Stanford University School of Medicine and the Predecessor Schools: An Historical Perspective
Part III. Founding of First Medical School and Successions 1858-

Chapter 21. Revival of Medical Department University of the Pacific 1870

Founding of Medical Department University of California 1873

On the evening of May 23rd 1870, barely six weeks before the scheduled opening of the Seventh Annual Session of Toland Medical College, an historic meeting was convened in the office of Dr. Gibbons at 26 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. Those present were Drs. Henry Gibbons, Levi Lane, Thomas Price, Beverly Cole and Henry Gibbons, Jr. The minutes of the meeting read:[1]

Drs. Gibbons, Lane and Price announced their intention to resign within a few days from the Faculty of Toland Medical College, if it were decided to revive the old Medical School.

After some conversation as to the best course to pursue, Dr. Gibbons moved that it be considered expedient to revive the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. Seconded by Dr. Cole and carried unanimously.

Following this meeting, Drs. Gibbons, Lane and Price submitted their resignations from the Toland College.

Dr. John F. Morse, who was still recuperating in Europe, elected to join Drs. Gibbons, Lane and Price and sent his letter of resignation to Dr. Toland from there.[2][3]

We do not know what precipitated the decision of Drs. Gibbons, Lane, Price and Morse to resign. Dr. Gibbons was diplomatically vague: "Several years have elapsed, and the hopes entertained by the (Medical Department) Faculty when they withdrew from the field have not been realized." There are also "additional causes," he said, which it would be unprofitable to mention.

We can only speculate as to the "additional causes" which led to the abrupt exodus of the Cooper followers. It is reasonable to assume that Drs. Lane and Gibbons were deeply offended by the disdain with which Cooper's pioneer school and its lingering shadow within the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal were viewed by Toland, Bennett and others like-minded. Gibbons and Lane resented being considered outsiders, invited to join the Toland Faculty only at the behest of the Cooper students whose loyalty, incidentally, they still retained. As the years passed, it became increasingly clear that the Toland School was simply an extension of the bitter factional rivalry that Cooper endured. They suspected that Toland and his inner circle had two goals in mind: to be rid of the last vestiges of the Cooper institution (including the former Cooper professors), and to acquire the imprimatur of the State of California for the Toland College. When Lane and Gibbons were finally convinced of these aims, they acted decisively to revive the Cooper school to whose ideals of sound learning and independence they were still committed.[4]

Special News Bulletin

We interrupt the narrative here to interpose, without comment, two items of "Personal News" that appeared in PMSJ for May 1870:[5]

  • The (first) State Board of Health, as appointed by Governor Haight, consists of Drs. T. M. Logan and J. F. Montgomery, of Sacramento; H. Gibbons, Sr., and L. C. Lane of San Francisco; etc. The Board met at Sacramento on 22 April 1870 and elected Dr. Gibbons, President, and Dr. Logan, Secretary.
  • Dr. L. C. Lane, of San Francisco, was married on the 16th of March 1870, to Mrs. P. C. Cook, of the same city. (At the time of their marriage, Dr. Lane was 41 and. Mrs. Cook was 33 years of age.)[6]

Reorganization of the Medical Department, University of the Pacific

As a memorable example of patience and loyalty, all seven physician-members of the Faculty of the Medical Department, as it stood at the conclusion of the Sixth Session of the Department in 1864, promptly responded to the call to reunite. Once the decision was made to reopen the school, reorganization proceeded at a hectic pace, with Dr. Gibbons assuming the major role in planning. The Faculty met five times during the last ten days in May 1870, and five times in June to elect officers; recruit five new members; design the curriculum; acquire facilities; publish announcements; and reinstate the Medical Department with the Board of Trustees of the University of the Pacific. All meetings were held in the office of Dr. Gibbons.

Faculty

It was rapidly determined that the reorganized Faculty would consist of the following twelve professors:[7]

Faculty Medical Department, University of the Pacific 1870

  • A. J. Bowie, MD, Emeritus Professor of Surgery, and President of the Faculty
  • J. F. Morse, MD, Emeritus Professor of the Principles and Practice of Medicine
  • J. P. Whitney, MD, Emeritus Professor of Physiology
  • Henry Gibbons, M. D., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Medicine, and Clinical Medicine
  • L. C. Lane, M. D., Professor of Surgery and Surgical Anatomy, and Clinical Surgery
  • Edwin Bentley, M. D., Professor of Descriptive and Microscopic Anatomy and Pathology
  • R. Beverly Cole, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women
  • Isaac Rowell, M. D., Professor of Diseases of Genito-Urinary Organs, and Orthopedic Surgery
  • C. N. Ellinwood, M. D., Professor of Physiology
  • W. F. Smith, M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology
  • Thomas Price, M. D., Professor Chemistry and Toxicology
  • Henry Gibbons, Jr., M. D., Dean, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics

The Faculty now included five more physicians than when the school was inactivated in 1864. The new members were Drs. Bentley, Smith, Price, Ellinwood and Henry Gibbons, Jr. We know little of Drs. Bentley and Smith except that the former received an M. D. from the University of the City of New York in 1847, and the latter from Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, in 1868. We have already met Dr. Price as Professor of Chemistry in Toland College. He is listed as an "M. D." in both Toland College and Medical Department announcements but we can find no record of his medical degree or of his having engaged in medical practice. Dr. Ellinwood probably arrived in San Francisco after 1859 for he is not listed in the California State Register for that year[8], but he is recorded in the San Francisco News Letter for 10 July 1875 as a graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, in 1858.[9] Dr. Ellinwood will come later to our special attention when he succeeds to the Presidency of Cooper Medical College upon the death of Dr. Lane in 1902.

Henry Gibbons, Jr. (1840-1911)

see larger image »

A photo of Henry Gibbons, Jr. (1840-1911)

Of all the new recruits to the Faculty, the thirty year-old Henry Gibbons, Jr., (1840-1911), graduate of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific in 1863, contributed most to the school in the long term. He was elected Dean at the Faculty meeting held on 1 June 1870, and served in that capacity with a kindly proficiency until his death forty-one years later.[10]

Curriculum

The primary reason for expansion of the Faculty was to improve coverage of recent advances in the science and practice of medicine, with special reference to Microscopic Anatomy and Pathology (Professor Bentley); Ophthalmology and Otology (Professor Smith); and Genito-Urinary Diseases (Professor Rowell).

In keeping with the national movement to raise the standards of medical education, the Faculty lengthened the term of instruction from four to five months (July through November) with a vacation of two weeks late in the term. This increase in the duration of the term was, of course, a very modest advance and fell far short of the changes being advocated by the American Medical Association to which we have previously referred.[11]

Requirements for graduation

These continued to be the same as in preceding years except that the candidate now also "must have attended at least one course of practical anatomy in the dissecting room."[12]

Fees

The fees for the 1870 Session were set to conform with those of the Toland Medical College and were slightly lower than in 1864:[13]

Fees for the Full Course:$ 130 (formerly $140)
Matriculation Fee (paid but once):$ 5
Graduation Fee:$ 40 (formerly $ 50)
Demonstrator's Ticket (dissection fee):$ 10

Facilities

Arrangements were made for the lectures to be given in the Chapel of the University (City) College. The Chapel was located on Stockton Street, south of Geary, adjoining the extensive laboratory of Professor Price which was employed to illustrate the chemical lectures. Ample means for dissection were provided and the wards of St. Mary's Hospital were, as before suspension of the school, made available for clinical instruction.[14]

Annual Session for 1870 Medical Department, University of the Pacific
5 July to 7 December[15]

The stage was now set for a protracted contest for supremacy in medical education in the West between the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific and Toland Medical College. As we shall see, the rivalry between the two schools (and their successors) continued - in varied form and degree - until one of them moved to the Stanford campus some ninety years later.

The competition for students between the Medical Department and the Toland College began at once. Editor Stillman of the California Medical Gazette weighed in urgently with advice on the subject:[16]

Toland College. Owing to a misunderstanding in the Faculty, the merits of which we know nothing, Professors Morse, Gibbons, Lane and Price have resigned their chairs. We understand that these gentlemen are to reorganize the medical department of the University of the Pacific. There is no necessity for two medical schools on this coast, and we hope the students will have the good sense to carefully investigate the merits of the quarrel in the Faculty, and support by their united presence the gentlemen whom they consider in the right. If the students make the great mistake to divide, they will but prolong a struggle productive of no good, and which must sooner or later end in the suspension of one school. We earnestly urge the students to support unanimously, one or other of the schools.

The students took Dr. Stillman's advice. However, in view of his partiality to the Toland School, their decision was a considerable surprise and disappointment to him. All of the students but one left the Toland College and matriculated in the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific where the Class of 1870 consisted of twenty-five students.[17][18][19]

Dr. Gibbons, Sr., gave the Introductory Lecture for the Medical Department on 5 July 1870 and took this opportunity to challenge Toland on another front. He knew that Toland was negotiating to have his College adopted by the recently established University of California as its Medical Department. Toland foresaw that such a move would improve not only the academic stature of his College but also the prospect of future political and financial support from the State. Gibbons, claiming that the government should not favor one medical school in the State over another, proposed that the University of California should serve only an impartial quality-assurance function such as that performed in England by London University where medical examinations were conducted and degrees conferred by a Board under the supervision of the University, whereas medical teaching was carried out in the various medical schools of the country. We shall return shortly to the recommendation along these lines submitted by the Faculty of the Medical Department to the Regents of the University of California.[20]

Medical Department versus Toland Medical College

A life and death struggle for survival between the Medical Department and the Toland School began during the Session for 1870 and continued through 1873. In order to follow the complicated maneuvers of the two schools during this critical period, about which there is considerable confusion in the literature, we shall at this point provide a chronological account of the major events in the contest.

Toland Medical College Reorganizes and Appeals to the University of California

The resignation of Professors Gibbons, Lane, Price and Morse, and the desertion of all but one of the students to the Medical Department, was for Toland a serious reverse. According to a later account of the events, "Dr. Toland besought Drs. Lane and Gibbons to let bygones be bygones and to come back into the Toland school, but it was characteristic of both these strong men not to retrace a step once taken - and besides they had the students."[21]

The letters of resignation from Drs. Gibbons, Lane and Price were reported to the Toland Faculty at the meeting for June 1870 as follows:[22]

Letters were read from Drs. Lane, Price and Gibbons tendering their resignations and assigning no reason therefor.

On motion the resignations were accepted.

During this meeting, Dr. Toland seized the opportunity to appoint to his decimated Faculty two professors from the University of California who could aid substantially in establishing ties with the University. Professor John Le Conte, chair of Physics and Acting President of the University was appointed as Professor of Physiology, replacing Dr. Ayer. Ezra S. Carr, also a professor in the University, was appointed Professor of Chemistry, replacing Dr. Price.

Also during this meeting:[23]

(Dean Bennett) was instructed to petition the Regents of the University of California to receive the Faculty and School of Toland Medical College by affiliation as the Medical Department of the State University and to offer a conveyance by Deed from the Faculty, of their land, college and its appurtenances to the Regents on behalf of the University.

Concurrently, the Board of Trustees of Toland Medical College, through its President, John B. Felton, and its Secretary, Ira P. Rankin, informed the Regents of its readiness to convey the College property, represented by valuable improved real estate including the new College building in the City of San Francisco.[24]

Counter Proposal from Medical Department, University of the Pacific

At a meeting of the Medical Department Faculty on 9 July 1870, the contemplated union of the Toland School and the University of California was discussed and a committee was appointed to confer on a plan of action. At the Faculty meeting on 18 July, Dr. Gibbons read the following statement which was signed by all members of the Faculty and submitted to the Regents of the University. Dr. Stillman published the entire statement in the August 1870 issue of the Gazette, and added his pungent comments:[25]

To the President and Board of Regents of the University of California - The Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific beg leave to submit to your consideration the following statements and suggestions in regard to medical degrees and medical education in the State of California:

The facility with which degrees are obtained in many American medical Colleges has lowered the standard of education in medicine and much impaired the value of a diploma as a criterion of professional qualification. For a number of years the earnest educators of our country have labored to correct the evil so that a diploma shall be what it proposes. But in the old States, where the schools have been long established, it is almost impossible to effect any radical change in this respect; nor is it at all probable that much improvement will take place so long as each school has the power of conferring degrees on its pupils. We believe an opportunity is now offered, through the University of California, to make a thorough reform on this coast by providing that all medical degrees shall issue from one common source, under the authority of the University.

We, therefore, propose that the University shall take such a position as will enable it to control this entire question. It may not be practicable to carry out the movement at once. But such steps may be taken as shall lead to the establishment of an Examining Board, independent of all medical schools, through which all candidates for graduation, from whatever school, shall receive the diploma of the Medical Department of the University of California.

This is the system in operation in the University of London, which is not connected with any educational institution but which stands as an independent and impartial body, examining candidates from the several medical schools of London and elsewhere, and granting diplomas which are universally acknowledged to be an evidence of thorough professional attainments. So satisfactory has been the working of this system that an organized effort is now on foot to place all the medical schools of Great Britain under one common head in this respect, and thus to establish a uniform basis of medical education for the whole kingdom. If this could be done for America, it would be a rich blessing, both to the profession and the community. It is in the power of the University of California to take the initiative in the movement, and not only to confer a signal benefit at home, but to set an example which cannot fail to extend its happy influence to other States of the Union.

There may arise some difficulties in carrying out the proposed plan. But the same may be said of all progressive and reformatory movements. If the Board of Regents should see no way for present action; they can, at least, refrain from any step which will tie their hands and restrain their freedom in the future.

We take the liberty of suggesting to the Board of Regents, that the adoption by them of the Toland College as the exclusive Medical Department of the University, would not only deter them from hereafter taking an independent position on this question, but would be an act of manifest unfairness and injustice toward the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. This is the oldest medical school in California, organized in 1858, under a charter from the first University ever established on the Pacific coast. It struggled through adversity and opposition and, by the unpaid labor of years, proved itself worthy of the success which finally crowned its efforts.

At this juncture the Toland College stepped in to reap the harvest planted by its predecessor. The Faculty of the old school felt that their services in the cause of medical education, and their claims on the profession and on the public, ought not to be thus ignored by their confreres. But rather than exhibit to the world the picture of two schools contending for patronage not sufficient to compensate one, and dividing and distracting the profession in California and still further debasing - it might be - the standard of education, they determined to avoid contention by suspending operations. Most of them, on invitation, attached themselves to the Toland school, and gave it an honest and hearty support.

After several years of trial, for reasons to them satisfactory and cogent, they have withdrawn and re-organized the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. This reorganization has been effected by the old and well tried teachers, and with all the equipment necessary for a complete course of medical instruction, and such as are not possessed by any other school on this coast. Their present class comprises a large majority of the students. They feel that they enjoy the confidence of the profession and of the community. They do not, however for these or any other reasons, claim endorsement or support from the University of California. But they may certainly protest against the University, as an independent and impartial body, representing the entire State, and supposed to act with a single eye to the promotion of every educational enterprise, giving its name and patronage exclusively to a rival institution and making itself a party adverse to the pioneers in an important department of education.

Respectfully, etc. (signatories not listed)

The following editorial remarks by Dr. Stillman are no less than an extended diatribe against the Cooper school. While granting that the suggestion for a Medical Board under the aegis of the University of California was well worthy of consideration by the Regents, he denied that the gentlemen who proposed it were sincere, and claimed that their sole purpose was to prevent an affiliation between the University of California and the Toland College.

We have no patience with the series of falsehoods with which the last half of the protest (from the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific) is made up. It requires an immense amount of cheek to stand up in this community and say that "they enjoy the confidence of the profession and of the community" in their capacity as a medical school. There is and always was a deeply-rooted contempt for what was known as the "Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," alias the "Mission Street School," alias "The Cooper Shop," and for the requirements of the recipients of its diploma. The community still suffers from the infliction of them as medical men upon it. Some of them are recognized as worthy and intelligent members of the profession, but their qualification is due to their own energy of character, and opportunities outside of, and in spite of their college disadvantages. . .

We are not willing to allow history to be so falsified as is done in this memorial, and as evidence of the truth of what we assert respecting this Medical School, we refer to the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. II, page 497, et seq., for what was eleven years ago the true expression of the public sentiment of the profession respecting it. We make room for the following sentence only: "We hope our Atlantic brethren will not be deceived; the Pacific Medical College is now a legitimatized sham - a legal humbug, a chartered advertising medium for the man of whose advertisements we have spoken above. The College is in his infirmary, and all the appurtenances thereunto belonging."

As it was in the beginning it continued to be till the death of its founder, when it lingered a miserable existence for a short time, until Dr. Toland erected the fine building which bears his name, established the school and obtained a charter. . .

The University of the Pacific redivivus is composed of the surviving elements of the old one with some respectable additions who are uninformed of the status of the old school, and have been drawn into a movement that can result in no good to them or serve any good public purpose. It originates in jealousy and revenge, in a rule-or-ruin disposition, in which no one outside of their own clique has any sympathy. The objections that have been urged by many of our most respected physicians against the Toland College cannot be urged by the bolters from it. . .

The University of the Pacific has only an existence on paper; like many of our celebrated mines, it was merely a preemptors claim, staked out, but never improved, and it has not the vitality to throw off any parasitical club that may seek to work under its charter, much less to influence its character or control its conduct - it is therefore wholly irresponsible. . .

There is further criticism along the same lines, but the above selections from his lengthy editorial are sufficient to demonstrate that Stillman, in addition to his inflated perception of himself as spokesman for the local profession, was mesmerized by Toland's fine building and by the assumed advantages to the public of the Toland School's union with the newborn University of California. In his attack on the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, Stillman was so arrogant and defamatory that Gibbons, Sr., felt obliged to reply at once to the gratuitous libels so reminiscent of the anti-Cooper cabal. The following are excerpts from Gibbons' editorial entitled "Slander Repelled" published in the September 1870 issue of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal:[26]

It is with great reluctance that we deviate from our settled policy on the present occasion, for the purpose of noticing an unprovoked and malevolent attack made by the editor of the California Medical Gazette, on the private and professional character of a large number of gentlemen, including the Faculty and graduates of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific.

The occasion for the attack was a communication made to the Regents of the State University, by the Faculty, urging them to organize the medical department of that University distinct from any medical school, and to appoint an impartial board of examiners for conferring degrees, so as to take away from all medical schools the power of granting diplomas. The assailant denounces this document as containing "a series of falsehoods," and its signers as having "an immense amount of cheek," "audacity," "jealousy and revenge," "a rule-or-ruin disposition," and so forth. He speaks of the "scorn which they could not have failed to read in the faces of all right-minded men at home, and whom they have had to confront in their daily rounds." He says there is, and always was, a deeply-rooted contempt for the school and its graduates. And as "evidence of the truth" of this assertion, he quotes from the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal, eleven years ago, when the school was but just founded, an article abusive of its founder, written, as he well knew, by an individual who was engaged in an acrimonious public quarrel with Professor Cooper.

How much confidence the editor placed in the Journal as authority, may be inferred from the fact that, near the same time, he published a pamphlet attacking its then proprietor, the first sentence of which was an apology to all "gentlemen" for having allowed himself to write an article for it. And now he quotes it to bolster his slanders! The worst feature of the case is, that Cooper, the special subject of vilification, has been in his grave many years. By common consent, his foibles have been forgotten, and his sterling merits alone remembered. There are few men with so much venom in their hearts as to violate the sanctity of the tomb in such a case for the sake of gratifying a vindictive spirit.

It is not our design to answer in extenso the defamatory charges of the editor. In publishing the communication to the Board of Regents, common honesty required the names of the signers to be appended (which Stillman failed to do). But this would have more than neutralized his impeachment of them, and the names were therefore omitted. Perhaps we lack charity in judging him so harshly, without making allowance for an infirmity of temper, which may render it impossible for him to dwell in harmony with the profession. His attack on the San Francisco Medical Society will not be forgotten by the members. The American Medical Association has received its share of his abuse. Now the large and influential denomination having in charge the University of the Pacific, are informed that they are playing a false part, and that the institution has no existence except on paper! After this, the Medical Faculty and the graduates will accept his abuse as a philosophical necessity. . .

There is scope enough for the energies of a journalist in the wide field of medical science, without indulging a peevish and censorious disposition and snarling at every thing and every body that crosses one's path. And these public quarrels are always disreputable to the profession. Editors should wash their dirty linen in private. If the editor of the Gazette could correct his bad habits in this respect, and observe towards his professional brethren the amenities of a gentleman, he would be a better and a happier man, and the profession in California would enjoy greater harmony, and escape much undeserved odium. . .

We must apologize to our readers for introducing these personal matters. Our studied course has been to exclude the personal and controversial from our columns. The subject can not be more distasteful to anyone else than it is to us. Had we alone been interested, we should have observed silence. But dislike it as we may, it is sometimes a necessity of professional life to defile the hands by contact with that which is offensive and filthy.

With this editorial, Dr. Gibbons had the last word in the controversy. We hear no more from Dr. Stillman on the subject because the California Medical Gazette ceased publication with the issue for August 1870 in which his censure of the Medical Department appeared.

Regents of University of California Respond to Toland Medical College

In response to the petition and conveyance from Toland Medical College, the Regents of the University on 2 August 1870 adopted a series of Resolutions defining the terms on which the College would be accepted as the Medical Department of the University. Editor Stillman printed these historic Resolutions in full in the August 1870 issue of the California Medical Gazette:[27][28]

Resolved, That the Regents of the University will accept from the Toland Medical College, a conveyance of the real estate and personal property tendered by the Faculty of said College, subject only to such conditions as may be imposed by the Act organizing the University.

Resolved, That said College shall hereafter be known and designated as "The Medical Department of the University of California."

Resolved, That the several Professors in said Medical Department shall be elected by, and shall hold their office during the pleasure of the Regents of the University; but the Regents will confirm any professor nominated by the Faculty of Medicine, unless cause, good and sufficient, in their estimation, appear for rejection.

Resolved, That the Faculty of Medicine shall have the right to determine the qualifications for the admission of students, to charge such fees as they see proper, to make such regulations not inconsistent with the organic Act for the preservation of order and for the management of the internal affairs of the Medical Department as they may deem best, to determine the course of study, and to examine candidates for a medical diploma.

The Regents will confer degrees upon such students of medicine as may be recommended therefor by the Faculty of the Medical Department, and upon none other.

Resolved, That the Faculty of the Medical Department shall have no power to contract any debt or obligation binding upon the Regents of the University.

All of which is respectfully submitted
Horatio Stebbins,
W. C. Ralston

A disastrous lapse in communications now occurred between the Regents and the Toland school. Neither the Regents nor other parties such as Stillman and the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific were aware that Dr. Toland adamantly opposed the resolution requiring the name of his College to be changed to "Medical Department of the University California," and that he had persuaded the Trustees of the College to refuse transfer of the property to the University on that account.

In his commentary on the above Resolutions, Dr. Stillman predicted that placing the Toland College under the University would give to San Francisco a medical school that would meet the future needs of the Pacific Coast - that the school would benefit the community at large and be of interest to the entire medical profession. The implication was that the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific would be superfluous.

Medical Department of University of California Activated Prematurely

In the mistaken belief that Toland Medical School and its properties had been legally transferred to the University in accordance with the Resolutions they adopted on 2 August 1870, the Regents of the University ordained the Toland Medical College as the "Medical Department of the University of California," and assumed jurisdiction over it.

Acting on the principle that teachers should not be judges of the qualifications of their own pupils, and that the students should be examined by an independent and impartial tribunal as proposed by the Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, the Regents refused to confer the power of final evaluation of the students on the Toland Professors, as the latter requested them to do. Instead, the Regents appointed a Board of fifteen Medical Examiners, six of whom were selected from the Toland Faculty, and not one from among the Professors of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. The injustice of the proceeding was so manifest that most of the appointees outside of the Toland Faculty declined serving. As a result, the Toland Faculty virtually controlled and conducted the final examinations held by the Board of Medical Examiners at the close of the Session for 1870. Only the Toland students participated in the examinations. Upon completion of them, the Degrees were publicly conferred by the University of California. These were the circumstances under which the Medical Department of the University of California was prematurely inaugurated during the Session for 1870.

We have been unable to find a report on the number of medical graduates awarded the M. D. degree by the Board of Medical Examiners at the end of the Session for 1870. It is assumed to be few, if any.

Graduation Ceremony, Annual Session for 1870 Medical Department, University of Pacific

Meanwhile, the Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific examined their own students and held a separate Commencement on December 7th. The Valedictory Address was delivered by Professor William F. Smith. Eight M. D. degrees were awarded, five of them being the M. D. ad eundem, granted to physicians who had previously received an M. D. from another school. Chester Rowell, son of Professor Isaac Rowell, was one of the three medical students who were granted the regular M. D. degree. It was a great loss to the Department when Professor Rowell, a member of the original Faculty in 1859, died only two months later on 4 January 1871.[29]

It was not until this juncture that it was discovered that the College property, the transfer of which was an essential condition of the acceptance of the Toland Medical College as the Medical Department of the University of California, was still in the hands of the Trustees of the College. As mentioned, Toland had persuaded them not to deed the property to the University except on the condition that the College should continue to bear his name. To this the Regents of the University objected, and proceeded to annul the transfer of the Toland Medical College to the University. Whereupon Toland took steps to reorganize his College. The Medical Department of the University of California, essentially bereft of faculty, suspended operation, thus avoiding the absurd prospect of three medical schools in San Francisco.[30]

Beverly Cole Appointed Dean of Toland Medical College

When considering how best to revamp his Faculty, and renew the pursuit of affiliation with the University of California, Dr. Toland was reminded of his old adversary, Beverly Cole. Since returning from Europe in 1865, Cole had become the leading obstetrician in the city and had made widely acclaimed contributions in the public arena. Furthermore, he was thoroughly experienced in medical school affairs and a pillar of the rival Faculty. His forthright and engaging manner, and high profile in the community, made him a leader of just the background and style to energize the Toland Faculty and repair relations with the University. Now grudging mutual respect and common interest overcame past differences. When Toland, with appropriate deference, offered the deanship of the College to Cole, he was attracted by the potential scope of the appointment and promptly accepted.

The resignations of Professors Cole and William F. Smith, both of whom decided to join the Toland School, were reported at the Faculty meeting of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific on 9 February 1871 and unanimously accepted, but not without comment. At the next meeting of the Faculty on 10 March 1871, Dr. Gibbons, Sr., outraged by the defections, introduced the following resolutions. They were adopted unanimously:[31]

Resolved, that the withdrawal of Drs. Cole and Smith from this Faculty after participating in the preparation and distribution of the Announcements for the next Session, and after actual commencement of the extra course of instruction, and for the avowed purpose of giving their support to a rival School, is an act of faithlessness to their colleagues, treason to the School and insult to the Students, and that in view of the solemn obligation which they had voluntarily assumed, to cooperate with their associates in building up a permanent medical college, we consider them guilty of unqualified treachery, and devoid of honor and truth.

Resolved, that the foregoing resolution be placed on the record of the Faculty and a copy of these proceedings be forwarded to the Trustees of the University of the Pacific, with the request that the resignations be accepted, and the suggestion that the name of Dr. R. Beverly Cole be erased from the Board of Trustees.

Dean Beverly Cole's name appears for the first time in the Minutes of the Toland Faculty on 16 March 1871. At this meeting it was decided that a monthly medical journal should be issued under the auspices of the Toland Faculty to counter the influence of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal. Volume 1 of the Western Lancet, edited by Professor Trenor and Dr. Heman Babock, opened with the issue for January 1872. Volume 2 for 1873 was edited by Professor Cole. Volume 3 for 1874 was edited by our old acquaintance and Cooper adversary, Arthur B. Stout, now Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery in the Medical Department of the University of California. As previously mentioned, the Lancet was absorbed into the PMSJ in 1884.

Graduation Ceremonies, Annual Sessions for 1871

At the conclusion of the competitive Session for 1871 the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific held its Commencement Exercise on the evening of November 7th in the Mercantile Library Hall. Dr. Lane gave the Valedictory Address and the M. D. degree was conferred on five graduates.

Toland Medical College held its Graduation Ceremony on November 9th in the College building. Three students were awarded the M. D. degree and one student received the degree ad eundem. The Hippocratic Oath was administered by Dean Cole, now fully in charge of the Toland Faculty.[32]

Negotiations for Medical Department, University of California

By the beginning of the Session for 1872 the Toland Faculty had, under the energetic leadership of Dean Cole, been reorganized and brought up to the full strength of twelve professors, most of them new appointees. In another crucial development, Daniel C. Gilman was inaugurated as President of the University of California on 7 November 1872, shortly after the close of the Session.[33][34]

Thus the fall of 1872 was an opportune time to reopen negotiations with the University regarding an affiliation. The embarrassing failed attempt to effect a union between the Toland School and the University in 1870, when Toland blocked the transfer of the School's property, was past history, and Dean Cole and President Gilman were new parties to the issues. The persuasive efforts of Dean Cole and the cooperative spirit of President Gilman soon resulted in agreement on terms acceptable to both Toland and the University.

Toland no longer insisted that the Medical Department of the University be named "Toland Medical College," and agreed to the transfer to the University of the property, now valued at $75,000, with the understanding that:[35][36]

In perpetual recognition of the munificence of Dr. H. H. Toland, one of the chairs in the Medical Department, to be designated by him, shall be known as the Toland Professorship; and further, that a suitable inscription be placed upon the Medical Hall which he has given, designating it as the Toland Medical Hall.

UC Historian Frances T. Gardner recalls the fading of these memorials:[37]

Alas for immortality. Toland's Chair was never named for him. There are no such Chairs in the Medical School. The grey building came down in '98, to be replaced by three large yellow ones on the 27 Parnassian acres given by Adolph Sutro, and with its disappearance also disappeared the name of Toland Hall. The memorials to Toland which, at long last, are left are the title of one lecture hall and a plaque on the wall of the yellow, ivy-covered Medical School Building. Identical honors have gone to Cole, the catalyst.

In order to avoid a misunderstanding such as occurred in 1870, Dean Cole provided President Gilman with a letter from the Trustees of Toland Medical College dated 3 March 1873 certifying their readiness "to make a due and legal conveyance of all the property of the College to the Regents. . .upon receiving from you an intimation of your acceptance of the trust." In addition, Cole gave the President written assurance of Toland's approval. In consideration of these warranties, President Gilman on 4 March 1873 informed the University Regents of the Trustees' offer, recommending that it be accepted, and that a Medical Department of the University be established.[38] It should be added that this transaction, involving the acquisition of valuable property and a self-supporting medical college, conformed fully with the ambition of the UC Regents and the President to develop graduate schools in the new University as expeditiously as possible.[39]

Appointment of a Board of Medical Examiners

The Regents proceeded at once to organize the Medical Department in accordance with the Resolutions of 2 August 1870, with the following additional provision for a Board of Medical Examiners:[40]

Resolved, That the Regents of the University will establish a Board, to be known as the Board of Medical Examiners of the University of California, and will annually appoint the members of said Board, whose duty it shall be to examine all students applying for a medical diploma, as well from the Medical Department of the University as from other medical colleges.

The Regents of the University will confer degrees upon such students of medicine as may be recommended therefor by the faculty of their respective colleges, and whom the Board of Medical Examiners shall report entitled thereto, and upon no others.

The above Resolution was adopted in response to the proposal submitted to the Regents in July 1870 by the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific which, as we shall shortly relate, changed its name to Medical College of the Pacific[Medical Department of University (City) College] in 1872. The Regents obviously liked the proposal for a Board of Medical Examiners which would give them and the President of the University broad control over medical education in the State.

Contrary to their expectations, the creation of the Board had awkward results, as we shall see.

Medical Department, University of California, Established

On 1 April 1873 the Regents formally accepted the gift of the Toland property, voted that a Medical Department of the University (including a Board of Medical Examiners) be created, and publicly announced the election of the following Professors to serve as the Faculty of the Department:

Proposed UCMD Faculty: 1873

From Toland Medical College

  • H. H. Toland
    Professor of Clinical Surgery
  • R. B. Cole
    Professor of Obstetrics and Clinical Diseases of Women
  • C. T. Deane
    Professor of Women and Children
  • C. M. Bates
    Professor of Clinical Medicine
  • Wm. T. Bradbury
    Professor of Therapeutics
  • A. A. O'Neil
    Professor of Anatomy
  • Geo. Hewston
    Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine
  • M. W. Fish
    Professor of Physiology
  • C. Brigham
    Professor of Orthopedic Surgery

From Medical College of the Pacific

  • H. Gibbons, Sr.
    Professor of Medical Jurisprudence and Mental Diseases
  • Levi C. Lane
    Principles and Practice of Surgery
  • Thomas Price
    Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology
  • E. Bentley
    Professor of Pathology
  • A. Barkan
    Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology
  • H. Gibbons, Jr.
    Professor of Materia Medica

Refusal by Faculty of Medical College of the Pacific to Join the Medical Department of the University

To their surprise and irritation, Drs. Gibbons, Sr., and Jr., and Drs. Lane, Price, Bentley and Barkan found themselves appointed without their knowledge, and publicly listed without their approval, as Professors in the new Medical Department of the University of California. They promptly dispatched the following disclaimer to President Gilman and the Regents:[41]

D. C. Gilman, President University of California

A. J. Moulder, Secretary Board of Regents - Gentlemen:
We have received from you a notification of our appointment by the Regents to Professorships in the Medical Department of the University of California, the appointment having already been made public through the newspapers. Our acceptance would involve the sacrifice of our own school - the Medical College of the Pacific - built up to success by years of assiduous labor. For this and other reasons, we respectfully decline the proffered honor. Indeed, we had already declined, in the most positive manner, a proposition to the same effect, coming, as we were assured, indirectly from the Board of Regents, of which fact a Committee of the Board was apprised.

Under these circumstances, you will pardon us for expressing our surprise at the appointment and the public announcement of it, without further consultation with us, seeing that such a course must inevitably give the impression that we had surrendered our own school, and not only injure us in that way, but place us, in the event of declining to accept, in an unfair position before the public, as factious and hostile to union with other members of the profession in furthering the cause of medical education in California.

Henry Gibson, M. D.
L. C. Lane, M. D.
E. Bentley, M. D.
Adolph Barkan, M. D.
Thomas Price, M. D.
Henry Gibbons, Jr., M. D.

Dr. Gibbons made the following editorial comment on the failed attempt to co-opt the Medical College of the Pacific:[42]

The design of this movement to consolidate the medical schools is a good one. But in the appointment of the professors of the Medical College of the Pacific, and the public announcement of that appointment, the Regents have unwittingly lent themselves to a trick unworthy of a dignified institution of learning such as the University of California. . .

To "squelch" the Medical College of the Pacific was an avowed purpose of the movement, which was carried through the Board of Regents by dexterous management, the members in general, including the worthy President, not knowing the full purpose of the transaction. Had the Regents exercised greater caution and deliberation, it is probable they might, in the course of time, have accomplished the desirable result of concentrating in one medical school the best educational talent on the coast.

As the case now stands, there continue to be (two medical schools in San Francisco); one bearing the name of the State University, and without the power of conferring degrees, the other - the Medical College of the Pacific - not only having the power, but possessing, in common with its competitor, the privilege of recommending its candidates for graduation to the Board of Examiners of the State University. In other words, the students of the Medical College of the Pacific may choose between the two Universities [University of California and University (City) College] when they apply for a diploma, or, if they should pass the examination in the State University, they may procure also a diploma ad eundem from their own school.

This was the last artful ploy designed by Toland partisans to absorb or otherwise extinguish the Cooper school. In the years to come, the presence of two medical schools in San Francisco never ceased to trouble external pundits such as Abraham Flexner who surveyed them in 1909. He had harsh words for both, as we shall see.[43]

Opening Exercises, Session for 1873
Medical Department, University of California

On 3 June 1873 Exercises took place in Pacific Hall to celebrate the inauguration of the Medical Department of the University of California, and the first course of lectures to be delivered in Toland Medical Hall under the auspices of the University.[44]

The Regents of the University were present. On the platform were Governor Booth, President of the Board of Regents; Judge Field of the U. S. Supreme Court; Mayor Alvord; and an assemblage of prominent citizens including Dr. Toland, Dean Cole and representatives of the Faculty and medical community.

The hall was crowded. Governor Booth presided and introduced President Gilman who delivered an appropriate address on the relations of the University to the community in all departments of progress. With respect to the Medical Department of the University, he said:[45]

For several years (Dr. Toland) and his associates have given medical instruction, and have graduated successive classes of young men. Most unexpectedly, a few weeks since, the Regents of the University were notified that the Trustees (of Toland Medical College) would transfer (the College and its property) . . . absolutely without condition to their ownership. It was a generous recognition on their part of the growing importance of the University, and a testimony of their desire to unite in building it up. Actuated by the same motive, the Regents of the University cordially invited the Professors who had there been instructing, and those who were also engaged in another medical school, to unite in founding the Medical Faculty of the University of California; and they hoped that the time was now ripe for the healing of past differences, and for the union of all who desire the highest progress of medical science in one body. It seems that they were a little before their time. The hour has not yet come when such a union can be brought about, and a portion of those thus asked to join in the Faculty have seen it to be their duty and their privilege to remain in other connections.

The inaugural was an occasion for deeply felt relief and satisfaction by Dr. Toland. He was 67 and the berthing of his storm-tossed school in the safe haven of the State University was the hoped-for result of his ceaseless labor and singular generosity. It marked the operational conversion of Toland Medical College to the Medical Department of the University of California, an event postponed for three years by his insistence that the Department bear his name. It is to his lasting credit that he never lost sight of the crucial advantage of the merger and, on the urging of Dean Cole, withdrew that condition.

Would the Toland School have had the inner strength to survive without the mantle of State University sponsorship to lend prestige, continuity and later financial support? Of this we have our doubts. But there is no doubt that Beverly Cole, who was a vigorous 44 when the Department was established, provided it with crucial leadership until the turn of the century. When the aging Toland died in 1880, "King Cole" fell heir to full responsibility for the direction of the Department.[46][47]

After 1873, the Medical Department of the University of California and the Medical College of the Pacific warily accepted each other's existence. Although competition and personal rivalries persisted, the two schools entered an era of relative stability and comparable growth.

Endnotes

  1. Faculty Minutes for 23 May 1870, Minutes of Meetings of Faculty of Medical Department of Pacific, 23 May 1870 to 24 May 1874, Box 1.18 vol. 1, Medical College of the Pacific Medical Department, University College, San Francisco, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford Lane Library catalog record
  2. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. W. Stacey, Inc., 1932), p. 376 Lane Library catalog record
  3. "Faculty Minutes, 2 August 1870," Toland Medical College, Faculty Minutes, 5 Nov 1854 - 31 Oct 1871, Archives Collection, University of California Medical Center Library, San Francisco
  4. Henry Gibbons , Introductory Lecture to the (Seventh) Session of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific (San Francisco: John H. Carmany and Co., 1870), p. 9 Lane Library catalog record
  5. Henry Gibbons , "Items of News, etc.," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 12, no. 36 (May 1870): 575-576 Lane Library catalog record
  6. Cooper Genealogy: p. 8, John L. Wilson Papers - MSS 39, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford Lane Library catalog record
  7. Announcement of Medical Department, University of the Pacific, for Session to begin 5 July 1870. Appended to "Introductory Lecture" by Henry Gibbons delivered on 5 July 1870, in Cooper Medical College Addresses 1861-1896 14 pp Lane Library catalog record
  8. Henry G. Langley , ed., "Physicians in San Francisco," State Register and Year Book of Facts for the Year 1859 (San Francisco: Henry G. Langley and Samuel A. Morison, 1859), p. 376
  9. Editor Anonymous, "Our Medical Number. Complete List of Qualified Physicians; also, of all Known Quacks, etc." Postscript to the San Francisco News Letter 25, no. 24 (Jul 10, 1875): 4-6
  10. Faculty Minutes for 1 June 1870, Minutes of Meetings of Faculty of Medical Department of Pacific, 23 May 1870 to 24 May 1874, Box 1.18 vol. 1, Medical College of the Pacific Medical Department, University College, San Francisco, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford Lane Library catalog record
  11. Announcement of Medical Department, University of the Pacific, for Session to begin 5 July 1870. Appended to "Introductory Lecture" by Henry Gibbons delivered on 5 July 1870, in Cooper Medical College Addresses 1861-1896 14 pp Lane Library catalog record
  12. Annual Announcement of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, Session of 1871 Lane Library catalog record
  13. Announcement of Medical Department, University of the Pacific, for Session to begin 5 July 1870. Appended to "Introductory Lecture" by Henry Gibbons delivered on 5 July 1870, in Cooper Medical College Addresses 1861-1896 14 pp Lane Library catalog record
  14. Announcement of Medical Department, University of the Pacific, for Session to begin 5 July 1870. Appended to "Introductory Lecture" by Henry Gibbons delivered on 5 July 1870, in Cooper Medical College Addresses 1861-1896 14 pp. See also p. 10 of the Lecture. Lane Library catalog record
  15. Note. The published Annual Announcement for 1870 was in error designated as the "Eighth Annual Session," when in fact it was the Seventh Annual Session. The numbers of subsequent Annual Sessions were also erroneously increased by one digit
  16. J. D. B. Stillman , "Editorial: Toland College," California Medical Gazette 2 (Jun 1870): 220 Lane Library catalog record
  17. Emmet Rixford , "A brief account of the history of the Lane Medical Library and of Cooper Medical College," in Addresses at Dedication of Lane Medical Library, Leland Stanford Jr. University (Published by Stanford University, Trustees Series No. 22, 1912), pp. 11-12 Lane Library catalog record
  18. Frances T. Gardner , "The Little Acorn: Hugh Huger Toland, 1806-1880)," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 25, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 1950): 68 Lane Library catalog record
  19. Annual Announcement of Medical Department of University of the Pacific, Session of 1871, p. 5 Lane Library catalog record
  20. Henry Gibbons, Sr. , "Introductory Lecture to the (Seventh) Session of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. Delivered July 5th, 1870," in Cooper Medical College Addresses 1861-1896, pp. 12-13 Lane Library catalog record
  21. Emmet Rixford , "A brief account of the history of the Lane Medical Library and of Cooper Medical College," in Addresses at Dedication of Lane Medical Library, Leland Stanford Jr. University (Published by Stanford University, Trustees Series No. 22, 1912), p. 12 Lane Library catalog record
  22. "Faculty Minutes, June 1870," Toland Medical College, Faculty Minutes, 5 Nov 1854 - 31 Oct 1871, Archives Collection, University of California Medical Center Library, San Francisco
  23. "Faculty Minutes, June 1870," Toland Medical College, Faculty Minutes, 5 Nov 1854 - 31 Oct 1871, Archives Collection, University of California Medical Center Library, San Francisco
  24. William C. Jones , Illustrated History of the University of California (San Francisco: Frank H. Dukesmith, Publisher, 1895), p. 253 Lane Library catalog record
  25. J. D. B. Stillman , "Editorial: Toland Medical College and the University of California," California Medical Gazette 2 (Aug 1870): 257-259 Lane Library catalog record
  26. Henry Gibbons, Sr. , "Editorial: Slander Repelled," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 13 (Sep 1870): 176-178 Lane Library catalog record
  27. J. D. B. Stillman , "Editorial: Toland Medical College and the University of California," California Medical Gazette 2 (Aug 1870): 257 Lane Library catalog record
  28. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: Acceptance of Toland College Property by the State University Board of Regents," Western Lancet 2 (Apr 1873): 229-230 Lane Library catalog record
  29. William F. Smith , Valedictory Delivered at the (Seventh) Annual Commencement of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific (San Francisco: Heister and Brown, Printer, 1870), p. 2
  30. Henry Gibbons, Sr. , "Editorial: Three Medical Schools in San Francisco - The University of California," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 13 (Feb 1871): 403-406 Lane Library catalog record
  31. Faculty Minutes for 9 February and 10 March 1871, Minutes of Meetings of Faculty of Medical Department of Pacific, 23 May 1870 to 24 May 1874, Box 1.18 vol. 1, Medical College of the Pacific Medical Department, University College, San Francisco, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford Lane Library catalog record
  32. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: California Graduates in Medicine," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 14 (Dec 1871): 306-307 Lane Library catalog record
  33. "Announcement of Lectures of Toland Medical College, Session of 1872" . Appended to "Valedictory, Ninth Annual Commencement of Medical Department of University of Pacific, December 7th, 1871" by L. C. Lane, M.D., in Cooper Medical College Addresses 1861-1896 Lane Library catalog record
  34. William C. Jones , Illustrated History of the University of California (San Francisco: Frank H. Dukesmith, Publisher, 1895), p. 60 Lane Library catalog record
  35. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: Gift of a Medical College to the University of California," Western Lancet 2 (Mar 1873): 182-184 Lane Library catalog record
  36. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: The Toland Medical College," Western Lancet 2 (Apr 1873): 229-232 Lane Library catalog record
  37. Frances T. Gardner , "The Little Acorn: Hugh Huger Toland, 1806-1880," Bulletin of History of Medicine 24, no. 1 (Jan-Feb 1950): 68 Lane Library catalog record
  38. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: Gift of a Medical College to the University of California," Western Lancet 2 (Mar 1873): 182-184 Lane Library catalog record
  39. William C. Jones , Illustrated History of the University of California (San Francisco: Frank H. Dukesmith, Publisher, 1895), p. 61 Lane Library catalog record
  40. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: The Toland Medical College," Western Lancet 2 (Apr 1873): 231 Lane Library catalog record
  41. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: The Toland Medical College," Western Lancet 2 (Apr 1873): 231-232 Lane Library catalog record
  42. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: Our Medical Schools," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 15 (1873 Apr): 550-551 Lane Library catalog record
  43. Abraham Flexner , Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (Boston: The Merrymount Press, 1910), pp. 192-196 Lane Library catalog record
  44. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: The Toland Medical College," Western Lancet 2 (Jun 1873): 374 Lane Library catalog record
  45. R. Beverly Cole , "Editorial: The Toland Medical College," Western Lancet 2 (Jun 1873): 378 Lane Library catalog record
  46. Frances T. Gardner , "King Cole of California," Part 2, Annals of Medical History 3rd. series, 2, no. 4 (Jul 1940): 340-347 Lane Library catalog record
  47. Frances T. Gardner , "King Cole of California," Part 3, Annals of Medical History 3rd. Series, 2, no. 5 (Sep 1940): 432-442 Lane Library catalog record
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