Stanford University School of Medicine and the Predecessor Schools: An Historical Perspective
Part III. Founding of First Medical School and Successions 1858-

Chapter 16. 1st and 2nd Annual Sessions Medical Dept, University of the Pacific 1859 - 1860

Opening Ceremony Medical Department, University of the Pacific

At eight o'clock on the evening of Thursday May the 5th a large and intelligent concourse of persons convened to witness the ceremony attendant on the formal opening of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. At a little after the hour the Board of Trustees and Faculty of Medicine entered and took seats on either side of the stage. The exercises were opened with prayer after which the Honorable George Barstow, Professor of Medical Jurisprudence, delivered a Salutory Address to the Board of Trustees of which the following are the fervent introductory passages:[1][2]

My colleagues have confided to me, on this occasion, the agreeable duty of giving formal expression of our thanks to you, that in this great state, so recently called into existence by the power of the American people in their triumphant progress, you have seen fit to establish an institution of learning.

We thank you that in this, the chief city of that new world which American enterprise has built upon the shore of the Pacific ocean, at once a witness and a monument to the irresistible energy of Freedom - that here in San Francisco you have, with wise forethought, established the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific.

The President of the Board, Reverend Briggs, was unable to attend the Ceremony and the responsibility to deliver a response to Professor Barstow's eloquent salutation fell at the last moment upon the Reverend Jesse T. Peck. He rose to the occasion with an impromptu peroration of which the following is the remarkably insightful passage he addressed directly to the Faculty of the Medical Department:[3]

But, gentlemen, to you belongs not merely the credit of maturing and bringing forward the plan, but also that of making the sacrifices and performing the labor of its inauguration; and I need not tell you that these sacrifices and exertions must be of no ordinary kind. No institution can raise and gain an elevated rank without a struggle. Every truly great idea must battle for its place amid the selfish ambition and the fierce antagonisms of this frenzied age; and no one of us here can claim the prophetic gift in so high a degree as to venture to indicate the conflict you are destined to pass in the development of your favorite scheme. We doubt not you will maintain your position with becoming energy and with high professional ability; and I have no hesitancy in pledging to you, on the part of the Board, a firm and hearty cooperation. Other similar institutions will doubtless arise, each fulfilling its peculiar claims to the public consideration and patronage; but as the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific will inevitably be the oldest school of medicine and surgery on the Pacific Coast, let us resolve that it shall be the best.

Now Professor Barstow returned to the podium to deliver an eloquent and wide ranging Introductory Address dealing with the intellectual and moral obligations of the physician, and the importance of education to the future of the nation. The reporter from the Alta California who covered the proceedings described his discourse as a masterly effort that throughout its delivery riveted the attention of the audience.

The Reverend Mr. Cutler, a clergyman not associated with the University of the Pacific, gave the final address of the evening. Speaking for the community at large he welcomed the inauguration of the Medical Department as adding another force to the great cause of education and mental culture on the Pacific coast where "a new society has come into being and is in the process of crystalization."[4]

All honor, then, to the zeal and enterprise of those men who have founded this Department of the University of the Pacific. It should bear the name of Cooper, written on its very front. By its success and stability as an institution for the promotion of surgery and medicine - the first established on the Pacific ocean - it will carry down to posterity the names of Cooper, and Morison, and Rowell, and Cole, and Carman, and Barstow; names already honorably associated with learning, ability and skill in their professions; and the deep satisfaction will be theirs, of here planting a seed, the leaf of whose tree shall be for the physical healing of this and generations to come.

We shall leave the last commentary on this memorable occasion to the reporter from Alta California who wrote:[5]

Thus was duly inaugurated the first Medical College on the shores of the Pacific. May it go forth "with healing on its wings," and be the means not only of alleviating the distresses of suffering humanity at home, but elevating and improving the character of our educational institutions abroad.

First Annual Session of the Medical Department
May to September 1859

Twelve students[6] were matriculated during the First Session, a respectable beginning for a pioneer medical school on the educational frontier of the country. The question of finding a room for the lectures and of constructing a medical school building had already been discussed in Faculty meetings, reflecting the desire of the Professors to establish the School's independence from any individual's practice or facilities. At the outset, no other suitable accommodations having been secured by the Room Committee, lecture sessions were held in the top story of Cooper's Infirmary. Dean Cole felt that these modest, rent-free quarters were beneath the dignity of the first and only medical school on the Pacific coast and continued to urge the renting of a separate and more conspicuous site. In fact, for a time, he paid the rent out of his own pocket for a part of Union Hall, but it was not many months before classes were moved back to the top floor of the Infirmary. There they remained until three years later when other arrangements were finally made.[7][8]

The Lecture Plan for the year was worked out at a Faculty Meeting on 2 April 1859. According to later commentary by Cooper, the Professors were most conscientious in the performance of their duties and rarely if ever missed a class. Cooper himself carried a heavy teaching load with a one-hour lecture at three p. m. on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, and a two-hour clinical session on Wednesday and Saturday at two o'clock. As mentioned, students in American medical schools often requested a professor to permit them to publish a lecture which pleased them. Also, Introductory and Valedictory Lectures were commonly published by the school. Under the circumstances we are surprised to find that none of Cooper's lectures were ever published.

Early in the First Session of the Medical Department, Dean Cole journeyed to Santa Clara and made a progress report to the Board of Trustees of the University. According to the following excerpt from the Minutes, the Board took the occasion of his visit to establish the procedure for awarding the M. D. degree:[9]

Santa Clara, 7 June 859
Dr. R. Beverly Cole was invited to take a seat with the Board and at their request made an interesting statement of the condition and prospects of the Medical Department. Dr. Peck then offered the following resolution and preamble which were adopted;

First - That upon the recommendation from the Faculty of the Medical Department certifying the proper qualifications in character and acquirements, this board will issue its mandamus for the graduation of candidates to the degree of Doctor of Medicine; and the same order shall be observed in conferring the Honorary title of Doctor of Medicine.

Resolved second - That the Diplomas of graduates in this Department shall be signed by the President of the University and Professors of the Medical Department and sealed with the Medical seal of the University.

From the standpoint of the internal affairs of the Medical Department, the first Annual Session went very smoothly. Two of the twelve matriculated students had previously taken a full course of lectures elsewhere and were therefore awarded the M. D. degree at the close of the Session on 13 September 1859. These two graduates, the first to receive the M. D. degree west of the Mississippi Valley, were:

  • Alfred Atkinson
  • Charles E. A. Hertel.

The Board of Trustees were gratified by the performance of the new Department, as briefly recorded in the Minutes of 13 September 1859:[10]

The Medical Department has just closed its first session under auspicious circumstances. The Faculty matriculated thirteen students of whom two received the degree of M. D. The Department appears to be in a flourishing condition.

Petition for Access to the San Francisco City and Count Hospital

We have already pointed out the need for a medical school to have access to a sizeable, well-managed hospital for clinical teaching. The forward-looking Cooper was, of course, eager to make such an arrangement as soon as possible and to that end submitted the following petition to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors early in 1860:[11]

Date: (Early 1860)
To the Board of Supervisors, City and County of San Francisco:

We the undersigned members of the Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, having established in this city the above institution as a permanent College of Medicine and Surgery, are desirous of throwing around it all those aids which are the bulwarks of medical education everywhere, and among which clinical teaching occupies the first place. We would therefore respectfully represent to your Honorable Board that you have it in your power to do much towards encouraging and furthering the interests of this College without any expense or inconvenience to the Commonwealth which you represent, but on the other hand the high estimation in which we hold clinical advantages to students of a Medical College are such as to induce us to make a proposition to you at once advantageous to yourselves and constituents as property holders and citizens.

We propose as follows: that our faculty (who are practitioners as well as teachers) will give all the necessary attention as visiting physicians and surgeons to the City and County Hospital free of charge provided we can have the privilege of delivering clinical lectures to the pupils of our Medical College in the Hospital. This, as your intelligence and experience must enable you to know, is almost universally done in large cities in which there are Charity Hospitals and Colleges of Medicine.

We will further propose and agree to appoint two of our most competent graduates of each year as resident physicians and surgeons and will hold ourselves individually and collectively responsible for the faithful performance of the duties of the same at a salary each of five hundred dollars per annum with board and lodging in the Hospital.

In making this proposition as may readily be seen, we have no pecuniary advantages to gain, our sole motive being the advancement of our College of which the honor as well as our own reputations are hereby pledged for the faithful discharge of our duties to the sick poor if our proposition be accepted. Besides the acceptance of this proposition would save the City and County of San Francisco the sum of thirty-eight hundred dollars a year.

With this guarantee in favor of the patients of the Hospital, associated with the fact that the interests of the whole community will be subserved in the acceptance of our proposition, we trust that your Honorable Board will not hesitate to take a step so well calculated to promote the cause of medical education on this coast as well as to save the expenditure of a large amount of money each year to the City and County you represent. The latter consideration is rendered the more worthy of mention when it is remembered that the City and County of San Francisco have constantly to support an immense number of indigent sick from all parts of the State while none of their paupers are supported by other counties.

The change which is hereby proposed by us is by no means new, but is exactly similar to that which has long been adopted by the Board of "Ten Governors" of New York City in the management of Bellevue Hospital and those of Blackwell's and Randall's Islands, as well as by the Commissioners of Emigration of the State of New York in the Hospitals which are under their control. Experience has there long since indicated that propriety of this system as by far the most economical, whilst at the same time, there is secured by it every attention to the unfortunate poor who are compelled to resort to such institutions.

Respectfully,
E. S. Cooper, M. D.
and other undersigned Faculty

In the above letter Cooper made a persuasive case for converting the City and County institution into a Teaching Hospital by delegating responsibility for medical care to the Faculty of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. Cooper's proposition also included the establishment of a rudimentary graduate training program by the assignment of two graduates each year to the Hospital Staff as Residents to serve under the supervision of the Faculty. However, as is usually the case in public hospitals, local physicians were already serving in salaried positions as Hospital Staff, and the Board of Supervisors were reluctant to replace them. We shall later see how Cooper decided to cope with the political realities of this situation.

Extracurricular Events

We must now turn reluctantly to the far from auspicious circumstances to be found in the local medical community where the new school and its founder were viewed by some of the prominent San Francisco doctors with strong disapproval. Close behind Professor Cooper in the disfavor of the self-styled medical elite was Dean Beverly Cole. We have already reported his arraignment before the State Medical Society in February 1859, just prior to the opening of the school, on the charge of libeling the women of California.

Santa Clara College Distances itself from the Medical School

The Faculty of Santa Clara College were painfully aware of the criticism of the medical school and certain of its Professors emanating from a prominent faction of the medical profession in San Francisco. They were therefore anxious not to be associated in the mind of the public with the controversial new institution. There was the real possibility that this might occur because the little town of Santa Clara was the site not only of the University of the Pacific but also of Santa Clara College (now the University of Santa Clara), a Catholic institution chartered in 1855. Although chartered four years later than the University of the Pacific, Santa Clara College had the distinction of awarding the first baccalaureate degree in California, to a single candidate in 1857. Nevertheless, "there was a ringing note of triumph at commencement time in 1858 when the graduating class (of the University of the Pacific), five young men and five young women, stepped proudly forth to receive the first baccalaureate degrees ever conferred in the state of California," - with the exception, it was necessary to add, of a graduate from Santa Clara College in the previous year. There was, naturally, keen competition between the two schools.[12]

About the beginning of the first session of the Medical Department, the agent of Santa Clara College became fearful that his school would be stigmatized by a supposed connection with the Department because Santa Clara College was located in the same town as the University of the Pacific. To forestall this unwelcome prospect, he ran an advertisement for some months in the San Francisco newspapers stating that the "Medical Department of the University of the Pacific is in no way connected with Santa Clara College, established by the Fathers of the Society of Jesus."[13]

The Scalpel Affair

Cooper himself was under heavy fire. He had hoped that interest in the Hodges malpractice suit would rapidly fade but he underestimated the persistence and treachery of his enemies. They conspired to revive the issue just as the first Session of the School was getting under way. We refer to a scurrilous article in a New York medical journal, The Scalpel for April-June 1859. The journal's editor, Dr. Edward H. Dixon, was a surgeon and self-anointed defender of "abuses of Medicine and Domestic Life." He had literary pretensions and was noted for his savage verbal assaults on medical miscreants, as he defined them. In an opinion piece entitled An Awful case of Malpractice; Cutting through the Abdominal walls and the Uterus to extract the child, when there was ample room for delivery by the Forceps or Perforator, he pronounced the following ex cathedra judgement on Cooper:[14]

A much-esteemed friend has sent us a voluminous phonographic report of two hundred and fifty pages, consisting mostly of the testimony of experts, summoned in the suit for mal-practice in the performance of the Caesarean operation . . . by Dr. E. S. Cooper, of San Francisco. . .

It is impossible for us to give our medical readers any part of the voluminous evidence in this truly horrible case; for horrible it was, beyond any transaction we have ever read in the history of our profession. It was performed without a shadow of necessity, at the end of a labor of sixty hours, during the last twenty-four of which the head was in the lower strait, the vertex distending the vulva, and the child dead! all of which was proved by all the testimony for and against the operator. The consulting physician, Dr. Wooster, seems to have been a wretched tool in the hands of Dr. Cooper.. .

Horrible, however, as the operation was, (and we do not propose to repeat the sickening details,) what will the reader say when he learns that the urine had not been drawn off at all, and the bladder was absolutely incised above the pubes to evacuate it! . . .

The judge gave a lucid and extremely fair charge to the jury, although there was in reality but one side to the case; the prosecution having fully proved, by nearly every one of the medical experts summoned - some of whom were very able, "that the operation," in the language of the prosecuting attorney, "was unskillfully, brutally, wantonly, and maliciously performed." The jury remained out all night and a portion of the next day, and were then discharged by the court, because they could not agree; they stood six for plaintiff and six for defendant! so much for a jury trial in California, when the defendant is a very popular man.

We have been at some pains to inquire of others residing here, as well as ourselves, what could have influenced Dr. Cooper to perform this operation, and what his actual attainments and position were in California, to permit him to perform an act so defiant to humanity and science; entirely unacquainted as we are with any of the parties or witnesses, our sympathies would have been with him, as a persecuted man, on learning from an intimate friend in this city that he occupied that position towards nearly all of the faculty of San Francisco, as possessing the indisputable popular one of "being the first surgeon on the Pacific coast;" we have been forced, in a fair analysis of the evidence, to the melancholy conviction that the operation was not ignorantly, but wantonly performed, and for reputation alone...

Enough of this sickening case; why do we publish it, we presume will be asked by some wretched medical conservatist or selfish and cold-blooded reader. Because this is the Scalpel, and we are - what we are.

The chamber of the parturient woman is as sacred as the grave of a dead mother, and every act there performed by the surgeon, should be weighed in his conscience as though the spirit of that mother looked down upon him. We hope Dr. Cooper will live to take a manly and humanitary view of that profession which we revere as the noblest man can exercise. As for Dr. Wooster, we earnestly advise him to quit the profession.

Soon after the April-June 1859 issue of the Scalpel containing the above article reached San Francisco, a person or persons unknown reprinted the article in an elegant circular and distributed it widely up and down the Pacific coast. The circular included the full text of the Scalpel article except that the final sentence earnestly advising Dr. Wooster "to quit the profession" was omitted. Without doubt, the perpetrators of this anonymous stratagem to discredit Cooper belonged to that cabal of San Francisco physicians who instigated the Hodges suit and co-opted Wooster as a willing dupe in the scheme. Unfortunately for our efforts to round up all the suspects in the plot, Dixon never disclosed the name of the "much-esteemed friend" who sent him the transcript of the trial.

We shall now attempt to relate in chronological order the subsequent events in a controversy kept alive by the gullibility of Editor Dixon and his unfortunate tendency to publish anonymous communications.

First let us mention that we found the following handwritten letter from Cooper to Dixon dated 20 August 1859 among Cooper's papers:[15]

San Francisco, California,
20 August 1859

Dr. Edward H. Dixon (Editor, Scalpel, New York City)

Sir,
There is circulating in California at this time a paper apparently a Scalpel extra the object of which appears to be to condemn my course in a certain Caesarian Section and to deplore the unjust verdict of a California jury for not finding me guilty of malpractice as alleged by Dr. Wooster and others.

You are entirely deceived in regard to the true state of this case if you depend upon the report of it as published in the (Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal).

The whole of the allegation for malpractice rested upon Dr. Wooster's testimony and his testimony was entirely a manufactured case.

The child's head never came within two inches of the vulva though an ecchymosis of the scalp of two inches in thickness had protruded into the constricted vagina.

E.S. Cooper

Dixon never acknowledged the above letter but a communication from Dr. Meredith Reese to Dr. Cooper (which we shall reproduce later) indicates that Dixon did receive it.

Next in chronological order, we find published in the Scalpel for July-September 1859 "A Letter of Encouragement" from a San Francisco correspondent who signed himself only as "H." This lengthy communication, dated 1 January 1859, appears to be from an eccentric or, more likely, an impostor who thanks Dixon for his "glorious journal" and urges him to "Go on then with your bold and glorious course. Here in San Francisco there are many who know how to appreciate your journal; and no matter what 'the profession' may say, it is destined to occupy a niche in the temple of fame, which he only can hope to reach, who shall be as bold and as true to mankind as you have proved yourself to be." The rambling letter concludes with the following paragraph:[16]

Your review of the trial of Dr. Cooper, for the terrible abuse of his professional character by that dreadful operation you so fearlessly rebuked in your last number, has stamped your journal as the truly independent and fearless advocate of conservative surgery and humanity. You have before you, I hope, a long and glorious career; here, it is useless to decry your efforts; all your opponents can do is to be silent; the people are with you, and it reflects disgrace upon those who oppose you.

(Signed:) "H"

This essentially anonymous letter is probably a hoax. It is dated 1 January 1859 which is six months prior to Dixon's review of the cesarean operation in the April-June issue of the Scalpel. Dixon's vanity and desire to take another dig at Cooper led him into gross editorial impropriety in printing an unsigned letter so dated.

At about this time, Cooper received the following friendly communication from Dr. Meredith Reese, Editor of the American Medical Gazette, a New York medical journal to which Cooper had submitted a number of manuscripts:[17]

New York,
23 October 1859

Dear Sir,
Every article you have sent us has been inserted in the Gazette, including the one you countermanded, your letter reaching me after the number was out.

So much for explanation. And now let me say to you, as your friend, that your defence of your operation of cesarean section, (about which the Scalpel has made such an onslaught upon you), is due to yourself. The voluminous trial which Dixon has, is the basis of his abuse. Why not publish a Report of that case from your own pen? and thus do yourself justice and disarm your enemies.

May I say confidentially to you, that it is bad policy and worse taste for you to provoke a war with the editor of the Scalpel. Somebody, as I hear rumored, has written him a defiant letter, imputing black mail etc., which is anonymous. The same (post) brought a letter from you in a different tone, but he, I learn, ascribed both to you, and will publish both with comments which I fear will be in his savage style and bode you no good.

As your friend, I think your explanations and defence should be sent to him, asking him to do you justice, but you must not involve me as this is strictly sub rosa. . .

How comes your school? Let me hear.

Yours truly,
D. M. Reese
Editor, American Medical Gazette

Dixon's transcontinental crusade against Cooper made such good copy that he chose to continue it in the pages of the Scalpel. Handicapped by an unfamiliarity with the gorilla methods of the San Francisco medical mafia, Dixon published the following anonymous letter which was doubtless instigated by them. The letter appeared in the Scalpel for October-December 1859. He erroneously attributed the letter to Cooper whom he proceeded to ridicule unjustly on account of it.[18]

A Letter of Reproof from California

San Francisco
Aug 26 '59

(Dear Dr. Dixon:)

"If it is really so that the Ed of the Scalpel has authorized his California agent to have 25,000 extras distributed on this coast, he has descended from the high position in which his talents and reputation heretofore placed him; he has indeed permitted himself to become the tool of pupies, conspirators, and professional traitors.

"If Dr. Dixon thinks to Levy Black Mail upon Dr. Cooper he has calculated without his hoast (sic). Dr. Cooper knows too well the importance of attending to his own business and disregarding the dastardly attacks of his enemies."

(Unsigned)

For the above encouraging and polite letter, although without the usual courtesy of a super or subscribed name, we presume we are indebted to Dr. E. S. Cooper of San Francisco in return for our review of his trial for malpractice in that city. It was accompanied with the remarks we made, very elegantly printed on a fine letter-sheet, and duly credited to the Scalpel. We had already received the circular, with congratulatory comments for our "humanity, boldness, science," etc. etc., from two other gentlemen, to whom, with Dr. C., we return our sincere thanks for the courtesy, but assure them we are entirely unconscious of the admirable qualities they so generously concede us. Dr. Cooper will pardon us for suggesting to him that the mode of levying black-mail usually adopted by the practitioners of that honorable process is, to send the proof of the article, with a polite request to the proposed victim to read it and correct any inaccuracies, previous to its intended publication, with the assurance of its valuable properties as good reading matter, to the editor, and the value of the space should the party most interested wish to see it otherwise occupied. "Our agent," as Dr. C. would say, has calculated without his "hoist" (sic) in publishing so largely. We assure Dr. C. we are perfectly innocent of the enterprise, and presume it was done by some of the "pupies" he so naively speaks of; such "tools" as are fashioned out of good Scalpel metal are rather dangerous to handle. Dr. C. is evidently lame in his judgment of such cutlery.

In January 1860 Cooper began to publish the San Francisco Medical Press, an event which we shall discuss in more detail shortly. We mention this important development now because Dixon's harassment was so obnoxious to Cooper that he felt obliged to defend himself in print. This he did in the following moderate editorial in the first issue of the Medical Press: [19]

The New-York Circulars - Some months since, there were distributed freely among members of the profession, as well as laymen, circulars purporting to be extracts from the New-York Scalpel, in which a terrible onslaught was made upon our professional character. These circulars were evidently published and distributed through the agency of those who were willing to expend money for no higher purpose than that of doing us an injury. We do not know that they contained authentic extracts, but if the editor of the Scalpel will be so good as to send us all that he has seen fit to publish against us, we shall have to beg our reader's pardon for introducing a personal matter in the columns of our next number for the purpose of answering our caustic contemporary.

Dixon seemed incapable of recognizing that he had been maneuvered by a vicious medical clique two thousand miles away into joining their campaign against Cooper. When he saw Cooper's editorial on "The New-York Circulars" in the Medical Press, he again reacted aggressively as was his style. He reprinted Cooper's editorial in the January-March 1860 issue of the Scalpel and preceded it with the following exposition of his own:[20]

The New-York Circulars

The first number of the San Francisco Medical Press, a new journal just established by Dr. E. S. Cooper, of San Francisco, has reached us. Our readers will remember our notice of the "trial of Dr. Cooper, for mal-practice, in the Fourth District Court of that State," and the severe remarks we felt it our duty to make on the operation for which Dr. Cooper was tried, in our forty-first number. The document was a very full phonographic report of 254 pages. The greater part of it was composed of the testimony given on both sides for and against Dr. Cooper. Our remarks were republished in San Francisco by some of the Doctor's enemies, in a very costly and elegant circular, and largely distributed up and down the Pacific coast. This elicited the very rude and insulting letter from Dr. Cooper, which we republished in the Scalpel, No. 43, and which, with our playful rejoinder, we immediately sent to Dr. C. We presume he has now received it? Meanwhile we assure Dr. Cooper he has now all we have "seen fit to publish against" him. Will the doctor allow us to ask whether we are to consider the letter of apology which he sent us, dated Jan. 2, and intended, as he assures us, "to make amends for the defiant tone" of his former letter, in which he exonerates us from publishing the circular, is meant as the apology for (his editorial on "The New-York Circulars") ?

(Here Dixon reprinted in full Cooper's editorial on "The New-York Circulars.")

This is fortunately the last word on the subject of Cooper's cesarean section to be published by the befuddled editor of the Scalpel. He remained confused throughout as to the motives and identity of his anonymous communicants from San Francisco. In the above final commentary Dixon refers to a letter from Cooper dated January 2nd. Cooper wrote no letter to him on that date. The January 2nd letter was just another forgery from Dixon's anonymous and inventive western correspondents.

Cooper did draft a response to Dixon's editorial of January-March 1860 for inclusion in the second (April 1860) issue of the Medical Press[21], but he never published it. He must have grown weary of the controversy with the obnoxious Dixon and decided to take the advice of Dr. Reese and abandon the field. Cooper did not follow Dr. Reese's other suggestion that he publish his own version of the Hodges case. He realized that it was far too involved and contentious for him to explain through the press with justice to himself.[22]

Wooster Attacks the New School

We are unable to determine David Wooster's role in the Scalpel affair. He made no mention made no mention of it in the pages of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal. He was under indictment for perjury during 1859 and by the end of the year his smoldering fury against Cooper could no longer be contained. It burst forth in a slashing editorial attack on the new School in the December 1859 issue of the Journal:[23]

University of the Pacific

. . .Pretenders in medicine, and quack nostrums will increase in number until, by some means, the number of uneducated, ungentlemanly M.D.'s is lessened in the regular profession.

No one capable of judging believes for a moment that one in three of the horde of graduates whom our fifty or sixty medical schools send forth annually are any more fit to be trusted with the management of the human frame that their great grandmothers or an aboriginal pretender.

These youths are sent out ostensibly, theoretically "to make alive," but really "to kill," until they have learned, by synthetical destruction, the method of analytical salvation. It is known they will kill, not through malice, of course, but ignorance; not through necessary ignorance, but through culpable ignorance; through an unreasonable, a wicked deficiency of the most essential, elementary, anatomical, chemical and physiological knowledge.

How can any knowledge of these great departments of science be acquired in a portion of three years by an unlettered person? And yet they could be almost mastered in that period by a good intellect, already schooled in the exact, comparative, and metaphysical departments of learning. But not one in three of medical graduates have any substantial preliminary education. It is a shame and a fraud that Latin diplomas should be given to men who are ignorant of English and Latin, by professors who do not know a noun substantive from a noun abstract in any modern language, much less in Latin or Greek. Yet this is done annually, not once but one hundred times.

These remarks were suggested by the urgent requests that have been made to us, that we should take some notice of the Medical College recently established in this city, under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

A Medical College was not needed here. There is no fund for the endowment of the College, and there are no students to attend the lectures, and there are no capable physicians who have the leisure and the philanthropy to deliver lectures gratis.

Under such auspices the profession will readily appreciate into what hands the different departments of medical teaching must fall. It is painful to us to make any mention of this institution, because we love California and wish to be able to speak proudly of all her institutions. But, at the same time, we are not willing that the profession abroad should be deceived in this matter. The profession here understand it. We shall say nothing of the personal character or morality of the professors, for we believe a very bad man can be a very good scholar. Two of the corps of professors are gentlemen of liberal education and unexceptionable character, both professionally and morally, as far as we know, and students would profit by their teachings and example. Of two more we will say nothing. We have seen many worse men and more ignorant doctors.

The Professor of Surgery we will let speak for himself. By his own words ye may judge him. We do not say that he is not a graduate in medicine. We understand he graduated in St. Louis, Missouri, some ten years ago. He practiced some time in the village of Peoria, Illinois, and was an advertising physician there; that is, he had advertisements in all the country papers. This we are told by a medical gentleman who knew his professional standing in Peoria, and who says it was bad on account of his advertising. He then came to this city, after making a flying visit to London and Paris, which fact he is careful to make known in his puff of advertisements here.

(Note: At this point Wooster reprints several of Cooper's ads, the last of which is the following.)

"Dr. E. S. Cooper has taken an office at the Oakland House, in the city of Oakland,[across the bay, ten miles] where he can be found after the arrival of the evening boat at Oakland, and in the morning till 10 A. M. The state of his health has induced him to transfer his lodgings to Oakland, where he will treat a limited number of cases. Those who wish his services should call before ten o'clock in the evening, as, on account of his health, he will not receive night calls, except in very urgent cases or important operations. All his surgical instruments and apparatus for the treatment of deformities are still kept at his office, at the Pacific Infirmary, on Mission street between Second and Third streets. All consultations and operations before 10 A. M., gratis; after that the usual fee of ten dollars will be charged. Physicians in good standing in the profession, cordially invited to visit the Infirmary on the operating days."

Such are the professional antecedents, not half told, of the head and front and founder of the Pacific Medical College. He instituted the college, he named the professors, and those he named were so elected. This is notorious in San Francisco: and it is also notorious that not one of the professors is distinguished, either as a scholar or a physician. But still these men have power to confer degrees, to send forth graduates, who, by the codes of ethics, can claim equality at the bedside, with those who would be excused, nay, not merely excused, but prohibited from professional association with the Professor of Surgery under whom they will graduate.

We hope our Atlantic brethren will not be deceived; the Pacific Medical College is now a legitimized sham - a legal humbug - a chartered advertising medium for the man, of whose advertisements we have spoken above. The College is in his Infirmary, and all the "appurtenances thereunto belonging." We never knew a quack reform. The temptation is too strong to be resisted after it has once been acted on. The principal must have been well nigh thirty years old when he began to be an advertising physician. He has contrived a way now to puff himself legitimately, and of course, he stops the more overt and expensive method of advertising in the papers.

If this College is recognized in the medical brotherhood, under its present organization, it is idle to make distinctions between honorable physicians and quacks.

The abilities of the different professors is of little consequence, for they have only straw pupils.

We have written this notice of the origin of the Medical College of California, that it may stand as a historical record of the utter looseness of professional ethics in California in the year 1859.

We see from this editorial that Cooper's chronic illness was beginning to interfere seriously with his surgical practice, - and that a medical journal can be a dangerous weapon in the hands of an unscrupulous editor such as Dixon or Wooster. As a further example of the unprincipled manner in which Wooster used his Journal to abuse Cooper, we can call attention to publication of the first Register of California Physicians in the May 1858 issue of the Journal.[24] Cooper was duly included among the registered physicians. When the Register was revised and reissued in December 1858 (after the break with Wooster), Cooper's name had been deleted, for which Wooster gave the following truculent explanation: "There are. . . names omitted (from the Register) in the December number, which was intentional on our part, and for reasons which the parties may know if they desire, by application."[25][26] In like manner, Cooper's articles published in the 1858 volume of the Journal were expunged from the journal's Index.

With his usual foresight, Cooper had planned ahead to counter such assaults as these on himself and his enterprise, and Wooster was soon to experience a rude awakening, editorially speaking.

San Francisco Medical Press

After founding the medical school, the sole objective of Cooper's Master Plan yet to be attained was publication of a medical journal. His exploration of such a venture with Dr. Alexander Spencer of San Jose in 1855 was unproductive. The promising California State Medical Journal, which Cooper strongly supported, survived only from July 1856 to April 1857 because of lack of support. Although Cooper and Rowell provided Wooster with funds to launch the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal in 1858, Wooster later obtained other support (doubtless from Toland) and used the publication, then the only medical journal in California, to attack Cooper and his enterprise.

Under the circumstances, Cooper decided in 1859 that he could wait no longer to publish a journal of his own - devoted to the advancement of medicine, the elevation of the profession and the resuscitation of the State Medical Society for whose formation he was originally responsible. He certainly also had in mind using the journal to promote his medical school and to vigorously confront Wooster and the conspiratorial ring bent on destruction of both the school and the State Society. Cooper published the first issue of his journal, the San Francisco Medical Press, in January 1860 and prefaced this number with the following statement of purpose:[27]

Salutatory
San Francisco, 20 January 1860

My objects in establishing a Medical Journal in San Francisco are as follows:

First. To encourage unanimity of feeling and concurrence of action among Medical men of this City and State, in the organization of new, and in perpetuating the old associations for Medical improvement.

Second. To inquire into and remove, as far as possible, the sources of discord which have reigned to so great an extent in these organizations.

Third. To vindicate the rights of all honorable Medical men when unjustly assailed.

Fourth. To offer a medium for the publication of the numerous interesting and often anomalous cases, treated by practitioners on this coast.

Fifth. To encourage Medical men of the Pacific coast to extend their subscriptions to Medical Journals of the Atlantic States and Europe.

The Press will be published quarterly during the first year, and, perhaps, monthly or bimonthly after that time, should the number of valuable original communications and reports of important cases contributed, require it for their publication.

The design is, more to furnish original articles, than to reproduce those which have already been published in Medical Journals, and which may be obtained at much less cost than they can be republished for here.

To accomplish the above objects I shall devote my utmost energy, as long as I am the editor of a Medical Journal in this city; nor shall any impediment thrown in my way, lessen my determination to labor for these results, which I will do, uninfluenced by passion, fear or favor.

E. S. Cooper

David Wooster became the sole editor of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal, beginning in January 1860. The first number of the San Francisco Medical Press, also published in January 1860, was clearly the more robust of the two publications. The January 1860 issue of the Journal was particularly anemic, carrying only one original article (Toland "on an undescribed form of peritoneal hernia") plus some abstracts from other journals, whereas the Press carried eight brief articles by members of the local profession (including Professors Carman, Cole, Cooper and Rowell) as well as numerous pungent editorial comments. Among the latter were barbs aimed at Wooster whose slanderous editorial about Cooper's ethics and his school's insignificance, quoted above, called for a vigorous response. From the outset, there could be no doubt that Cooper intended to use the Press to settle accounts with Wooster and the San Francisco "old guard."

The following are the first salvos from Cooper in a war of words that soon echoed from coast to coast. He began his campaign by taunting Wooster on his indictment as a perjurer:[28]

A Medical Man Indicted for Perjury

Dr. David Wooster, one of the editors of the "Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal," of this city, has been indicted by a Grand Jury of San Francisco County for the crime of perjury. The bill was found defective, and the case was sent again to the Grand Jury, where it is said it will be brought up again. Whether he will be punished or not, according to law, remains to be seen We learn that his apologists have endeavored to vindicate him on the ground of stupidity; but we are sure that this is not a just defense. We have known Dr. Wooster very well in time gone by, and then we supposed him to be honorable. He is a man of much more than ordinary shrewdness, and well calculated to relieve himself from the meshes of the law - when criminals of less management would be quickly punished; and he is equally well calculated to relieve himself from the imputation of committing perjury through stupidity.

And he denounced Wooster's cohorts for their conspiracy against him:[29]

Medical Men of California

In medicine and surgery, as well as in almost everything else, California did not grow gradually, as has been the case with other new States of the Union, but at a single step stood side by side with the older sister States. A more gentlemanly, well educated class of medical men, than the mass of the profession in California, we are convinced cannot be found in any quarter. It is true, we have some of the worst men in the world in our ranks, but they are the exceptions. We have medical men here destitute of merit, but who by coming to this coast at an early day, obtained influential positions through political favors, and other fortuitous circumstances. They have done the profession of this State the greatest possible injury.

These medical men, more dissipated than studious, appear to think every other medical man who is not of their tastes and habits, but half civilized. They band together in the city for mutual protection and the pulling down of others' characters; have a secret organization, and whenever a stranger comes in, who shows a disposition to labor for the advancement of medical science, they select him as their victim, pursue him with the most determined malignity, with every species of falsehood and slander. They have thrown discord and confusion into every society formed for medical improvement in the city.

But their influence is rapidly declining, and as it does so, a more desperate band of would-be assassins of character than they are becoming, never before disgraced the dignified name of physician.

They appear to think that no exertion is required to sustain themselves, but that every effort in their power must be made to ruin the characters of others. If the industry they use in attempts to injure others were exhausted in laudable exertions to advance themselves in an honorable way, they might be gaining instead of losing a reputation.

Wooster, enraged at being openly branded a perjurer, sought to show his contempt for Cooper by the following crude entry in the next (February 1860) issue of the Journal:[30]

The Editorial article in Cooper's San Francisco Medical Press, headed "A Medical Man Indicted for Perjury," is, as it reads, wantonly and maliciously false. The editor of that Journal is a low bred, disgusting, ignorant knave.

To which Cooper promptly replied in the next (April 1860) issue of the Medical Press by reprinting the above reckless outburst by Wooster, and following it with extensive excerpts of Wooster's patently false testimony under cross-examination by Attorney Barstow at the Hodges trial. The net effect was to expose Wooster, in his own words, as a foul-mouthed, conniving hypocrite.

We interject here an explanation for dwelling at some length in this narrative on the conflict between Cooper and his detractors. It is impossible to find in the annals of American medicine a medical school which was successfully established in the face of such malicious and powerful opposition as he encountered. We have already told of the attacks on Cooper during the years preceding the founding of the school; assaults that were calculated to drive him from practice in San Francisco, but failed in their purpose. Far from ceasing, the plots against Cooper after the founding of the school became even more outrageous. Only by reporting these offenses in some detail are we able to show the impediments he faced, and overcame.

Also in the April 1860 issue, Cooper announced with justifiable pride that "the second session of the Medical Department of the Pacific will commence on the first Monday of May next, and continue eighteen weeks." In spite of the indignities perpetrated by its enemies during the past year, the school was on a sound footing. Unconcerned with the probability of being charged with "puffing" the institution, Cooper made the following editorial comments on prospects for the future:[31]

Good taste does not permit us to speak of the talents, industry or capacity for teaching, of the Faculty of this College, but we will say this, that there is no better place on the globe than San Francisco, for establishing a permanent school of the first class; and that if the members of the present Faculty should not make it one of the kind, the fault will be their own, because all the materials necessary for accomplishing this object, are either here now, or rapidly forming, and will only require to be skillfully appropriated to succeed, croakers may assert the contrary, notwithstanding

San Francisco is the finest place in the world for cultivating practical anatomy. It is the only place in which dissections can be conducted the whole year - in July and January alike.

San Francisco is probably the only city in which the climate is just right every day in the year for the performance of surgical (plastic excepted) operations. . .

Of the immense number of young lads now at our literary college and schools on this coast, there will, in a few years, be many desirous of becoming medical men; and the diseases among us present so many peculiar features, that in order to practice successfully in this region, they must receive a medical education here.

By the by: we learn that some of those who sneered most industriously at the idea of a Medical College in California, at first, are now talking of establishing a second one in this city. We hope they will. We always did like competition. It affords the finest stimulus to exertion in the world.

Besides, no one can make a respectable teacher in a medical college, without being a hard worker, and the more active laborers we have in the field of Medical Science on this coast, the more the profession will be elevated. We feel as if we could become the very friends of those who would perform the labor, and make all the sacrifices necessary for sustaining another medical college in this city, in spite of the conflicting interest which might occur.

It appears that no sooner had the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific become a reality than the enemies of the school began planning to supplant it with an institution of their own. It was rumored that Dr. Toland, who stood aloof from the State Society and medical politicking while nursing his antipathy for Beverly Cole, had accumulated a fortune by his surgical practice and would finance the alternate school. However perverse the motivation for such a move, Cooper said he welcomed it, in principle. He foresaw that conflict of interest and competition would occur - as indeed they did.

Levi Cooper Lane Resigns from the Navy

In spite of the bold assertion that the outlook for his school was promising, Cooper could not but be uneasy at the prospect of a well-funded competitor under the auspices of his icy rival, Toland. Providentially, all gloomy thoughts of future conflict on still another front were extinguished by the following news which he published in the Medical Press for April 1860:[32]

Dr. Lane, who visited our city some months since in the capacity of surgeon of the U. S. sloop-of-war Warren, has resigned his position for the purpose of spending some months in the hospitals of Europe, after which he designs coming to California for the purpose of finding a permanent home, as we are pleased to learn. Dr. Lane was marked first in the list of candidates who were examined for assistant surgeons in the Navy, in the year 1856. His intelligence, suavity of manners, and gentlemanly deportment, secured many friends among medical men in this city during his brief stay, who could but be pleased at the accession to their ranks, of one so well calculated to work for the elevation of the profession.

Second Annual Session of the Medical Department
May to September 1860

During the second session the original Faculty of Professors Barstow, Carman, Cole, Cooper, Morison and Rowell remained unchanged. There was a slight modification of the fee schedule. Beginning with this session, the fee to each Professor was changed from thirty to twenty dollars.[33]

Fourteen students matriculated, only two more than the previous session, but class size was holding and that was reassuring. There was one graduate in September: Charles C. Furley.

Academically, the year was uneventful, yet the relentless harassment of Cooper continued.

Extracurricular Events

A Grim Parable from The Golden Era

We shall now plumb the depths of Wooster's treachery and obsession to degrade Cooper and all his works by any means. We have already seen that the shadowy conspirators seeking Cooper's downfall were prone to use anonymous communications to the press as a weapon. In keeping with this pattern, The Golden Era, San Francisco's leading weekly newspaper devoted to Literature, Agriculture, Mining, etc., was chosen for launching the next poisoned arrow against Cooper. It took the form of an unsigned piece of malicious fiction entitled "Confessions of a Physician" published in The Golden Era for Sunday, 13 May 1860, just as the second session of the school was beginning. There can be no doubt, in view of the details cited, that the story was written about Cooper by Wooster who grossly distorted the confidences shared with him by Cooper during the days before the Hodges trial when they were friends.[34]

Confessions of a Physician

In 18--, one dark stormy night, in the far-off State of Illinois, near the one-horse town of Peoria, where I first made myself known to fame as an operating surgeon (curses on that community of Suckers, who never could, or did, appreciate my genius); well, as I was saying, one dark stormy night, between the hours of ten and eleven, I was called from my cozy 7 x 9 dormitory by a loud rap at the door.

"What do you want?" I answered, springing to my feet.

Here I looked at those feet. Ye gods! what terminations for a gentleman and a scholar! Elevens, at least - broad and flat; evidently belonging to that variety of the genus homo which was originally designed to inhabit low soft lands. There was a sort of aquatic buoyancy to those feet that made it probable their owner could walk on the water. But I must not interrupt his confessions.

"What do you want?" said I.

"Come, quick; a poor woman, ten miles in the country. If you have not a fast horse take mine," said the messenger. But I was not to be hurried in this manner. I struck a light, pulled on my pants and asked him in. I inquired who was sick.

"A poor woman; she can't pay you." I didn't care for that; indeed, it was just what I wanted. We can always illustrate science better on the poor than on the rich, you know. I was ambitious. (I could not but assent to so fair a proposition. )

"Has she a husband?" I asked.

"Yes," said the messenger; "but he lies there in the house drunk. I knowed she was in a bad way, and dropped in to see if she wanted somethin'; and, sure's yer born, I found her screechin' and wantin' a doctor; so I slipped home, and sent my old woman over, and mounted - and here I am. She'll have a rough time, or I'm derned. She's a little woman and has been starvin' for nearly all the year. Somehow you couldn't give em nothin'; they wouldn't a-tuck it."

"By this time," continued the penitent, "I saw my way clear. I knew there was a chance for an operation. I roused up a young student I had, and we got out the buggy and a four-minute horse. I didn't forget a pocket-case and some brandy, some opium, bandages, sponges, lint and ligatures. I knew it was a dead sure thing. It's all d----d foolishness, between you and me, privately, this sentiment about cutting. No surgeon ever got a reputation without wading up to his knees in blood. So I said to myself, then. But, may God forgive me for the number I have killed with the scalpel, thinking all the while I was doing it for the good of society. Well, away we rattled, and were there in less than fifty minutes from the time we started. You know the prairie roads in Illinois are a dead level."

"But I thought you said it was a stormy night. I should have thought your horse would have caved," I replied.

"There you are wrong: this road was Mac-Adamized (sic) and the rain made it all the better and kept the horse cool."

"Ah! I see!"

"Well, to make a long story short, I went into the hovel - a miserable shed - and there, on a rickety bedstead, a straw bed and filthy covers, lay the case that was to make my reputation. Her husband lay in the chimney corner, snoring drunk. There were a few coals in the fireplace; the whole contents of the house, (only one room), were not intrinsically worth four bits. I examined the case and found that I had no time to lose, or Nature would get along with it without my aid. So I put on a bold face, and said, 'Madam, you are in no danger whatever, but a little operation is necessary.' Celsus brought the brandy, and, pouring out half a pint, I put into it three teaspoonsful of laudanum, and told her to pour it down. She did; and it staid, too. In five minutes she did not know whether she was in a hut or a palace. I seized a scalpel, and, with a bold stroke and steady hand, executed the first Caesarian operation ever performed west of the Allegheny Mountains.

"I dressed the frightful wound, sent Celsus home for the comforts of life, and staid to watch the reaction. I watched, and met the terrific inflammation that followed with all the resources in my knowledge. Every day I saw her - either I or my student never left her bedside. The child, by my care, lived and did well. It yet lives, thank Heaven! The poor mother died the fifteenth day, and this has left a weight on my conscience that eternity itself could not efface. She was poor; true, none found fault with me, for none really knew what I had done; I don't believe it is known there to this day; for the funeral, and all that, were under my care and at my expense. But I knew it, and it took away my sleep (I was young, then). And, finally, I began to have these d----d nervous twitchings of the face -"

Here a frightful spasm took him, horribly distorting a visage sensual and vulgar. One eye closed in tense contraction, the other protruded and was wide open; one wing of his nose was drawn into a bad-egg sort of smell, and the other dilated like the nostril of a charging war-horse; his right hand jerked and trembled and became cataleptic, and then paralyzed, and hung lifeless by his side. As he sat there, with his bald head, yet in the vigor of only thirty-seven years, his misshapen and crooked legs, his enormous feet and hands, and rickety, scathed, blasted and contorted look, he seemed a table of contents of the anger of Heaven - showing what Providence will ever do to those working iniquity upon his defenseless poor. I started, and rose up to leave. He clutched at me, and said:

"In the name of God, do not leave me alone with myself. I am better, now; but here come the frightful visions - all that horrible night is re-enacted in my vengeance-stricken brain with the vividness of a stark reality. Again I see that beautiful young woman, with no fault but poverty (did I not tell you she was beautiful? She was, and was scarcely twenty years old); again I see her in her bloody garments, stained with the blood shed by my accursed scientific knife; again I hear the low moan of suffering but unconscious nature, as my smooth scalpel separates the delicate fibres of that delicate body; again I see her wide-staring eyes, as a convulsion of reflex agony passes over her frame. I see the corpse, still cold, a recumbent monument of eternal reproof. I saw her buried many years ago, but many times a year she lies an almost palpable form before my eyes.

"This is all illusion, of course. I know it; but it is a terrible illusion; it will cut off more than one-third of my life; it is an eternal live coal upon my heart, and is slowly consuming the root and spring of my days. My brain is wasting under this slow process of torture. I foresee that, in a few years, I am dead. I shall die suddenly with some nervous stroke that will finish me at a blow. If you knew the sincerity of my repentance, you would forgive me. And yet, would I have repented had it produced no physical effect on me?"

I mentally responded, "No!" but said nothing. He continued:

"I beg of you to keep all this secret till I am dead, then you may publish it, without my name, as a warning to ambitious young surgeons. My ambition is crushed by this hopeless physical affection. I have not time to succeed. I now have no desire but for money, with which to punish my enemies, and strive to make them feel a little of the tortures I have endured. The future state has no terrors for me. Death, at least, will rescue me from this life of self-abhorrence and unavailing regret."

The sweat stood in great drops on his face and bald head, and there was an expression of brute anguish in his coarse, repulsive features, which inspired a feeling of pity mingled with horror in my heart. I left him, and, since that day, I have taken the left when he has taken the right - and when he goes east I go west, so that never again his loathsome face may meet my gaze. He is one of those unfortunate men, whom it is impossible to know, and respect, or love. His sins are of that secret, radical, incalculable degradation of iniquity, that it is impossible for the human intellect - even his own - to forgive. Nature has set upon him the mark of infamy, so that, by fixing the eye upon him a moment, it always appears. He still revels in carnage and delights in blood, well knowing that no act can add to his present hopeless condition. None but the first great crime affects him. It swallows all the rest. As nothing can surpass its enormity, so nothing can add to his remorse.

I publish this, now, because I am freed from my tacit obligation of secrecy by his own act. He is dead to me, and this is his posthumous biography. Let him rest in peace. His sin was the result of his low moral organization and limited intellectual forecast. Let him be forgiven; but let others be warned by this frightful example of the vengeance of outraged Nature.

Only Wooster's envenomed pen could have produced this coarse parody of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) whose Gothic tales of terror and abnormal psychology were much in vogue at the time. Not content with merciless caricature of Cooper's physical deformities and crude misrepresentation of his past, Wooster sought wide distribution of his composition by anonymously sending a copy of the Era to the Cincinnati Lancet and Observer which carried the following editorial in the August 1860 issue:[35]

Dr. E. S. Cooper, of San Francisco, and his Left-handed Friends. Some anonymous correspondent forwards us from California two newspapers: one of date 1854 contains a somewhat fulsome editorial notice of Dr. Cooper, then just about seeking his new home in San Francisco (if the Doctor was accessory to this notice, he did a very foolish and unprofessional thing - if it was the kindness of some editorial acquaintance, he was the very unfortunate recipient of a mistaken kindness); the other is a fresh copy of the Golden Era, and contains a rather common-place sketch, purporting to be the confessions of a surgeon who has gained fame at the expense of the death of his patient, when the operation (Caesarean section) was obviously improper; and who still performs his bloody occupation with this night-mare load of remorse on his conscience.

Penciled on the margin of the latter newspaper is a denunciation of Dr. Cooper, which, though brief, seems to embrace most of the epithets that are to be culled from the "new pictorial edition" of Webster; as well as a fair proportion selected from that old but well known authority - Billingsgate; finally making the agreeable and consoling suggestion that "the knife of the assassin should and probably will be his doom!"

Now, we have enough to do to keep our own little troubles nicely trimmed up, without making a journey (journalistic journey) to San Francisco; at any rate, we can't afford to go beyond the personal affairs of more than this eastern half of the continent; but it does appear to us (not being familiar with California ways, and California medical politics,) - it does seem to us that the course pursued by our anonymous correspondent savors quite as much of the "infamous," and exhibits much the same "mental and moral," if not "physical deformity," as pertains to that cowardly assassin whose knife is to strike down Dr. Cooper, some dark night, on the streets of San Francisco.

In the October 1860 issue of the San Francisco Medical Press, Dr. Cooper took scornful notice of the Era sketch:[36]

"Dr. E. S. Cooper, of San Francisco, and his Left-handed Friend."

In the Cincinnati Lancet and Observer we have an article under the above caption, acknowledging the receipt of two anonymous communications, partly in printed form, which appear to be anything but complimentary to us. It would appear that the respectability of the papers in which the printed portions of the communications occurred, alone induced the editors of the Lancet and Observer to give them notice. . .

We remember the article which appeared, some months since, in the Golden Era, purporting to be the Confessions of a Surgeon, who was represented as borne down by remorse, growing out of a fatal result of the unnecessary performance of the Caesarean section. Being the only surgeon on this coast, who had performed the Caesarean section, together with other circumstances embodied in the fancy sketch, induced us to suppose, at first, it was designed for us, notwithstanding both our cases of Caesarean operation were successful.

We paid little attention to the matter at the time, not considering it of the least importance; but it would appear, the writer, or some one else, is not disposed to pass it over so lightly. In regard to our physical deformity, as stated so pompously in the Golden Era, we have only to say, that we are not responsible for my want of symmetry of form, but would state, that, if we are destitute of that external comeliness of which some of our enemies are inclined to boast, we still profess to be buoyed up by a heart conscious of it own rectitude; and that we have never made use of any of those pliant instruments at the head of a certain class of newspapers, to publish false and defamatory accusation against any other medical man. In reference to our threatened assassination, we must add, that whoever attempts it may find it a dangerous experiment.

We have had professional treason and perjury brought to bear against our professional character, and, to a medical man of honorable soul, an assault upon his professional reputation is equal to an assault upon his life; and yet we have passed through unscathed and unharmed. We have confidence enough in the justice of our cause, to think that the assassin who may attempt to take our life will be no better, in the end, than the miserable medical "tool," who attempted to stab our reputation by perjury and who still walks the streets of San Francisco, followed by the hiss of contempt and the slow-moving finger of scorn, which points him out as the Judas of the medical profession. We do know, that, since the time of Galen, in Pergamus, Asia Minor, there has been no example of any medical man being the subject of professional treason, conspiracy, and perjury to a greater extent than ourselves, and this accounts for the harsh tone of some of the articles which have appeared in the Press. We sincerely believed that, in vindication of ourselves, we were subserving the cause of the profession; because, of all persons, medical men should be "true to their craft." There is no class of persons so much abused, unjustly, and yet none others are such perfect slaves to community.

From the time the student of medicine begins his toilsome pupilage over the midnight lamp and the loathsome cadaver, which he probably has had to violate law in obtaining, and at the risk of his health or even life, - we say, from this time onward, to the period in which he totters, often prematurely, into the grave, (too frequently one of poverty), the medical man is a slave; first in preparing himself, by a most toilsome pupilage, often breathing in tainted air, and, afterwards, in sacrificing his hours of repose, to attend to the calls of rich or poor, day or night, in rain or sunshine. Then, "execration," say we, upon the foul wretch, who stains our profession's escutcheon by professional treason or perjury.

Grave Robbers on Lone Mountain

We shall now conclude our dreary recital of the underhanded attempts by Wooster and his clique to defame Cooper and disrupt the school. They thought as a last resort to play the grave-robbery card to inflame the public either to riot against the faculty and students, or at least to demand the outlawing of dissection.

Sensational articles such as the following, ghostwritten by Wooster, began to appear in the San Francisco papers in the fall of 1860.[37]

We have been informed, on reliable authority, that the graves in the common lot, at Lone Mountain Cemetery, have been violated, and the dead bodies of those buried at the public expense, disinterred, for purposes of dissection! . . .We are not aware of any existing law to stop this robbery of the tombs and mangling of the dead, to satisfy the greedy maw of Science, but there should be one. And where is the difference between the dead poor and the wealthy dead? Are the bodies of the one more the property of the surgeons than those of the other class? No one can feel sure, while such things are going on, that the bones of the most honored dead, or those of dearly loved kindred, are allowed to rest in peace. Chinamen are said to be the agents employed - and, like vultures, these body-snatchers watch daily for their human prey. This is a matter that should be looked into by the Police, so that the desecrators of the graves may be held up to public execration. Malediction, say we, upon the disturbers of the buried dead!

Cooper, who had prior personal experience with the volatility of the grave-robbery issue and the possibility of mob violence, was swift and furious in his rebuke of the newspapers:[38]

The editor of a newspaper, who is supposed to be a man of intelligence, should be the last to throw impediments in the way of progress in medicine, by endeavoring to prevent the cultivation of anatomy....(Those among them) who would deliberately pen articles calculated, as far as they could, to put an end to progress in this, the most useful of all sciences, do not deserve any other medical advisers than just such ignoramuses as they would make the whole medical profession, provided their advice were the law of the land. What could such editors do, in case of knife-wound, implicating an important artery, like the subclavian, if all the medical profession were such as they would make them by preventing dissections. "Maledictions upon such editors, say we." But have we any such editors as would deliberately do these things? It is to be hoped not. On inquiry, we find that these articles were, generally, written by other parties, and published without much consideration on the part of the editors or reporters; but we now call on them to scrutinize with more care articles on this subject.

Since writing the above, we find these articles were mostly furnished by - by whom? A medical man? No. - A graduate in medicine, truly, but not a medical man. The medical profession of the whole world has had but one genuine professional Judas, and he chanced to turn up in San Francisco; so let us pass him round, and make the most of him. We will never have another. Such as his like has never been seen before.

But while we have a medical Judas among us, let students beware how they impart secrets. The man who will be a professional traitor and perjurer, against one member of the profession, and, not satisfied with that, will prove traitor to the whole profession, is capable of any crime, however heinous.

Need we name the miscreant? Everybody knows who the medical Judas is. We intend never to let his name disgrace our pages again.

Two months later, in the January 1861 issue of the Medical Press, Cooper could write that, when certain newspapers in San Francisco lent their influence to a contemptible effort to prevent dissections, he had declared that they would fail. "Now, we take pleasure in informing the friends of the University, that this effort to create a furor about dissections, and thereby diminish the class, by making students believe that they would be deprived of the privilege of dissections, did not succeed."[39]

The School's Clinical Facilities Questioned

At about the same time the grave-robbery articles were appearing in the newspapers, the Evening Bulletin ran an item stating that "The college doctors have no hospital under their control." The source of this disparaging reference to the school's program was not revealed, but it is justifiable to believe that Wooster was behind it. In any case Cooper, now always quick to respond in the Medical Press to any published criticism of the school, briskly denied the statement and pointed out that "The college doctors have a hospital under their control - the Pacific Clinical Infirmary - which corrupt politicians can never take from under their control, and , though an individual enterprise, it affords a better surgical clinic than could be established among all the hospitals of the city, sustained by public expense." He went on to castigate the San Francisco Board of Supervisors for refusing the college doctors' petition to take the medical supervision of the City and County Hospital, free of charge, if they could have the privilege of giving clinical instruction to their students.[40]

Cooper criticized the arrangement made by the Board of Supervisors for the House Surgeon at the Hospital to deliver clinical lectures in all the branches of medicine and surgery. This was obviously beyond the capability of a single physician but, to make the best of an unsatisfactory situation, Cooper added:[41]

Still we shall strongly advise the students of the Medical College to attend the clinical lectures of the House Surgeon of the City and County Hospital, because of the immense number of important cases which might be presented, rendering their visits to that institution not only very interesting but important, even though one clinical lecturer has to perform the duties of half a dozen. Things must have a start, and let this method of obtaining clinical instruction, however unusual, be eagerly embraced by the students. A few years more will place these matters on a different footing. In the meantime, whatever is lost through corrupt politicians, in not affording the requisite encouragement to cultivate medicine on this coast, which it is their duty and is in their power to do, will be made up by the greater energy, determination and patient industry of the Faculty of the Medical College, who are as a unit in harmonious action, and who are resolved to give themselves no time for repose until all obstacles are surmounted, and the institution placed upon a basis which guarantees permanent and complete prosperity.

Actually, Cooper realized full well that the school's clinical teaching resources were deficient. For that very reason, access to a major teaching hospital had been high on his agenda from the day when the school opened, as his failed bid to affiliate with the City and County Hospital indicates. We shall soon learn how satisfactory clinical facilities were finally acquired through the continuing efforts of the Faculty.

Within one year, from his vantage point as editor of the Medical Press, Cooper had successfully countered the attacks of Wooster and his devious confederates. Withering commentary in the Press made them wary of his acid pen and they muted their criticism of Cooper and the school. Meanwhile, they continued their spiteful dismantling of Cooper's other cherished creation, the California State Medical Society, a subject to which we shall later return.

We can but marvel that Cooper, with heavy surgical and professorial responsibilities, and suffering from the debilitating effects of a mysterious neurological disorder, could add to these burdens the demanding task of editing a medical journal. The San Francisco Medical Press, a tribute to Cooper's remarkable dedication and stamina, deserves a place on the honor roll of his contributions to Medicine in the West. The Press gave voice to the academic and professional principles that Cooper and his successors espoused and, at a crucial juncture, served as a shield against "the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune."

Early California Medical Journals

The Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and the San Francisco Medical Press are major sources of information on the evolution of medical education in California. Since we refer to them frequently, they deserve additional comment.

The monthly Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal was founded in 1858 and had the longest life of any of the early medical journals in California. David Wooster was editor or co-editor until 1862 after which V. J. Fourgeaud was editor or co-editor through August 1864 . He was succeeded as editor by Dr. John F. Morse for the remainder of the year. The Journal was then discontinued until April 1865 when it was revived under the editorship of Henry Gibbons as described below. In the early 1860's the PSMJ vigorously advocated the establishment of Toland Medical College, and called for the extinction of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. The final issue of the first series of the PSMJ (December 1864) reported that a Charter had been granted to Toland Medical College and that prospects for the institution were most flattering.

The quarterly San Francisco Medical Press was edited by Cooper from 1860 until he was succeeded by Levi Cooper Lane in 1862. Lane was followed by Henry Gibbons who edited the MP from 1864 until its final issue in January 1865, with Beverly Cole as co-editor during the first half of 1864.

When the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific suspended operation in 1864 and Henry Gibbons, Levi Cooper Lane and John F. Morse joined the faculty of the Toland Medical College, Henry Gibbons became editor of the PMSJ. He brought with him the MP and combined the two publications to establish the bimonthly Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Medical Press. The first issue of the PMSJ and MP was for April 1865. It contained Dr. Toland's Valedictory Address delivered in Toland Hall on 8 March 1865 to the first graduating class of the Toland Medical College.

The PMSJ and MP ceased publication with the issue for February 1867. It was succeeded in June 1867 by revival of the monthly Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal under Henry Gibbons as editor and his son, Henry Gibbons, Jr., as associate editor. Gibbons, Lane and Morse left the Toland School in 1870 to reorganize the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. At this time the PMSJ became identified with the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific and its successor institutions. The PMSJ continued to be published under the editorship of Henry Gibbons Senior and Junior through volume 26, 1883-84. Beginning with volume 27 in July 1884, the PMSJ became the official organ of the Medical Society of the State of California, with Dr. William S. Whitwell as editor. In 1917 it merged with the American Journal of Urology and Sexology and disappeared.

This brief summary reveals how Cooper's founding of the San Francisco Medical Press led ultimately to the accession of Henry Gibbons to the editorship of the rival Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal. As we have seen, the PMSJ was originally the mouthpiece of the anti-Cooper element and exponent of Toland Medical College. After 1870, by an ironic twist of fate, the PSMJ under the editorship of Henry Gibbons was associated with the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific and its successors. While under these auspices, it was recognized as the leading medical journal in California.[42][43][44]

When, after 1867, the PMSJ ceased being sufficiently attentive to needs of the Toland school, several members of the Toland faculty edited the monthly California Medical Gazette which survived for only two volumes (Volume 1, July 1868-August 1869; Volume 2, September 1869-August 1870). The Gazette was succeeded by the monthly San Francisco Western Lancet with similar orientation toward the Toland College. The first volume of the Western Lancet began with the issue for January 1872 and publication continued until 1884 when it was absorbed into the PMSJ.

Critique of Early Medical Journals

We should not leave the subject of early California medical journals without referring to Dr. J. D. B. Stillman's biting criticism of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and the San Francisco Medical Press as representative of the impoverished state of medical literature in California. Writing from Sacramento, he cited the following two "original" articles as examples of the simplistic medical essays bordering on plagiarism to be found in these journals - journals that also lent their pages to the pursuit of factional feuds:

H. H. Toland, "Syphilis, and its treatment." Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 1859 Feb; 2 (2): 53-60 and

B. R. Carman, M. D., Prof. Materia Medical, University of the Pacific, "Remarks on the existence and mode of obviating the injurious effects of Miasma, resulting from decomposition of vegetable matter." San Francisco Medical Press 1860 Jan; 1 (1): 5-8.

Staking out his position on the high ground, Stillman made the following general charges:[45]

It appears to me to be the duty of some one to give expression to the thoughts of a large number of the medical profession in the State respecting much of our literature. I am aware that in speaking in behalf of the profession it becomes me to speak with careful circumspection, to make sure that no feeling of friendship on the one hand, or of jealousy or hostility on the other, should have any place in the heart or should indite a single work from the pen. On what I shall write I do not ask the profession or any member of it to endorse it or any part of it. I believe they will approve, though I alone am responsible.

That there is a state of things in the moral constitution of medical society in San Francisco that requires severe surgical treatment, is suspected by outsiders, and which, for the honor of the profession, should be remedied by every means that a general consultation can devise. But the medical literature which issues from the press of that place goes forth as the expression of medical intelligence and courtesy of the State, and in behalf of those who are thus misrepresented I enter my protest. The dignity of medical science forbids the introduction to its journals of personal vituperation and the gratification of private animosities. Neither is a medical journal the proper place for elementary instruction in the principles of medical science; its readers are supposed to be men who have at least learned the alphabet of their profession, and it is an insult to the intelligence of medical men in the State to serve up to them such rudimentary essays, and those but poor compilations.

Having justifiably called attention to general deficiencies in the content of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and the Medical Press, Dr. Stillman proceeded to ridicule Toland's article on Syphilis and Carman's on Miasma. He sternly reproached Toland for extensively quoting and paraphrasing well-known authorities on syphilis to the point of plagiarism without making any original observations of note. He added that if Toland's object was to impress upon the ignorant an exaggerated idea of his learning or skill, "let him not presume to do it through channels sacred to higher purposes, but let it be done in medical almanacs and given away at the counter of those who sell soap and dye-stuff."

Stillman was hardly less severe with Dr. Carman who naively inferred some originality in his observation that the miasma of malaria is primarily abroad at night. Stillman pointed out that this attribute of miasma was already well documented in the medical literature, and that Carman failed to acknowledge it. He was particularly contemptuous of Carman's professorial title:

Sometimes indiscretions are committed when the writer meant well, and supposing that a new thought had occurred to him, has published it to the profession. These essayists have always been indulged and passed without comment, but when they emanate from one who takes to himself the honored title of professor or teacher of medicine, empty as sounding brass though the title be, he must expect his innocent essays at medical composition to be shown up on their true merits. He who aspires to a crown must not expect to sleep on a bed of roses. The man whom I now arraign at the bar of the profession is the author of a small paper on Malaria, in the San Francisco Medical Press. I do not charge him with intentional plagiarism; the paper bears upon its face the stamp of innocence, notwithstanding the grandiloquent title with which the author's name is announced, "Professor of Materia Medica of the University of the Pacific." Listen, venerable ocean, and all lands laved by thy waters, from "Oonalaska's shore" to "Chiloe's dreary isle," and from Sitka to Tasmania, and a thousand islands. Wake, ye millions of Japan, your University has arisen! A galaxy of genius has dawned upon you, ye listless crowds of Tahiti, and grim anthropophagi of the Fee-jees. Ho! Valparaiso, and thou City of Pizarro, where are thy wasted centuries? Attention! one-half-the-:world, by kingdoms! Olin no longer speaks to us from the mythic halls of Valhalla, the mythic halls resound with the achievements of the heroes of the lancet.

Toland was furious at Stillman's criticism and the next issue of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal carried a lengthy letter from Toland to the Editors branding Stillman's article as personal and malicious, disgraceful and contemptible, and on these grounds unfit for publication. Toland concluded by saying that if Stillman "occupied a more prominent position in the profession, and had exhibited any evidence of ability in the preparation of his protest, I would regard his criticism as the highest compliment he could confer upon me. . . With this, I take my leave of Dr. Stillman, and will not notice anything he may write in future."

Editor Wooster disclaimed all part in the controversy and decided that any error in the affair was the printing of Stillman's article in the first place. He refused to publish anything more on the subject. "If our friends wish to quarrel or fight," he wrote, "we recommend gunpowder and lead, not types and printer's ink."[46][47][48]

Not to be denied the last word, Stillman published an eight-page pamphlet which he addressed to "the Medical Gentlemen of California (to whom) I owe an apology for having permitted myself to communicate an article to the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal."[49]

In the pamphlet, Stillman reprinted the first portion of his PMSJ article dealing with criticism of Toland. He also responded at length to Toland's angry "Letter to the Editors." Far from being conciliatory, Stillman further dissected Toland's article on Syphilis, bolstering his original implied indictment of Toland for plagiarism. Regarding Toland's other publications:

Self-conceit and an apparent contempt for the intelligence of all those whom he expected to read his papers, are the prevailing sentiments in all that has appeared from the pen of Dr. Toland. . .It is the same trait of character that induces him to assign as the motives that could influence me to expose him to the profession, as envy and jealousy, the old song of the charlatan in all ages. He is truly an object of pity whom vanity does not permit to distinguish envy from contempt. If "success" is a test of his merit, what advantage has he over his distinguished rival (Cooper) who is more successful and pays for his advertising like an honest man?

We should not give such lengthy consideration to this episode were it not for the prominence of Stillman in California medical history, and the merit of his criticism of medical literature in the State. Furthermore, we shall soon be again transfixed by his polemical style when, as one of the editors of the short-lived California Gazette in 1870, he warmly champions Toland's medical school and savagely attacks the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific.

Endnotes

  1. News Report, "Formal Opening of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," Daily Alta California, Thursday, 5 May 1859
  2. Addresses at the Opening of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, Musical Hall, San Francisco, May 5th, 1859 (San Francisco: Towne and Bacon Printers, 1869), p. 3
  3. Addresses at the Opening of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, Musical Hall, San Francisco, May 5th, 1859 (San Francisco: Towne and Bacon Printers, 1869), p. 6
  4. Addresses at the Opening of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, Musical Hall, San Francisco, May 5th, 1859 (San Francisco: Towne and Bacon Printers, 1869), p. 20
  5. News Report, "Formal Opening of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific," Daily Alta California, Thursday, 5 May 1859
  6. Note: The number of medical students recorded as matriculated annually differs depending upon the source. We will use the number of students listed by their signatures in the official Register of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. This Register is retained in Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Call number MSS H747H U58A2. Lane Library catalog record
  7. Emmet Rixford , Dedication of Lane Medical Library, 3 November 1912: Addresses of Timothy Hopkins, Emmet Rixford and David Starr Jordan (Stanford, California: Stanford University Publications, 1912), p. 11. Lane Library catalog record
  8. Constitution, Bylaws and Minutes of Faculty Meetings of Medical Department, University of the Pacific - Box 1.3, Medical Department of the University of the Pacific Collection of publications, Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Minutes of 24 October 1862 state that Dr. Lane has located a lecture room to be available for a rent of $100 per year. "On motion, Professor Cole was authorized to make arrangements with the proprietor." Location of the room was not specified in the Minutes or the Annual Announcement. Lane Library catalog record
  9. Based on material held at University of Pacific Library
  10. Robert G. Whitfield , "Historical Development of the Stanford School of Medicine," (A Thesis submitted to the School of Education and the Committee on Graduate Study of Stanford University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts. April 1949), p. 35.We are indebted to Dr. Whitfield's research among the Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the University of the Pacific for this information related to the administration of the Medical Department. Lane Library catalog record
  11. Correspondence 1857-1862 - Box 1, Folder 4, Item 24 and 24A, Elias Samuel Cooper Papers - MS 458, California Historical Society, North Baker Research Library. This item consists of a petition to the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco regarding the City and County Hospital handwritten by E. S. Cooper
  12. Rockwell D. Hunt , History of the College of the Pacific, 1851-1951 (Stockton, California: Published by the College of the Pacific, 1951), pp. 6 and 27
  13. Elias Samuel Cooper , "Editorial: New Medical Schools - University of the Pacific - Medical Department," San Francisco Medical Press 2, no. 6 (Apr 1861): 100. Lane Library catalog record
  14. Edward H. Dixon , "An awful case of malpractice," Scalpel 11, no. 41 (Apr-Jun 1859): 123-125
  15. Correspondence 1857-1862 - Box 1, Folder 4, Elias Samuel Cooper Papers – MS 458, California Historical Society, North Baker Research Library
  16. Edward H. Dixon , "A letter of encouragement," Scalpel 11, no. 42 (July-Sept 1859): 183-184
  17. Correspondence 1857-1862 - Box 1, Folder 4, Elias Samuel Cooper Papers – MS 458, California Historical Society, North Baker Research Library
  18. Edward H. Dixon , "A letter of reproof from California," Scalpel 11, no. 43 (Oct-Dec 1859): 252-253
  19. Elias S. Cooper , "Editorial: The New York Circulars," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 1 (Jan 1860): 57. Lane Library catalog record
  20. Edward H. Dixon , "Editorial: The San Francisco Medical Press," Scalpel 12, no. 44 (Jan-Mar 1860): 319-320
  21. Correspondence 1857-1862 - Box 1, Folder 4, Elias Samuel Cooper Papers – MS 458, California Historical Society, North Baker Research Library
  22. Note: The following four New York medical journals were searched for the period 1859-1862 and there is no article in them from Cooper regarding his caesarean section: American Medical Gazette, American Medical Monthly, American Medical Times and Scalpel
  23. David Wooster , "Editorial: University of the Pacific," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 2, no. 12 (Dec 1859). Lane Library catalog record
  24. David Wooster , "Medical Register of the State of California," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 1, no. 5 (May 1858): 206-211. Lane Library catalog record
  25. David Wooster , "Medical Register of the State of California (Revised)," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 1, no. 12 (Dec 1858): 497-505. Lane Library catalog record
  26. David Wooster , "Editors' Table: Corrections (Medical Register of the State of California," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 2, no. 2 (Feb 1859): 75. Lane Library catalog record
  27. Elias S. Cooper , "Salutatory," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 1 (Jan 1860): 1-2. Lane Library catalog record
  28. Elias S. Cooper , "Editorial: A Medical Man Indicted for Perjury," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 1 (1860 Jan): 58. Lane Library catalog record
  29. Elias S. Cooper , "Editorial: Medical Men of California," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 1 (Jan 1860): 51-52. Lane Library catalog record
  30. David Wooster , "Editorial," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 3, no. 2 (Feb 1860): 78. Lane Library catalog record
  31. Elias S. Cooper , "Editorial: University of the Pacific: Medical Department," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 2 (April 1860): 119-120. Lane Library catalog record
  32. Elias S. Cooper , "Editorial: Personal," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 2 (April 1860): 126. Lane Library catalog record
  33. University of the Pacific, Second Annual Announcement of the Medical Department, Session of 1860. Lane Library catalog record
  34. Based on material held at San Francisco Public Library - Clippings from The Golden Era for Sunday, 13 May 1860
  35. E. B. Stevens , J. A. Murphy and G. C. E. Weber , eds., "Editorial: Dr. E. S. Cooper, of San Francisco, and his left-handed Friends," Cincinnati Lancet and Observer 3, no. 8 (Aug 1860): 546-547. Lane Library catalog record
  36. E. S. Cooper , "Editorial: 'Dr. E. S. Cooper, of San Francisco, and his Left-handed Friend'," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 4 (Oct 1860): 247-249. There are two points to be made about Cooper's rendering of the title and source of this reference. First, the title of the editorial in the Cincinnati Lancet and Observer refers to Dr. Cooper's "Left-Handed Friends," whereas In his editorial on the subject, Dr. Cooper refers to his "Left-hand Friend," meaning Wooster, of course. Second, Dr. Cooper states that the editorial was printed in the Cleveland Medical Gazette, whereas it was actually published in the Cincinnati Lancet and Observer. In transcribing Cooper's editorial, we have corrected this error. Lane Library catalog record
  37. Elias S. Cooper , Editorial, "Horrible Practices," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 4 (1860 Oct): 239-240. Lane Library catalog record
  38. Elias S. Cooper , Editorial, "Horrible Practices," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 4 (Oct 1860): 240-241. Lane Library catalog record
  39. Elias S. Cooper , Editorial, "They Did Not Succeed," San Francisco Medical Press 2, no. 5 (Jan 1861): 44-45. Lane Library catalog record
  40. E. S. Cooper , "Editor's Table: The college doctors have no hospital under their control," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 4 (Oct 1860): 237-239. Lane Library catalog record
  41. Elias S. Cooper , "Editor's Table: Hospital Facilities," San Francisco Medical Press 1, no. 4 (Oct 1860): 237-239
  42. Frances T. Gardner , "Early California Medical Journals," Annals of Medical History Third Series, 1, no. 4 (Jul 1939): 325-335. Lane Library catalog record
  43. Emmet Rixford , "Early Californian Medical Journals," California and Western Medicine 23, no. 5 (May 1925): 604-607. Lane Library catalog record
  44. Henry Harris , California's Medical Story (San Francisco: J. S. Stacey, Inc., 1932), 144-152. Lane Library catalog record
  45. J. D. B. Stillman , "Medical literature in California," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 3, no. 3 (Mar 1860): 97-102. Lane Library catalog record
  46. H. H. Toland , "Letter to the Editors," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 3, no. 4 (Apr 1860):147-150. Lane Library catalog record
  47. David Wooster , "Editors' Table," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 3, no. 4 (1860 Apr): 150-151 .Lane Library catalog record
  48. David Wooster , "Review of Pamphlet by J. D. B. Stillman on Medical Literature in California, etc," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal 3, no. 5 (May 1860): 198
  49. J. D. B. Stillman , Medical Literature in California, continued from the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal (Sacramento, May, 1860), Pamphlet, 8 pp. Lane Medical Archives, Stanford. Lane Library catalog record
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