records, 1884-2000 - SC 282, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  14. Minutes of 13 August 1906, Minutes of Directors of Cooper Medical College, Lane Medical Library. Lane Medical Archives Stanford University Medical Center. Volume 2, pp.260-262.
  15. Orrin Leslie Elliott , Stanford University: The First Twenty-five Years (Stanford University, California: Stanford University Press, 1937), p.538. Lane Library Catalog Record
  16. George E. Crothers et al, Report of Stanford Trustees Special Committee on Consolidation with Cooper Medical College, 1 November 1906, Stanford University Business Office Correspondence, 1906-1913 - SCM 057, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.
  17. Letter, Emmet Rixford to President Horace Davis, 16 February 1907, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909 Folder Q-Z. Lane Medical Library Lane Medical Archives MSS H747H C7C81.
  18. Letter, David S. Jordan to Stanford Board of Trustees, 14 September 1907, Stanford University Business Office Correspondence, 1906-13 - SCM 057, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  19. Orrin Leslie Elliott , Stanford University: The First Twenty-five Years (Stanford University, California: Stanford University Press, 1937), p.538. Lane Library Catalog Record
  20. Letter, Timothy Hopkins to Stanford Board of Trustees, 13 November 1907, Stanford University Business Office Correspondence, 1906-13 - SCM 057, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford.
  21. Cooper Medical College Consolidation, Minutes of the Board of Trustees of Stanford University 1908 31 Jan, vol. 3: pp. 324-5, Records, 1884-2000 - SC 282, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.
  22. Minutes of Meeting of Directors of Cooper Medical College on 27 February 1908, pp. 8-9, Minutes of Directors of Cooper Medical College, Vol. 3 - Box 5, Cooper Medical College Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Lane Library Catalog Record
  23. Letter, President Jordan to Secretary Rixford, 10 March 1908, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909 Folder Q-Z. Lane Medical Library Lane Medical Archives MSS H747H C7C81.
  24. Minutes of Meeting of Directors of Cooper Medical College on 11 March 1908, p, 50, Minutes of Directors of Cooper Medical College, Vol. 3 - Box 5, Cooper Medical College Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Lane Library Catalog Record
  25. Letter, Secretary Rixford to President Jordan, 14 March 1908, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909 Folder Q-Z. Lane Medical Library Lane Medical Archives MSS H747H C7C81.
  26. Cooper Medical College Consolidation, Minutes of the Board of Trustees of Stanford University 1908 27 Mar; vol. 3: p. 272, Records, 1884-2000 - SC 282, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.
  27. Seventeenth Annual Register, 1907-08, Leland Stanford Junior University (Stanford University, Cal.: Published by the University, May 1908), p.173.
  28. Cooper Medical College Consolidation, Minutes of the Board of Trustees of Stanford University 1908 26 Jun; vol. 4: p.41, Records, 1884-2000 - SC 282, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.
  29. Minutes of Meeting of Directors of Cooper Medical College on 10 August 1908, pp. 67-73, Minutes of Directors of Cooper Medical College, Vol. 3 - Box 5, Cooper Medical College Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Lane Library Catalog Record
  30. Minutes of Meeting of Directors of Cooper Medical College on 5 November 1908, pp. 78-81, Minutes of Directors of Cooper Medical College, Vol. 3 - Box 5, Cooper Medical College Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Lane Library Catalog Record
  31. Cooper Medical College Consolidation, Minutes of the Board of Trustees of Stanford University 1908 30 Oct; vol. 4: pp. 85-87, Records, 1884-2000 - SC 282, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.
  32. Cooper Medical College Consolidation, Minutes of the Board of Trustees of Stanford University December 4 1908, Vol. 4, pp. 113-116, Records, 1884-2000 - SC 282, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.
  33. Letter, Secretary Crothers of Stanford Trustees to Secretary Rixford of Cooper Directorate, 25 November 1908, Cooper Medical College Correspondence, Miscellaneous, Feb 1908-July 1909 Folder Q-Z. Lane Medical Library Lane Medical Archives MSS H747H C7C81.
  34. Letter, George Crothers to Emmet Rixford, 18 December 1910, Board of Trustees, Board meeting supporting documents, 1905-1975 - SC 27, Box 5, Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.
  35. Minutes of Meeting of Directors of Cooper Medical College on 17 December 1909, pp. 116-133, Minutes of Directors of Cooper Medical College, Vol. 3 - Box 5, Cooper Medical College Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Lane Library Catalog Record
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