Stanford University School of Medicine and the Predecessor Schools: An Historical Perspective
Part III. Founding of First Medical School and Successions 1858-

Chapter 20. Suspension of Medical Department University of the Pacific and Founding of Toland Medical College 1864

Fifth Annual Session of the Medical Department November 1862 to March 1863

The premature death of Elias Cooper, the Medical Department's founder and leader, occurred on the eve of the Fifth Annual Session of the Department. It was during this Session that Dr. Lane emerged as a major source of stability and continuity in school affairs, as will be apparent from the following account.

Several faculty changes occurred just before the opening of the Session. At its meeting on 12 September 1862, the Board of Trustees of the University of the Pacific accepted the resignation of Dr. James Merinos as Professor of Pathology and of the Principles and Practice of Medicine. At the same meeting Dr. A. J. Bowie, Cooper friend and loyal supporter, was appointed to fill the professorship vacated by Dr. Merinos whose outside activities left him insufficient time to continue in the post. Also at the same meeting Dr. Merinos resigned his membership on the Board of Trustees. Elias Cooper was unanimously chosen to succeed him on the Board but, after Cooper's death, Beverly Cole was elected to the seat.[1]

Dr. Cooper died during the month of October in 1862 while the annual one-month gratuitous course of Preliminary Lectures was in progress. Dr. Lane promptly stepped in as Editor of the "San Francisco Medical Press" where he placed the following notice in the October number:[2]

Owing to the death of Dr. Cooper the management of the Pacific Clinical Infirmary, as well as his medical and surgical practice, now devolves upon his late associate in business . . ., Dr. L. C. Lane. We would remark, that class of patients who have hitherto sought this city for medical and surgical treatment will receive, at this institution, all the attention which their cases may severally demand.

Lane also commented on the impact of Cooper's departure on the fortunes of the medical school:[3]

A Preliminary Course of Lectures is now being delivered at this institution; the Course Proper will commence on the first Monday in November. From the number of students who attend the Introductory Lectures we may predict a full attendance during the ensuing term. In the death of Dr. Cooper, late Professor in the School, it has sustained a deep and heavy loss; that one could at once be found who could fully supply his loss, is more than we can expect, - still, by a division of labors hitherto accomplished by him among the remaining members of the Faculty, every arrangement has been made so that the affairs of the School shall proceed without interruption, and the full course of lectures delivered as heretofore.

The Fifth Session of Lectures concluded on 7 March 1863 and Commencement Exercises were held on 12 March. Twenty-three students were enrolled in the fifth class and eight students were awarded the M. D. degree. We have previously mentioned that Henry Gibbons, Jr., was one of the Fifth Session graduates and that he later served with distinction as Dean of the School.

Professor A. J. Bowie, who was appointed to the Faculty only two months before the opening of the Fifth Session, was chosen to deliver both the Introductory Lecture at the beginning of the Session and the Valedictory Address at its close. Dr. Bowie, an outstanding surgeon himself, was a great admirer of Elias Cooper and could be counted on to appropriately eulogize the Founder of the School. This mission he accomplished with his usual felicity in both the Lecture and the Address as is evident in the concluding words of the Valedictory:[4]

There is one subject further, gentlemen, upon which I desire to say a few words to you before parting, as I feel that it is one which deeply interested you, as it affected painfully the Faculty of our College. I allude, as you have doubtless inferred already, to the great loss our institution sustained in the untimely death of our friend and colleague, Professor E. S. Cooper. . .It is not. . .that I allude to Professor Cooper to deplore his loss as a lecturer, but as an operative surgeon, for which he would seem to have been peculiarly fitted by nature. I can truly say that for genius in planning operations as well as for skill in executing them, he had few equals, and no superior that it was ever my fortune to meet. As it was my privilege at the opening lecture of the late course, to announce his death , it has seemed to me not inappropriate, at the close of our labors, to have called up his memory for a moment, that we might pay this humble tribute to his name.

At the close of the Fifth Session, the Faculty were satisfied with the condition of the School, as expressed by Lane in a long editorial in the April issue of the Medical Press. He pointed out that only two students graduated at the end of the First Session in 1859, whereas eight received the M. D. degree at the end of the Fifth. The size of the classes also increased. According to the Register of the Medical Department, twelve students matriculated for the First Session, whereas twenty-three signed the Register for the Fifth.[5][6]

Lane was particularly pleased to report that further clinical experience had been made available to the students during the Fifth Session and would continue thereafter. In addition to the teaching program at St. Mary's Hospital discussed earlier, Dr. J. Hastiness of the Marine Hospital staff now kindly offered to show and clinically illustrate to the students, once a week, whatever was of interest in that hospital. The San Francisco City and County Hospital, about access to which Cooper had unsuccessfully petitioned the County Supervisors early in 1860, was opened by a member of the Hospital staff, Dr. F. A. Dolman. He invited the students to see his cases and provided them a course of lectures on Clinical Surgery. Another local physician who volunteered his services during this Session was Dr. F. H. Howard who gave the students a series of lectures on Ophthalmic Surgery embodying the result of his studies and researches during a protracted visit to Europe. At the end of the Session, the medical class unanimously adopted a resolution expressing their gratitude to these three newly-found clinical instructors and Lane published the students' letter of appreciation in the Medical Press.[7] Thus it was that the local physicians' intuitive urge and moral obligation to teach, as epitomized in the Hippocratic Oath, opened the doors of San Francisco hospitals for clinical instruction to the students of Cooper's school.[8]

Dr. Lane concluded his review of accomplishments of the School during the Fifth Session on a confident note:[9]

From the retrospect which has thus been cursorily drawn of the past progress and present status of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, the Faculty have just grounds to be proud of what they have already achieved, and, in contemplation of the future of the institution, they have every reason for cherishing even more exalted hopes than were entertained by its original founders at the commencement of their labors.

Sixth Annual Session of the Medical Department November 1863 to March 1864

Several additional faculty changes occurred prior to opening of the Sixth Session.

At the meeting of the Board of Trustees of the University of the Pacific on 12 March 1863, the vacancy created by the death of Dr. Cooper, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, led to the following adjustments. Dr. Lane resigned as Professor of Physiology and was replaced in that position by Dr. J. P. Whitney. Dr. Lane was then appointed Professor of Anatomy.[10]

The October 1863 issue of the Medical Press reported that Professor A. J. Bowie resigned from the chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine and Dr. John F. Morse of Sacramento was appointed to replace him. Dr. Bowie was then appointed as Professor of Surgery. At about the same time the title of Dr. Whitney was changed from Professor of Physiology to Professor of Institutes of Medicine.[11]

As a result of the numerous changes during 1862-63, the Faculty of the Medical Department at the opening of the Sixth Session in November 1863 was composed of the following eight professors, two more than at the First Session of the School in 1859:[12]

Medical Faculty

  • Isaac Rowell, M. D.
    Professor of Chemistry
  • R. Beverly Cole, M. D., Dean
    Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children
  • L. C. Lane, M. D.
    Professor of Anatomy
  • Henry Gibbons, M. D.
    Professor of Materia Medica and Botany
  • A. J. Bowie, M. D.
    Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery
  • J. P. Whitney, M. D.
    Professor of Institutes of Medicine
  • John F. Morse, M. D.
    Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine
  • Hon. George Barstow
    Professor of Medical Jurisprudence
  • James Murphy, M. D.
    Demonstrator of Anatomy

The Sixth Session was uneventful and the School appeared to have made a successful transition to the post-Cooper era with ranks closed and Faculty strengthened. We should comment here that the appointment of the highly-regarded Dr. John F. Morse of Sacramento brought into the Faculty a well-known and respected figure in California medical affairs.

Considering Dr. Morse's wide reputation for eloquence and charitable works, it is not surprising that he was elected by the Faculty to give the Introductory Lecture, delivered at the opening of the Sixth Session in November 1863. In his lengthy address to the students on that occasion he advised them not to be discouraged by the rampant imperfections in society and in the medical profession, but to have confidence that:[13]

(The title of "Doctor" ) will sit like a diadem of imperishable fame upon the brows of every man who makes himself a zealous and efficient worker in the benevolent and unrequited Science.

The great heart that becomes entranced with the beautiful and balmy smiles of Medicine, - the mind that mingles in rapture with principles of a Science that was born in philanthropy, that comes to us freighted with accumulated wisdom, which bears the imprints of immemorial good-neighborhood and incorruptible philosophy, - the generous soul that derives its lessons of duty, more from the divinity of the calling, than from the sordid compensations that follow the application of its powers of relief, cannot fail to be contented and happy here, and, in my opinion, will acquire treasure and rank in heaven, which shall not be lost amid the shadows of death nor the gloom of the grave.

There was no hypocrisy in Dr. Morse's exhortations and inspirational rhetoric for, as everyone knew, he had already earned a reputation in the West as a practicing idealist - but not as a prophet. Upon accepting his professorial appointment he must have recalled with some embarrassment the negative report made in 1857 to the State Medical Society by his Committee on Medical Education:[14]

(Until California provides adequate support for its public hospitals), it will be a useless thing to attempt the establishment of clinical schools of medicine. . . Hence the reason your Committee deemed it unnecessary to trouble you with a very lengthy report (on the subject).

As usual, the Regular Course of lectures began on the first Monday in November. Twenty-three students were registered , the same number as in the previous year. During the Session no news of it appeared in the Medical Press, but Dr. Lane did publish the following important "Notice to Medical Students" in the issue for January 1864:[15]

I propose in April next, to take some two or three medical students, who will be furnished with lodging, textbooks and tuition, at the rate of two hundred dollars per year; - in the pursuit of their studies, the students will have the aid of skeletons and dried anatomical preparations; - likewise, during part of the year, they will have the benefit of clinical instruction in practical Medicine and Surgery.

L. C. Lane, M. D., Professor of Anatomy

Under these favorable arrangements, Dr. Lane would serve as the preceptor for two or three students thus greatly assisting them to fulfill the graduation requirement of having studied medicine for three years (the terms of attending Lectures included) under a respectable practitioner.

In the same issue of the journal, Dr. Lane announced that:[16]

After this number, the editorial supervision of the Medical Press will be transferred to Drs. R. B. Cole and H. Gibbons; - under the charge of these capable and competent gentlemen we not only wish, but predict for the journal a fortunate career; our duties as Surgeon of the Board of Enrollment for the Southern District of California, added to the duties of a constantly increasing practice, occupy so much of our time as to prevent us from devoting that labor to the Press which a medical periodical requires.

The Sixth Annual Commencement of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific was held in Platt's Hall, San Francisco, on 18 March 1864. The degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred on seven graduates by Reverend Banister, President of the University.

Dr. Lane's Valedictory Address had a scholarly theme. He impressed upon the graduates the importance of lifelong study of the science of Medicine, a field in a constant state of advancement. As examples of progress and harbingers of future discoveries he cited vaccination for small pox and etherization as triumphs of modern medicine and of incalculable benefit to mankind. Then, in conclusion: he said:[17]

Gentlemen, from what has been said, you see that the profession you have chosen is one which contains within itself all those principles which are calculated to awaken and develop those nobler qualities which dignify the human heart; - and not only this, but to those of you who are emulous of scientific honors, there is opened an arena, where, by proper industry and keen research, unfading laurels may yet be won, laurels which far transcend those which are awarded to the conqueror whom death has spared on the battlefield.

And what of the battlefield? In the East, the Civil War was entering its final, cataclysmic year. On 9 March 1864, as the Sixth Session of the Medical Department came to a close, President Lincoln appointed General Grant as Commander in Chief of the Union Army. Grant at once set out to engage General Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the most desperately fought and crucial campaign of the war.

After his graduation in 1863, Henry Gibbons, Jr., enlisted in the Medical Corps of the Union Army as an Acting Assistant Surgeon. In May 1864 he was posted to the Douglas Hospital in Washington, D. C., just north of the fighting front. Dr. Gibbons' letter from "The Inside of a Military Hospital," was published in the July 1864 issue of the Medical Press. He described the overwhelming flood of dreadful casualties from Grant's campaign in Virginia that descended on his hospital, bearing witness to the record of the Civil War as by far the nation's bloodiest conflict to that time. In proportion to the population, the casualties in the Civil war were greater even than those of the British and French in World War I.[18][19]

We now conclude our reference to the graduation exercises of the Class of 1864 by providing the following summary of the matriculants and graduates of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific during its first six sessions:[20][21]

Matriculants and Graduates 1859 to 1864
Medical Department, University of the Pacific
SessionMatriculantsGraduatesYear
1st May-Sep 18591221859
2nd May-Sep 18601411860
3rd Nov-Mar 1860-18611751861
4th Nov-Mar 1861-18622851862
5th Nov-Mar 1862-18632381863
6th Nov-Mar 1863-18642371864

28 Total Graduates, 1859-1864

Dean Cole Goes to Europe

On 3 July 1864 Dean Cole departed on the side-wheeler Golden City for the Atlantic states and Europe, ostensibly to recover his health. He made a grand tour of Europe that included visits to medical schools and hospitals in Dublin, Edinburgh, London, Paris, Berlin and Heidelberg. The articulate and gregarious Cole was everywhere cordially received so that his journey was no less than a triumphal progress He spent two glorious weeks with the world-renowned obstetrician, Sir James Simpson in Edinburgh. He became a member of the British Gynecological Society, the Obstetrical Society of London, the Royal College of Surgeons and, upon his return to America in the spring of 1865, he was elected to an honorary fellowship in the Boston Gynecological Society.

At home again in San Francisco, Dr. Cole did not involve himself in medical school affairs during the next five years. Instead, he attended to his obstetrical practice (the largest in the city) and performed such memorable public services as establishing San Francisco's beautiful Golden Gate Park and securing adoption of health measures that controlled the smallpox epidemic of 1868. For the latter contribution, he was appointed Surgeon-General of California by an admiring Governor. These were among Beverly Cole's impressive interim accomplishments when, in 1870, he resumed his association with his colleagues from the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific.[22]

As the summer of 1864 wore on, preparations continued for opening the Seventh Session of the Medical Department on the first Monday in November. Dr. Henry Gibbons, Sr., now sole editor of the San Francisco Medical Press due to the departure of Dr. Cole , wrote of new facilities and a favorable outlook for the school:[23]

The Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, have purchased a valuable property on Stockton street near Broadway, where they are fitting up Lecture Rooms and other accommodations for their school. This Institution has reason to be proud of its career and of its Alumni. In its origin and early life it encountered opposition and hostility from nearly every quarter. It has received no public favor and no extrinsic aid from any source. Its sole reliance has been the industry and perseverance of its founders and their successors. But these have borne it through triumphantly, and established it on a firm basis. Its graduates can be designated, almost without exception, as honorable and successful members of their profession. A large proportion of them hold positions in the public service, and are making a record creditable to themselves and to their Alma Mater. The course of instruction in this school is eminently practical. The students are drilled at the bed-side in three extensive hospitals, where they have the benefit of the teaching and experience of a large number of the foremost physicians and surgeons in California.

The above notice of the relocation of the Lecture Rooms of the Medical Department was directly followed in the same July 1864 issue of the Medical Press by this ominous item:[24]

A new Medical School, in connection with a private hospital, is, we learn, about to be established in this city, under the charge of Dr. Toland. Five years ago, when the present school was founded, it was pronounced useless and uncalled-for. A very different sentiment now prevails, and we congratulate the profession and the community on the revolution by virtue of which two medical institutions have become a necessity, where one was superfluous.

Founding of Toland Medical College

In the summer of 1864, a spacious new building on Stockton Street near Chestnut and a few blocks from the Bay was under construction. It was conveniently located opposite the San Francisco City and County Hospital which was then on Francisco Street at North Beach. It was common knowledge that Dr. Toland was constructing the building for a medical school and was recruiting a faculty with a view to opening Toland Medical College in November.[25]

The September 1864 issue of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal (now under the editorship of Dr. John F. Morse, late of the Cooper faculty but recently defected to the Toland side) carried the first detailed account of the projected new school:[26]

Before this number of the Journal reaches our readers they will have received a lithographic view of an edifice which is being erected by Dr. Toland, and which, as soon as completed, he intends donating to the City of San Francisco, and the profession of medicine, for perpetual use in Medical Education.[27]

When the value of the property, the adaptation and beauty of the structure are considered, no ingenuous man, in or out of the profession, will withhold an acknowledgment that the act is almost unparalleled in real generosity and professional zeal. . .

Throughout his professional life, Dr. Toland has steadily cherished the determination to accumulate money enough to enable him to build and establish a school of medicine which should be of perpetual benefit to his profession. It is the thought with which he came to California, and the stimulus that has inspired him to an industry and toil seldom manifested in the fields of execution. Fortunately for the profession, fortunately for the cause of medical education upon the Pacific Coast, and fortunately for San Francisco, he has succeeded in the realization of a noble and glorious project.

The building is nearly completed, a Board of Trustees selected, and a Faculty of Medical Teachers organized, and a regular Course of Medical Instructions advertised for the coming winter.

We have said that it was fortunate for San Francisco that the Doctor had succeeded in attaining this object. When we consider how intimately and seriously the interests of society are blended with the cause of Medical Education, and when we consider the influence of any school of science in attracting patronage, and in consolidating and extending the fame and distinction of any Metropolitan City, we would scarcely doubt the benefit which the city of San Francisco would derive from the organization and maintenance of a good medical school. . .

In no place in the world at the present time is the establishment of a good Medical School more urgently demanded than in San Francisco. .. . Will the people encourage an effort to thoroughly supply the Pacific Coast with the facilities of medical education?. . .

It is interesting to learn from the above article that Dr. Toland came to California with the thought of founding a medical school (a well-kept secret), and that no place in the world was more urgently in need of one. No mention was made of the Cooper school in this or any of the several further breathless editorials by Dr. Morse in the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal related to the founding of the Toland College.

Dr. Toland had a masterful plan for the organization of the College. He made arrangements for a Charter to be obtained from the State which would grant the College all the privileges and powers of any University. Immediately upon his understanding that these arrangements had been concluded, he executed a deed of conveyance of the entire property to a Board of Trustees for the establishment of an independent school of medicine.[28]

For the Board of Trustees of the College, Toland chose 26 prominent citizens of California including such present and past officers of State government as Governor F. F. Low, Lt. Governor T. N. Machin, Ex-Governor P. H. Burnett and Ex-Governor John G Downey. There were two physicians on the Board: Drs. C. Badarous and James P. Whitney. Toland's selection of well-known figures in State and Municipal affairs for the Board of Trustees was very astute and signaled his intent to seek State and Municipal support for the College in the future.[29]

Here we should point out that Dr. Toland and others concerned were mistaken in their belief that a Charter had been granted to the College by the State. John B. Felton, President of the Board of Trustees of the College in 1864, was responsible for obtaining the Charter but neglected to do so. It was not discovered until 1875 that no Charter had been obtained and that the M. D. degrees granted by the College were therefore invalid. A resolution proposed by Henry Gibbons, Sr., and adopted by the State Medical Society at its Annual Meeting in 1875, had the effect of retroactively legitimizing all the M. D. degrees previously granted by Toland Medical College.[30][31]

Toland Faculty Roster

The original roster of the Toland Faculty during the organizational phase of the College was as follows:[32]

Preliminary Toland Medical College Faculty 1864

  • H. H. Toland, M. D., President
    Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery
  • James Blake, M. D. ,
    Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children
  • J. Newton Brown, M. D. ,
    Professor of Anatomy
  • T. J. Edwards, M. D.,
    Professor of Institutes of Medicine
  • W. O. Ayer, M. D. ,
    Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine
  • J. F. Morse, M. D.,
    Professor of Clinical Medicine and Diagnosis
  • Thos. Bennett, M. D. ,
    Professor of General Pathology
  • J. A. Lockwood, M. D.,
    Professor of Materia Medica
  • Robert Oxland, M. D.,
    Professor of Chemistry
  • William A. Douglass, M. D.
    Demonstrator of Anatomy

Suspension of the Medical Department University of the Pacific

As fall approached in 1864, the construction of Toland's imposing new medical school building was nearing completion. He had acquired a prestigious Board of Trustees, appointed a complete Faculty, and announced that Toland Medical College would open with its First Annual Session on November 5th. The Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific now faced a cruel dilemma - "to be or not to be.". Toland's facilities were so superior to those of the Medical Department that on this ground alone competition with his College for students seemed futile. Dr. Gibbons later recalled the Cooper Faculty's decision:[33]

At the juncture when the industry and toil of the Faculty (of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific) had culminated in success, a rival appeared. A gentleman who had gained distinction and amassed a fortune in the practice of medicine and surgery, erected an edifice for a Medical College, and called around him a corps of Professors. The original Faculty of the Medical Department must either succumb, or engage in a competitive struggle. Cooper was dead. Two schools could not be sustained with credit to either.

Rather than embark in a contest which might involve personal animosities, and injure the character of the profession and lower the standard of medical education and the value of a diploma, the Faculty of the University decided to suspend operations.

Some Reflections

What if Cooper had been alive and well? Instead of closing his school, would he have led his colleagues in a head-to-head contest with the challenger? On hearing a rumor in 1860 that Toland was planning to establish a medical school, Cooper declared that he welcomed the competition. But, in Cooper's absence, there was no one capable of masterminding a confrontation with Toland. Dr. Lane had not yet the maturity, and Dr. Gibbons had not yet the motivation, for a bruising battle. As for Cooper, we can be sure that he would have attempted to preserve the Medical Department. It was his life's work, the goal of a driving ambition. It would have been out of character for him to retire from the field without a fight.

Under the circumstances, however, the decision to close the Medical Department proved to be a wise strategy. Drs. Lane, Gibbons and Morse of the Cooper faculty joined the Toland College and served for six Annual Sessions (1864-1870). These years in the College seasoned the Cooperites and renewed their faith in the promise of their original venture. They were then no longer intimidated by the financial resources, spacious premises and local and state connections of the Toland School. They had gained the confidence to revive, and thereafter successfully defend, the pioneer educational institution which had earned the respect and loyalty of the West's first cadres of medical students.

Drs. Lane and Gibbons of the Cooper Faculty Join Toland College

When the Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific announced that the Department was closing in deference to the impending opening of Toland Medical College, the medical students transferred en masse to the new school. At the same time they petitioned Dr. Toland to invite Drs. Lane and Gibbons to join his Faculty prior to the opening of its First Annual Session. The invitation was promptly extended, and as promptly accepted, on condition that the graduates of the University of the Pacific should have an ad eundem degree, if they desired, free of cost, from the Toland College. It is a credit to the Cooper school, that its alumni so appreciated their diplomas, that only one of the number ever applied for an ad eundem degree from Toland College.[34][35]

Dr. Lane was appointed Professor of Physiology (replacing Dr. Edwards of the original roster) and Dr. Gibbons was appointed Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics (replacing Dr. Lockwood). Dr. Cole was still abroad when the College opened and was not available for a faculty appointment. In any case, because of his vendetta with Toland over the King case, he would doubtless not have been considered for a professorship at that time.[36]

Dr. John F. Morse was the first member of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific to "jump ship." He had already accepted a professorship in the Toland School when Drs. Lane and Gibbons came on board. Dr. Morse was appointed Professor of Clinical Medicine and Diagnosis, probably in August 1864. He took over as Editor of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal at about the same time, replacing Dr. Victor J. Fourgeaud who was discouraged by lack of support from the profession and resigned in August 1864. Dr. Morse's editorials in the issues of the Journal from August through December 1864 ardently championed the Toland College, at which point the Journal ceased publication. When it appeared again in April 1865, it had merged with the San Francisco Medical Press to become the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press under the editorship of Henry Gibbons.[37][38]

Revised Faculty Roster

As the result of the professorial appointments of Drs. Gibbons and Lane, the Toland College Faculty at the beginning of the First Annual Session was as follows:

Final Toland College Faculty 1864

  • H. H. Toland, M. D., President
    Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery
  • James Blake, M. D.,
    Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children
  • J. Newton Brown, M. D.,
    Professor of Anatomy
  • Levi C. Lane, M. D.,
    Professor of Physiology
  • W. O. Ayer, M. D., Dean
    Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine
  • J. F. Morse, M. D.,
    Professor of Clinical Medicine and Diagnosis
  • Thos. Bennett, M. D.,
    Professor of General Pathology
  • Henry Gibbons, Sr., M. D.,
    Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics
  • Robert Oxland, M. D.,
    Professor of Chemistry
  • William A. Douglass, M. D.
    Demonstrator of Anatomy

First Annual Session of Toland Medical College
5 November 1864 to 8 March 1865

The first meeting of the Toland Faculty was held on 5 November 1864, the opening day of the First Annual Session. The Faculty met in the office of Professor Morse pursuant to a call from President Toland. Those present were Professors Toland, Morse, Oxland, Brown, Blake, Ayres, Lane, and Bennett.

The first order of business was the election of the Dean of the College. Professor Ayres (a staunch friend of Elias Cooper) was chosen and it was agreed that the Dean would also serve as Secretary and Treasurer of the Faculty. (In accordance with Faculty By-laws, later drafted by a Rules Committee chaired by Professor Gibbons: "The Dean shall be elected by ballot at the Annual Meeting in October, and shall hold his office until the election of a successor.")

The second order of business: "On the motion of Professor Morse, it was resolved that the Faculty as a body, assume in future, the expenses of issuing the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal; it was also proposed that at as early a period as possible, the Journal and the S. F. Medical Press be united in one."[39]

The requirements for graduation from Toland College were the same as in the Cooper school, and in American medical schools generally. That is, the candidate must be twenty-one years of age; must have attended two identical annual lecture courses of four months each; must have studied medicine for three years (the terms of attending lectures included) under the direction of a respectable medical practitioner; must write a Medical Thesis; and must pass examinations.

The College opened on 5 November 1864 and Dr. Toland delivered the Introductory Lecture. The subject was "The History of Surgery." His concluding remarks made it clear that government sanction of the College was crucial and that he would seek local and state support for his school:[40]

It was from (Dr. Valentine Mott) that I acquired the fondness for surgery which has enabled me to obtain the means with which this building was erected. It will afford the young men of California an opportunity to prosecute the study of medicine in their native State, and become familiar with the diseases which they will in future be required to treat, provided they be permitted to enjoy the advantages that the extensive Hospital of this city affords. Nothing can be learned simply by walking through its wards. (The Hospital) must be placed under the control of men who are capable, and who feel a deep interest in the welfare of the patients as well as the success of this Institution. That alone will stimulate them to prepare clinical lectures creditable to themselves, and instructive to the students.

More is necessary than the erection of a building, the appointment of Trustees and Professors, to insure success. By referring to the compend which I have presented of the History of Surgery it will become apparent to all, that devotion and intellect availed nothing, so long as they were opposed by the populace and the authorities of the Government.

If this College, which has been established at immense expense, ever becomes worthy of the great State of California, it will be accomplished by the untiring industry and perseverance of the Professors, aided by the fostering care and protection of the authorities of this city as well as the rulers of the State (emphasis added). They have now presented to them the privilege of sharing the disgrace of seeing this Institution languish for want of their protection, or the credit of enabling it to spring into usefulness, and become an ornament to the city and an honor to the State.

This statement of Toland's determination to place the College under the auspices of the State reveals the foresight and pragmatism that guided his founding of the Institution. He intuitively recognized that the prestige and material support associated with State sponsorship would be the key to its survival and future development - and to his early relief from continuing financial responsibility to underwrite it.

Campaign for the City and County Hospital

Toland's first bid for public support was a petition to the Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco for access to the patients of the City and County Hospital in return for free care by the Faculty. As we previously noted, Cooper requested access to the Hospital on similar terms in 1860 and was rebuffed by the Supervisors. When the Supervisors delayed action on Toland's request due to the opposition of some members of the Board including two prominent physicians, he mounted an aggressive editorial campaign in the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal. Through the small subsidy granted by the Faculty at its first meeting, the Journal had been secured as the College mouthpiece and, for a time, served that purpose well.[41][42]

The following excerpts are from a series of Journal editorials by Editor Morse during the period from August through December 1864. The editorials were designed to keep pressure on the Supervisors of San Francisco to turn over patient care in the City and County Hospital to the Toland Faculty.

First editorial:[43]

. . .In every city of the United States where there is a Medical College, the people and the authorities are forward to place at the disposal of the Medical Faculty such hospitals and dispensaries as can be of service in the clinical instruction of students.

In New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore, the charity hospitals are not only put under the professional control of Medical Faculties, but the authorities emulate in seeing how far they can make these institutions judicious and beneficent means of making men competent for the practice of medicine. The Faculty of this contemplated School have tendered gratuitous services in the City and County Hospital of San Francisco, for those privileges of clinical teaching which are enjoyed in every Eastern school. Will the authorities grant this small favor. . .?

No response from the Supervisors. Second editorial:[44]

Is there any reason why Medical Students should be driven to Eastern Schools of Medicine, while we have such a Metropolis as San Francisco, with its exhaustless supply of clinical elements, and such a wonderfully excellent climate for the prosecution of medical studies?. . .

Now will San Francisco refuse to aid an effort which is now being made to found a school of medicine worthy of the State?. . .

Will the Supervisors of San Francisco grant the facility which is tendered from every hospital in the principal Eastern cities, to similar educational efforts?. . .By the slightest effort upon their part, we can have the hospital over which they have control, devoted to the highest purposes of medical education. And thus would they evince a kindness which would be warmly appreciated, and at the same time practice an economy to the city which would secure them the approbation of their constituents. . .We make at any rate, one more appeal to them and the authorities generally, to appropriate the clinical facilities of the City and County Hospital to the College. . .

Will the Supervisors grant this small encouragement to an effort to build up a medical school which shall be of great benefit to the city and the medical profession?

Still no response from the Supervisors. The tone of the third editorial is more insistent:[45]

A MONTH has now elapsed since a Medical College was opened in this city under circumstances which gave at once a guaranty of permanence and credit.

At the commencement the Medical Faculty of the institution made a proposition to the Board of Supervisors to take the medical and surgical management of the City and County Hospital, and to furnish an unexceptionable resident physician and apothecary, without one cent of cost to the City, for the mere privilege of allowing medical students to see the practice of medicine and surgery, as they are permitted to do in every hospital of Eastern cities, where such schools are located.

The petition was received by the Supervisors, and referred to a committee, where it is as effectually dead as if burned to ashes. . .

When by year's end there was no reply from the Supervisors, an exasperated Toland issued a veiled threat of opposition to their reelection - a threat that was far from meaningless when emanating from a citizen of his means and influence.[46]

We desire it to be distinctly understood that the Faculty of the "Toland Medical College." made a proposition to the Supervisors of San Francisco, to take the City and County Hospital, furnish visiting Physicians and Surgeons, a resident Physician and an Apothecary, free of all cost to the tax-payers.

It was referred to a committee, and has not elicited interest enough to gain the favor of a report.. . .

We supposed there must have been some radical objection (to our offer) for as a saving to the City and County it would have been very considerable. A glance at the prices which the Supervisors are paying for the very services which the Faculty would have tendered for nothing, will show that the City and County would have saved nearly five thousand dollars annually.

We do not think the Supervisors have exhibited their usual sagacity in rejecting an offer which, without any conceivable risk, would have saved so much money - nor do we believe that their record in this particular will be any special benefit to them when making up their claims for continuance in office.

In spite of Toland's persistence, the Supervisors frustrated his efforts to take over medical care in the City and County Hospital. However, beginning in 1865, clinical teaching was provided for Toland students by Drs. Holman and Soule of the Hospital Staff, just as the Staff had done for the Cooper students in 1863. It was not until 1871 that the Board of Health authorized the Professors of Toland College to take charge of the wards assigned to them by the Board.[47][48]

We have already referred to Dr. Toland's Introductory Lecture in which he demonstrated his preoccupation with gaining access to the City and County Hospital in order to provide clinical experience for the students. Except for continued disappointment on this account, progress during the first Session was gratifying. The construction of the new building and organization of the College were completed. The first course of lectures was concluded with the graduation of eight students and a Valedictory Address by Dr. Toland. In his remarks to the students he emphasized the ethical principles governing medical practice and relations with other physicians, and indicated by the following comment that control of the County Hospital was still very much on his mind:[49]

All we have to regret is that the authorities of this city have not placed you under great and lasting obligations to them for their cooperation with us, in endeavoring to build up an institution that must succeed, and ere long will become an honor to the state; and for affording you the facilities for instruction to which as citizens you are justly entitled. . .You, the young men of California, by the exclusion of the Faculty, have been denied access to the public hospital of this city, by men occupying a position from which every petty private prejudice should be excluded for your benefit. .

In the Valedictory Dr. Toland also alluded to the "public" nature of the College building and appealed for community and student support of the College Library:

In the erection of this edifice, I have neither asked for nor received assistance; and unlike most public buildings, it is not involved in debt. I have also furnished a chemical laboratory sufficient for its present wants. The building is now completed, but not a single book adorns its walls. You have consequently been deprived of all the advantages to be derived from that source. Yet I hope, through the united efforts of its friends, that ere long they may be covered with standard medical works. And, gentlemen, will not each and all of you, when success crowns your efforts, contribute in proportion to your ability, and prepare a niche in this institution which will bear your names and transmit them to posterity.

According to the following editorial by Dr. Gibbons in the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press for April 1865, the former Cooper professors appeared at the end of the first Session of the College to be resigned to the extinction of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific:[50]

On the institution of the "Toland Medical College," last winter, a number of the Professors of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, accepted chairs in that College, and the course of instruction in the older school was suspended. It is not probable that the school will be continued or revived. There is neither necessity nor material for two Medical Colleges in California, and the attempt to maintain more than one might lead to such rivalry and contention as would be injurious to the profession and to the interests of medical science.

National Events

In the Spring of 1865, as the first Session of Toland Medical College drew to a successful conclusion, the Civil war entered its final stage. As we have suggested previously, it is unlikely that tension between Southern and Northern adherents in the medical profession was responsible for the demise of medical organizations in San Francisco and the State of California. In fact, Toland Medical College, founded by a Southerner from the flash-point State of South Carolina, was launched during the height of the War. It was for a time the only significant civilian medical organization in the State. It seems fair to credit a keen observer such as Henry Gibbons, Sr., with a correct diagnosis of the fatal affliction that led to the decline and disappearance of the early medical societies. In the following editorial on the subject, he does not mention North-South hostility as a factor:[51]

Doctors are proverbially ungovernable. They appreciate order and discipline, but in others rather than in themselves. The germs of insubordination appear to be infused in the blood of the student by the dry bones and the cadaver of his novitiate. Given one-half the doctors in any community, to dictate and rule, and another half to submit, there will be perpetual harmony in camp. But the proportion of non-resistants is never so large as fifty per cent. In California, it is not much more than five. In the beginning, twenty years ago, it was still less. Society was then in its infancy - a villainous infancy, one might say. There was no medical profession properly speaking. .

Medical societies were formed at (San Francisco) and Sacramento and several other places, and a State Society was organized in 1856. The latter flourished for a number of years, but finally received its death-blow in an attempt to expel a member (Elias Cooper) for some alleged misconduct. This is the rock, let me say, on which three out of four medical organizations have foundered. There are men in our profession everywhere who insist on making the Society a theatre for canvassing private or personal quarrels. It is in the power of a few individuals to destroy the harmony and usefulness of large bodies by such conduct. . .

Profiting by the lessons of the past, Societies springing up more recently have taken care to shut out personal controversies, and have concentrated their labors on the culture of medicine. . .Present circumstances are highly favorable to a revival of medicine on the Pacific Coast.

The Civil War and its aftermath caused little disruption in San Francisco because soon after the first inauguration of the Republican President Lincoln in 1861 the California State Legislature, reflecting strong public sentiment, adopted resolutions firmly aligning the State with the Union cause and opposed to the Secessionists. Also in 1861 Leland Stanford, a committed Unionist, was elected as the first Republican governor of the State. The reelection of Lincoln on the Republican ticket in November 1864, and the defeat of the Democrats who supported the rebellion, led to an enthusiastic celebration in San Francisco.[52]

In April 1865, just after the close of the First Annual Session of Toland College, General Lee was forced to retreat from the defense of Richmond, capitol of the Confederacy, and the city fell to the Union Army. Lee's surrender to Grant at the tiny village of Appomattox Court House in Virginia on 9 April 1865 marked the symbolic end of the war. President Lincoln's plans for reconciliation between the North and South were magnanimous and augured well for early restoration of a more perfect union. There must be no more bloodshed, no persecution, he said. And then, in a senseless act of violence, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14th. A brief outbreak of mob violence against Democratic newspapers in San Francisco, sparked by word of Lincoln's assassination, was the only major disturbance of the peace on the West Coast during the Civil War.

In the wake of the unspeakable tragedy of Lincoln's death, the Radicals in Congress gained control of the national government by appealing to the popular thirst for revenge. There followed the dozen years of reprisal by the North and resistance by the South known as the Reconstruction.[53]

Second Annual Session of Toland Medical College
24 July to 3 December 1865

The Faculty and the Board of Trustees decided to change the order of instruction from winter to summer with the Second Session to begin on 24 July 1865, and the third and subsequent Sessions to begin on the first of June. The principal reason for the change was the exceptional suitability of the cool summer season in San Francisco for medical studies.[54]

At the beginning of the Second Session, Dr. Toland again gave the Introductory Lecture. On this occasion he eulogized Valentine Mott who had died recently in New York (on 26 April 1865). He greatly admired Mott's technical virtuosity, referring to his ligation of the innominate artery as a famous operation, entitling him "to occupy the highest position as a surgeon." He deplored the unjust criticism Professor Mott endured from his enemies who accused him of egotism because he preserved and exhibited the ligature from the innominate artery to his class. Toland reminded the students that "it was not as a lecturer that (Mott) acquired his great and extensive reputation, but by his originality and dexterity as an operator" - an observation applicable to both Cooper and Toland himself.[55]

At the annual Commencement ending the Second Session of Toland Medical College, the M. D. degree was conferred on four graduates. The Valedictory Address by Professor Morse, enlivened by sarcasm and his usual eloquent delivery, was highly appreciated by the large audience of ladies and gentlemen. It was announced that the third Session of the College would commence on the first Monday of June in 1866 and terminate on the last day of September, thus presumably establishing the schedule to be followed in future years.[56][57]

Several faculty changes occurred after the end of the Second Session. Professor Brown resigned the chair of Anatomy by reason of ill-health and objections to changing his residence from San Jose to San Francisco. The chair of Anatomy was assumed by Dr. Lane whose chair of Physiology was taken by Dr. Ayres. The name of the Physiology chair was changed to Institutes of Medicine with the result that Dr. Ayres became Professor of Institutes of Medicine while his chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine was absorbed by Dr. Morse whose title became Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, and Clinical Medicine and Diagnosis.[58]

Professor Oxland, having removed from California, relinquished the chair of Chemistry which was filled by the appointment of Thomas Price, M. D., Professor of Chemistry in the University (City) College of San Francisco, a gentleman of high standing in the community as a practical and theoretical chemist, and an efficient teacher of science. He proved to be compatible with the Cooper contingent on the Toland Faculty.[59][60]

Due to these changes, the Faculty stood as follows at the beginning of the Third Session:

Toland College Faculty 1866

  • H. H. Toland, M. D., President
    Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery
  • James Blake, M. D.,
    Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children
  • Levi C. Lane, M. D.,
    Professor of Anatomy
  • W. O. Ayer, M. D., Dean
    Professor of Institutes of Medicine
  • J. F. Morse, M. D.,
    Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, and Clinical Medicine and Diagnosis
  • Thos. Bennett, M. D.,
    Professor of General Pathology
  • Henry Gibbons, Sr., M. D.,
    Professor of Materia Medica
  • Thomas Price, M. D.,
    Professor of Chemistry

Third Annual Session of Toland Medical College
4 June to 2 October 1866

The Opening Address was delivered on the 4th of June by Professor Lane. His remarks revealed a nostalgia for the Cooper school not previously expressed openly and with such feeling:[61]

Some seven years ago, there was founded in this city a Medical College, known as the "Medical Department of the University of the Pacific." This School, which, for a season, had a severe struggle for existence, to which it would have succumbed had it not been for the indomitable energy of its founder, finally outlived the opposition which had been waged against it, and attained to what seemed a permanent foothold among the literary establishments of this Coast. Under its auspices a number of young men were invested with the toga virilis of medical manhood, whose subsequent careers bear ample evidence of the correctness of their teaching, and whose professional success would be flattering testimonial to any Alma Mater. But, unfortunately, as the first sunbeams began to fall upon this infant edifice, the finger of death snatched from it the master spirit to whom it owed its foundation. The ashes of its founder, the late Dr. Cooper, now repose beneath a simple obelisk in the adjacent city of the dead; - the structure which he had reared, no longer sustained by his inspiring energy, like an arch bereft of its keystone, did not long survive him.

Dr. Lane also had the following complimentary words for Dr. Toland, suggesting thereby that the Cooper group was at the time satisfied with conditions at Toland College:

At that period, now near two years ago, a gentleman of this city, whom fortune has singularly favored in his profession, and who had long ago conceived the plan of founding a Medical School on this Coast, now deemed the occasion a fortunate one for executing his long-cherished project. The experience of the previous school had already demonstrated the fact that such an institution was one of the wants of the Pacific States; and in establishing it, he determined that, in thoroughness and completeness of teaching, it should leave nothing undone to fit young men for the practice of Medicine; in fact, that it should rival the best of similar institutions in the Atlantic States.

As pecuniary embarrassments have frequently blighted the prospects of several of our Eastern Medical Schools, to forego all misfortune from this cause, and set an example which few could and still fewer would imitate, he erected a building at his own expense, which could not have been little, from the manorial character of the edifice we today occupy. This done, he chose a Faculty and a Board of Trustees, and to the latter he confided the care of the Institution, which, in justice to him as founder and donor, has been named Toland Medical College. And further, as evidence of his disinterestedness, he has remitted all the fees pertaining to his Chair, that of Surgery; and besides, that the school should lose everything of a private character, he has bequeathed it wholly to the State of California, a magnificent gift to her and the Science of Medicine; and, if I predict aright, it is destined to be, in the future, the cherished resort of the young men of our State, who may desire to qualify themselves for the practice of our noble profession.

At the Annual Commencement of the third Session on 2 October 1866, the degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred on ten graduates. The Valedictory Address by Professor Bennett, deemed "exceedingly appropriate and eloquent," was delivered to an attentive audience, most of whom were ladies, which completely filled the hall.

Dean Ayres Resigns, Professor Bennett Elected Dean

Professor Ayres resigned the deanship and his professorial appointment with regret because his absence from the city during the forthcoming Session would make it impossible for him to perform the duties of these positions. The following minutes of the Toland Faculty Meeting of 17 April 1867 deal with the question of his replacement:[62][63]

The President announced that he had verbally received from Dr. Ayres his resignation of the Chair of Physiology and his office of Dean of the Faculty. The announcement was received and accepted.

Dr. Bennett nominated Dr. J. Campbell Shorb to fill the Chair of Physiology. Dr. Blake seconded the nomination. Dr. Gibbons nominated Dr. James P. Whitney . Dr. Morse seconded the nomination. On vote being taken, Dr. Shorb was elected.

On motion of the President, the Faculty then proceeded to elect a Dean. On the first vote Drs. Lane and Bennett had a tie vote. On the second vote, Dr. Bennett was elected.

The election of Dr. Shorb to succeed Dr. Ayres as Professor of Physiology, and of Professor Bennett to replace him as Dean was considered by the respected historian of California Medicine, Henry Harris,[64] to be evidence of a developing rift between partisans of the late Cooper, namely Lane, Gibbons, Morse and Price, and the other members of the Toland Faculty. While It is difficult to find in the collected minutes of the Toland Faculty significant evidence of dissension, such records being usually sanitized, we shall soon see that Dean Bennett did not hesitate to publicly demean his colleague, Dr. Gibbons. Such unkindness was more than suggestive of tension among the professors.

Fourth Annual Session of Toland Medical College
3 June to 10 October 1867

The session opened with an Introductory Lecture by Professor Gibbons who could always be counted on for entertaining as well as cogent remarks. He concluded the Lecture by urging the importance of overcoming popular opposition to dissection of the human body for scientific purposes:[65]

The same irrational prejudice which would prohibit all dissections of the dead body, also interferes with examinations after death for the purpose of ascertaining the seat and nature of disease. Physicians should strive to educate the popular mind on this point by making examinations whenever practicable. . .Let me urge the propriety of making post mortem examinations in all cases where consent can be obtained. To young physicians is this especially important. It familiarizes them with the use of the scalpel, and perfects their knowledge of Anatomy, to some extent. It imparts knowledge, positive or negative, in regard to disease. It familiarizes the popular mind to a great necessity of science.

The graduation exercises of the Fourth Session were held in the American Theatre on the evening of 10 October 1867. Seven graduates were awarded M. D. degrees. Professor Blake, who had been appointed to deliver the Valedictory Address, lost his voice from an attack of bronchitis. He therefore requested that the Valedictory be read for him by Professor Bennett who was also now the Dean, having been elected just prior to the Session to succeed Dr. Ayres.

At a meeting of the Toland Medical Faculty on 5 November 1867 Professor Bennett was reelected as Dean of the College, his first term having expired in October.

Fifth Annual Session of Toland Medical College
6 July to 5 November 1868

Beginning with this Session, the opening date of the Lecture Course was again changed. This and future Sessions were scheduled to begin on the first Monday of July instead of June as formerly. It was reasoned that it would still be possible with the July start date to complete the four months' course before the beginning of the winter rains. The Fifth Session opened with an Introductory Lecture by Professor Price.[66][67]

At the Commencement exercises on November 5th 1868, Professor Morse delivered the Valedictory Address to a large and interested audience, a considerable proportion of which was composed of Ladies. After the Address Dean Bennett conferred degrees on six graduates.[68]

During the Fifth Session there was an extracurricular development that deserves comment. Internecine strife within San Francisco's medical community seemed to abate with the demise of the medical societies which provided the venue for the factional disputes with which we are already familiar. Also conducive to a more collegial atmosphere was the merging in 1865 of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and the San Francisco Medical Press under the editorship of the refined and scrupulous Henry Gibbons Sr. He was joined by his able son, Henry Gibbons, Jr., as Associate Editor in 1867. Under the management of these diligent and respected medical journalists, the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal acquired the national respect it could not enjoy while being used for unseemly personal attacks such as those of Wooster on Elias Cooper and of Stillman on Toland.

We mentioned previously that the Faculty of Toland Medical College voted a subsidy to the Journal in 1864 to assure ample favorable attention to College affairs. That subsidy was discontinued in 1867. Although Editor Gibbons did not exercise his editorial pen vigorously in promoting the College, such matters as schedules of Annual Sessions, lists of graduates, Faculty changes, Introductory Lectures and Valedictory Addresses were adequately reported. Proceedings of the renascent medical societies such as the San Francisco Medical Society which Dr. Gibbons was anxious to encourage were well covered and physicians in the region were stimulated to submit original articles. Under the editorship of the Gibbonses, the Journal thus assumed a non-partisan, intellectual tone with journalistic invective and the airing of professional rivalries strictly proscribed.[69]

In the Summer of 1868, when the Journal was prospering and gaining distinction as the sole voice of the profession on the West Coast, a new monthly publication appeared in San Francisco, the California Medical Gazette. The Editor of the Gazette was none other than Professor (and Dean) Thomas Bennett. First Assistant Editor was Professor J. Campbell Shorb. Both were, of course, colleagues of Professor Gibbons on the Faculty of Toland Medical College. It has been inferred from voting behavior in Faculty meetings, and Lane's loss in his bid for the deanship, that there was polarization within the College Faculty. If so, the gravity of the schism was not fully apparent until Dean Bennett introduced the first issue of the Gazette with a "Salutatory" containing disparaging remarks about the Journal. This critique reflected unfavorably on Editor Gibbons who took stern exception to it. The following excerpts from the Salutatory include the objectionable comments:[70]

For some years past, the profession has not been without an organ, in which they could disseminate their opinions, and mutually convey and receive instruction. A medical journal has in fact been published in San Francisco for ten years (i. e. the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal). From various causes, which it is unnecessary to mention, this journal has never met with cordial support or cooperation from the profession; its career has never met with success. Nevertheless, under varying vicissitudes and many editorial changes, it has lived on - today, certainly, brighter and better than at any former portion of its existence. Still it does not, and never has, worthily represented the profession on the Pacific Coast.

With this feeling, and in the earnest hope and desire to produce a journal that shall be worthy of the medical profession here, and represent it properly abroad, we have been induced to issue the California Medical Gazette.

To this pompous indictment of his Journal, Professor Gibbons responded at once with an editorial in the August 1868 issue:[71]

. . .Certain it is that the several editors of the Journal, and its contributors and patrons, have done nearly all that has ever been done in California for medical association, medical education and medical literature. And it illy becomes those who have been sleeping at their post whilst the work was going on, and who now step in to reap a harvest which they did not plant, to fling discredit on the old and faithful laborers in the field. . .

To be forced into these personal matters is extremely distasteful to us. It is the first time we have ever received any other treatment from a contemporary than kindness and courtesy. We have never had a word to say against another journal, or against members of the profession. Nor have we been in the habit of lauding ourselves and assuming to be the exclusive representatives of the profession. But we now take the liberty to assert that our Journal does represent the profession of the Pacific Coast and is in harmony with it, excepting a few individuals in San Francisco who are actuated by motives of personal character by no means creditable to them. . .

Editors Bennett and Gibbons then both issued rebuttals, each claiming the high ground. These exchanges of unpleasantries set the stage for more serious contention over larger issues to be addressed in the second and final volume of the short-lived Gazette. Senior Editor of Volume 2 (September 1869 through August 1870) was the acid-penned J. D. B Stillman, who now assumed the role of defender of the Toland Medical College whose founder he had previously accused of plagiary.[72][73]

Sixth Annual Session of Toland Medical College
1 July to 3 November 1869

Professor Shorb delivered the Introductory Lecture on the subject of the "Benevolence of Medicine" which was printed in full in Volume I of the California Medical Gazette. In referring to the triumphs of medicine, Dr. Shorb cited quinine, opium and chloroform as among medicine's most significant benefactions to mankind. His representation of chloroform as the agent responsible for the advent of anesthesia was particularly unfortunate. He did not so much as mention ether and was apparently unaware that the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal (and other medical journals world-wide) had for years reported the lethal properties of chloroform and the relative safety of ether. As recently as January 1868, in an editorial in the PMSJ, Dr. Henry Gibbons, Jr., had warned that the high incidence of death from chloroform represented a fearful mortality and "shows also the magnitude of the responsibility which those who persist in giving chloroform take upon themselves, when a far safer anesthetic, equally reliable, is at hand."[74][75][76]

Not content to drop the subject, Dr. Stillman got out of his depth and wrote an editorial entitled "Chloroform Versus Ether" in the May 1870 issue of Volume 2 of the Gazette. He implied that the danger of chloroform was probably no greater than that from ether, and stated that it is fear of the operation which produces the physiological conditions conducive to death from anesthetics. "When the patient has no fear for the operation, I have none in administering chloroform." Paradoxically, Stillman followed his editorial with a report from the British Medical Journal of a 22 year-old woman under operation for ovarian tumor. Sir James Y. Simpson, who originally introduced the agent, was administering chloroform himself while a colleague performed the surgery. Sir James placed over both nose and mouth a single layer of towel and on it dropped chloroform - a method likely to prevent adequate ventilation. In the midst of the operation, as he watched from the head of the table, the patient suddenly collapsed and could not be resuscitated. A not untypical sequence of events in the many fatalities then attributable to chloroform. To his credit, Sir James fully and frankly reported the tragedy, with not the slightest evasion, as "a case of death from chloroform."[77]

Even as the May issue of the Gazette went to press, the world-acclaimed Sir James was mortally ill. He died on 6 May 1870. His last medical writing was a letter to Dr. Jacob Bigelow of Boston with whom he was engaged in controversy over chloroform vs. ether. Like many of his contemporaries, Sir James not only found it difficult to accept the prohibitive lethality of chloroform, but also could not adjust to other developments in the rapidly changing times. For example, To the very end Sir James persisted in his rejection of the Listerian doctrine of antisepsis.[78][79][80]

Illness of Professor Morse

During the latter part of the Sixth Session, Professor Morse was obliged to leave the city and go abroad because of ill health, thus depriving Lane, Gibbons and Price of a valued colleague. In January of 1870 Dr. Morse was reported in the PMSJ to be in Naples, much improved of his rheumatism.[81][82]

University of California Opens

On 23 September 1869 the University of California admitted its first class consisting of about forty students under the instruction of a Faculty of ten members. The University had its remote origin in a small secondary school known as the College School, established in Oakland in 1853 by the visionary Reverend Henry Durant. It is said that the Reverend came to California "with college on the brain," and that he left his Congregational parish in Byfield, Massachusetts, for the West "with the purpose of founding a university fully formed in his mind." The College School was succeeded by the post-secondary College of California in 1860. Through negotiations, which included ceding its properties consisting of real estate in Oakland and vacant land in Berkeley, the College of California was taken over by the State and became the University of California. The Charter of the University was signed by Governor Haight on 23 March 1868. The University classes met in the Oakland facilities of the College of California from 1869 until the graduation of the class of 1873 when commencement exercises were held in the new university buildings then nearing completion at the present site in Berkeley.

The first Professor to be appointed to the University was John Le Conte, M. D., graduate of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. He was a man of broad scientific interests who no longer practiced medicine. His appointment at the University of California was as Professor of Physics. At the time of this appointment he was serving as Professor and Chairman of the Department of Physics in South Carolina College at Columbia. Upon arriving in California in March 1869, Professor Le Conte was given the responsibility to organize the University for its opening in September and on 14 June 1869 he was named Acting President. We shall later see how he came to join the medical faculty of Hugh Toland as Professor of Physiology in 1870. Dr. Toland was also a former resident of Columbia, South Carolina.

On 16 August 1870 Reverend Durant, founder of the predecessor College School, was elected first President of the University. Upon his retirement the able Daniel C. Gilman, of Yale background, was formally installed in Oakland as the University of California's second President on 7 November 1872.[83]

Professor Lane's Valedictory

The Commencement exercises concluding the Sixth Session of the Toland School took place on the third of November 1869. Dean Bennett awarded nine medical degrees. Professor Lane delivered the Valedictory Address, a wide-ranging view of medicine in antiquity and literature, interspersed with classical allusions and concluding with an inspirational charge to the graduates:[84]

Equipped, then, Gentlemen, with these principles of science and virtue, you will go forth to the world upon no uncertain mission; a high and noble sphere will be yours, since to you suffering humanity will ever turn its eyes for aid and relief. Now, as your Alma Mater bids you adieu, she would fain say, as she clings to you in parting, never prove unworthy of the great profession into which, this day, as equal members, she has introduced you; and, though Fame as yet sounds no note in your behalf, still, if you will turn your ears and listen closely, you will catch the sounds of her trumpet echoing from the early-coming years.

Even as he spoke, Professor Lane was privately contemplating his own departure from the Toland College. He had not found there the collegial spirit and institutional goals that still held the members of the former Cooper Faculty in patient expectation, awaiting the call to revive the old school.

Endnotes

  1. Minutes of the Board of Trustees, University of the Pacific, during the period 16 September 1858 to 15 December 1863 - Box 1 Folder 1.4 (final 16 cards), Robert G. Whitfield Collection - MSS 30, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford
  2. Levi C. Lane , "Cooper's Clinical Infirmary," San Francisco Medical Press 3, no. 12 (Oct 1862): 248 Lane Library catalog record
  3. Levi C. Lane , "Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," San Francisco Medical Press 3, no. 12 (Oct 1862): 247 Lane Library catalog record
  4. A. J. Bowie , "Valedictory Address to the Graduating Class in the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," San Francisco Medical Press 5, no. 13 (Apr 1863): 16-24 Lane Library catalog record
  5. Levi C. Lane , "Editor's Table: Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," San Francisco Medical Press 5, no. 13 (Apr 1863): 52-56 Lane Library catalog record
  6. Register of Medical Department of University of the Pacific. Record of Students and Instructors, April 1859 to January 1883, Medical Department of the University of the Pacific Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford
  7. Levi C. Lane , "Editor's Table: Communication from Medical Class of the University of the Pacific," San Francisco Medical Press 5, no. 13 (Apr 1863): 58-59 Lane Library catalog record
  8. Hippocratic , "Hippocratic Oath," in Charles Singer and E. Ashworth Underwood , A Short History of Medicine, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), pp. 31-32. "I will impart this Art by precept, by lecture and by every mode of teaching. . . Lane Library catalog record
  9. Levi C. Lane , "Editor's Table: Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," San Francisco Medical Press 5, no. 13 (Apr 1863): 55 Lane Library catalog record
  10. Minutes of the Board of Trustees, University of the Pacific, during the period 16 September 1858 to 15 December 1863 - Box 1 Folder 1.4 (final 16 cards), Robert G. Whitfield Collection - MSS 30, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford
  11. Levi C. Lane , "Editorial: Changes in the Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," San Francisco Medical Press 5, no. 15 (Oct 1863): 124 Lane Library catalog record
  12. Annual announcement of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, Session of 1863-64, p. 2 Lane Library catalog record
  13. John F. Morse , "Introductory Lecture, delivered at the opening of the Course of Lectures of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, Session of 1863-64," San Francisco Medical Press 6, no. 16 (Jan 1864): 170-171 Lane Library catalog record
  14. John F. Morse et al, "Report of Committee on Medical Education," Transactions of the Second Session of the Medical Society of the State of California (February 11-13, 1857) pp. 27-28 Lane Library catalog record
  15. Levi C. Lane , "Revisions and Notices: Notice to Medical Students," San Francisco Medical Press 6, no. 16 (Jan 1864): 191 Lane Library catalog record
  16. Levi C. Lane , "Revisions and Notices: Notice to Medical Students," San Francisco Medical Press 6, no. 16 (Jan 1864): 191 Lane Library catalog record
  17. Levi C. Lane , "Valedictory Address; to the Graduating Class of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, delivered March 18, 1864," San Francisco Medical Press 6, no. 17 (April 1864): 1-8 Lane Library catalog record
  18. Henry Gibbons, Jr. , "The inside of a military hospital," San Francisco Medical Press 6, no. 18 (Jul 1864): 67-70 Lane Library catalog record
  19. Samuel E. Morison , The Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p, 624
  20. Annual announcement of the Medical College of the Pacific, Session of 1872, p. 14 Lane Library catalog record
  21. Register of Medical Department, University of the Pacific and Medical College of the Pacific, April 1859 to January 1883 - Box 1.7, Medical Department of the University of the Pacific Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford Lane Library catalog record
  22. Frances T. Gardner , "King Cole of California," Annals of Medical History 3rd ser., 2, no. 4 (Jul 1940): 337-340 Lane Library catalog record
  23. Henry Gibbons, Sr. , "Editor's Table: The Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," San Francisco Medical Press 6, no. 18 (Jul 1864): 80-81 Lane Library catalog record
  24. Henry Gibbons, Sr. , "Editor's Table: A new medical school," San Francisco Medical Press 6, no. 18 (Jul 1864): 8 Lane Library catalog record
  25. Robert G. Whitfield , "Historical Development of the Stanford School of Medicine," A Thesis Submitted to the School of Education of Stanford University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, pp. 66-71. Lane Medical Library H747H S7W5.1949 Lane Library catalog record
  26. John F. Morse , "Editor's Table: Toland's Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 296-298 Lane Library catalog record
  27. Illustrations from UCSF 1. Obtain copy of Lithograph of Toland Medical College- see Henry Harris , California's Medical Story opposite p. 134. For Photo see Illustrated History of the University of California, 1868-1895, p. 254 2. Photos of Toland and Cole (Obtained from UCSF.)
  28. John F. Morse , "Editorial: The Toland College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 373-374 Lane Library catalog record
  29. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. W. Stacey, Inc., 1932), p. 135 Lane Library catalog record
  30. William C. Jones , Illustrated History of the University of California (San Francisco: Frank H. Dukesmith, 1895 Lane Library catalog record
  31. California State Medical Society , "Proceedings of the Meeting of the Society, 21-22 April 1875," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 16, no. 12 (May 1875): 600 Lane Library catalog record
  32. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. W. Stacey, Inc., 1932), p. 135 Lane Library catalog record
  33. Henry Gibbons, Sr. , Introductory Lecture to the Eighth Session of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific (San Francisco: Printed by John H. Carmany and Co., 1870), pp. 8-9 Lane Library catalog record
  34. Emmet Rixford , "History of Lane Medical Library and Cooper Medical College," Address at the Dedication of the Lane Medical Library (Leland Stanford Junior University Publications, Trustees Series, No. 22, 1912), p. 11 Lane Library catalog record
  35. Henry Gibbons, Sr. , Introductory Lecture to the Eighth Session of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific (San Francisco: Printed by John H. Carmany and Co., 1870), pp. 8-9 Lane Library catalog record
  36. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. W. Stacey, Inc., 1932), p. 135 Lane Library catalog record
  37. Victor J. Fourgeaud , "Editorial: Resignation as Editor," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 267 Lane Library catalog record
  38. John D. Morse , "Editorial: Assumption of editorial management," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 353 Lane Library catalog record
  39. "Faculty Minutes, 15 Nov 1864 and 7 July 1866," Toland Medical College, Faculty Minutes, 5 Nov 1864 - 31 Oct 1871. Archives Collection, University of California Medical Center Library, San Francisco
  40. John F. Morse , "Editorial: Medical College and the Public," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 321-322 Lane Library catalog record
  41. John F. Morse , "Editorial: Medical College and the Public," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 325 Lane Library catalog record
  42. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. W. Stacey, Inc., 1932), p. 137
  43. John F. Morse , "Editor's Table: Toland's Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 297
  44. John F. Morse , "Editorial: Medical College and the Public," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 324-325 Lane Library catalog record
  45. John F. Morse , "Editorial: The Hospital," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 354 Lane Library catalog record
  46. John F. Morse , "Editorial: The Hospital," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 7 (1864): 374-375 Lane Library catalog record
  47. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. W. Stacey, Inc., 1932), p. 137 Lane Library catalog record
  48. "Faculty Minutes, 16 March 1871," Toland Medical College, Faculty Minutes, 5 Nov 1864 - 31 Oct 1871, Archives Collection, University of California Medical Center Library, San Francisco
  49. Hubert H. Toland , "Valedictory Address," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 8 (Apr 1865): 21-26 Lane Library catalog record
  50. Henry Gibbons , "Editor's Table: The Medical Schools of California," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 8 (Apr 1865): 32 Lane Library catalog record
  51. Henry Gibbons , "Introductory Lecture to the Eighth Session of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific: Delivered July 5, 1870," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 13 (Aug 1870): 145-148 Lane Library catalog record
  52. John S. Hittell , A History of San Francisco and Incidentally of the State of California (San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft and Company, 1878), pp. 331-351
  53. Samuel E. Morison , The Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), pp. 688-705
  54. Henry Gibbons , "Editor's Table: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 8 (Jun 1865): 99 Lane Library catalog record
  55. Hugh H. Toland , "The Life and Character of the late Valentine Mott, M. D.," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 8 (Oct 1865): 163-174 Lane Library catalog record
  56. Henry Gibbons , "Editor's Table: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 8 (Dec 1865): 255 Lane Library catalog record
  57. Henry Gibbons , "Editor's Table: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 8 (Feb 1866): 314 Lane Library catalog record
  58. Henry Gibbons , "Editor's Table: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 9 (Apr 1866): 48 Lane Library catalog record
  59. Thomas Price , "Examination of blood stains," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 10 (Dec 1867): 289 Lane Library catalog record
  60. Henry Gibbons , "Editor's Table: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press 9 (Jun 1866): 97 Lane Library catalog record
  61. Levi C. Lane , Opening Address at Toland Medical College, June 4th 1866 (San Francisco: T. G Spear, Printer, 1866), pp. 6-8. Stanford. Cooper Medical College Addresses Misc. 1861-1896. (Lane Medical Archives , Stanford. H747. C7C7. 1861-1896.) Lane Library catalog record
  62. Henry Gibbons , "News Item: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 10 (June 1867): 46.Lane Library catalog record
  63. "Faculty Minutes, 17 April 1867," Toland Medical College, Faculty Minutes, 5 Nov 1864 - 31 Oct 1871, Archives Collection, University of California Medical Center Library, San Francisco.
  64. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. W. Stacey, Inc., 1932), p. 135 Lane Library catalog record
  65. Henry Gibbons , Introductory Lecture of the Fourth Session of Toland Medical College (San Francisco: T. G. Spear and Co., Printers, 1867), pp. 21-22. Cooper Medical College Addresses, 1861-1896. Toland Medical College Addresses, 1866-1869. Lane Medical Archives H747H. C7C7. 1861-1896 Lane Library catalog record
  66. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: Medical Schools," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 10 (Dec 1867): 323Lane Library catalog record
  67. Henry Gibbons , "Items of News: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 11 (Jul 1 868): 93 Lane Library catalog record
  68. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: Toland Medical College - Graduation," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 11 (Dec 1868): 332 Lane Library catalog record
  69. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: Publication and Content of the Journal," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 10 (Jun 1867): 29 Lane Library catalog record
  70. Thomas Bennett , editor, "Salutatory," California Medical Gazette 1 (Jul 1868): 16. (Vol. 1, July 1868-August 1869) Lane Library catalog record
  71. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: The California Medical Gazette and the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 11 (Aug 1868): 125-128 Lane Library catalog record
  72. Thomas Bennett , editor, "Accusation and Justification," California Medical Gazette 1 (Sep 1868): 63-64 Lane Library catalog record
  73. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: The California Medical Gazette and the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 11 (Oct 1868): 223-225 Lane Library catalog record
  74. J. Campbell Shorb , "Benevolence in Medicine," California Medical Gazette 1 (Aug 1869): 249-252 Lane Library catalog record
  75. Henry Gibbons , "News Item: Toland Medical College," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 11 (Apr 1869): 526 Lane Library catalog record
  76. Henry Gibbons, Jr. , "Editorial: Deaths from chloroform," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 1 (Jan 1868): 367-368 Lane Library catalog record
  77. J. D. B. Stillman , "Editorial: Chloroform versus ether," California Medical Gazette 2 (May 1870): 201-202 Lane Library catalog record
  78. J. D. B. Stillman , "Editorial: Sir James Y. Simpson," California Medical Gazette 2 (July 1870): 240-241 Lane Library catalog record
  79. Henry Gibbons , "The cause of Dr. Simpson's death," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 13 (Dec 1870): 319-320 Lane Library catalog record
  80. Richard A. Leonardo , History of Surgery (New York: Froben Press, 1943), p. 254 Lane Library catalog record
  81. Henry Gibbons, Jr. , "Proceedings of the San Francisco Medical Society, 14 September 1869," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 12, no. 30 (Nov 1869): 270 Lane Library catalog record
  82. Henry Gibbons , "Editorial: The many friends of Professor J. F. Morse," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 12 (Jan 1870): 371 Lane Library catalog record
  83. William C. Jones , Illustrated History of the University of California (San Francisco: Frank H. Dukesmith, 1895), pp. 26-54, pp. 59-60, and p. 252 Lane Library catalog record
  84. Levi C. Lane , Valedictory Address, Delivered at the Closing Exercises of Toland Medical College, November 1869 (San Francisco: Spear and Co., Printers, 1869) p. 18. Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. H747H. C7C7 Lane Library catalog record
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