Recent Stanford Publications in PubMed
- Reduced Bone Density and Vertebral Fractures in Smokers: Men and COPD Patients at Increased Risk.Jaramillo JD, Wilson C, Stinson DJ, Lynch DA, Bowler RP, Lutz S, Bon JM, Arnold B, McDonald ML, Washko GR, Wan ES, DeMeo DL, Foreman MG, Soler X, Lindsay SE, Lane NE, Genant HK, Silverman EK, Hokanson JE, Make BJ, Crapo JD, Regan EA, the COPDGene InvestigatorsAnn Am Thorac Soc
- Looking at Plastic Surgery through Google Glass: Part 1. Systematic Review of Google Glass Evidence and the First Plastic Surgical Procedures.Davis CR, Rosenfield LKPlast Reconstr Surg
- Scarless Wound Healing: Chasing the Holy Grail.Walmsley GG, Maan ZN, Wong VW, Duscher D, Hu MS, Zielins ER, Wearda T, Muhonen E, McArdle A, Tevlin R, Atashroo DA, Senarath-Yapa K, Lorenz HP, Gurtner GC, Longaker MTPlast Reconstr Surg
- The Role and Regulation of Osteoclasts in Normal Bone Homeostasis and in Response to Injury.McArdle A, Marecic O, Tevlin R, Walmsley GG, Chan CK, Longaker MT, Wan DCPlast Reconstr Surg
- Hox genes control vertebrate body elongation by collinear Wnt repression.Denans N, Iimura T, Pourquié OElife
- Special requirements for electronic medical records in neurology.McCarthy LH, Longhurst CA, Hahn JSNeurol Clin Pract
- Automated physician order recommendations and outcome predictions by data-mining electronic medical records.Chen JH, Altman RBAMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc
- Drug-drug interaction data source survey and linking.Ayvaz S, Zhu Q, Hochheiser H, Brochhausen M, Horn J, Dumontier M, Samwald M, Boyce RDAMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc
- Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.Nhem S, Letchford J, Meas C, Thann S, McLaughlin JC, Baron EJ, West TEF1000Res
- An object oriented implementation of the Yeadon human inertia model.Dembia C, Moore JK, Hubbard MF1000Res
- Anticipating Divine Protection? Reminders of God Can Increase Nonmoral Risk Taking.Kupor DM, Laurin K, Levav JPsychol Sci
- Ischaemic stroke or TIA in older subjects associated with impaired dynamic blood pressure control in the absence of severe large artery stenosis.Ryan DJ, Kenny RA, Christensen S, Meaney JF, Fagan AJ, Harbison JAge Ageing
- Munc18a does not alter fusion rates mediated by neuronal SNAREs, synaptotagmin, and complexin.Zhang Y, Diao J, Colbert KN, Lai Y, Pfuetzner RA, Padolina MS, Vivona S, Ressl S, Cipriano DJ, Choi UB, Shah N, Weis WI, Brunger ATJ Biol Chem
- Injuries to appendage extremities and digit tips: A clinical and cellular update.Rinkevich Y, Maan ZN, Walmsley GG, Sen SKDev Dyn
- Quantity of lymph nodes correlates with improvement in lymphatic drainage in treatment of hind limb lymphedema with lymph node flap transfer in rats.Nguyen DH, Chou PY, Hsieh YH, Momeni A, Fang YH, Patel KM, Yang CY, Cheng MHMicrosurgery
- Ex uno plures: molecular designs for embryonic pluripotency.Loh KM, Lim B, Ang LTPhysiol Rev
- RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pronecrotic kinase activity.Mandal P, Berger SB, Pillay S, Moriwaki K, Huang C, Guo H, Lich JD, Finger J, Kasparcova V, Votta B, Ouellette M, King BW, Wisnoski D, Lakdawala AS, DeMartino MP, Casillas LN, Haile PA, Sehon CA, Marquis RW, Upton J, Daley-Bauer LP, Roback L, Ramia N, Dovey CM, Carette JE, Chan FK, Bertin J, Gough PJ, Mocarski ES, Kaiser WJMol Cell
- Ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions in American football: 18 years of experience.Dave RB, Stevens KJ, Shivaram GM, McAdams TR, Dillingham MF, Beaulieu CFAJR Am J Roentgenol
- Elective ceasarean section at 38 weeks versus 39 weeks: neonatal and maternal outcomes in a randomised controlled trial.Cho Y, Carvalho B, Butwick A, Blumenfeld Y, Riley EBJOG
- Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: improved molecular sensitivity with β--emitting radiotracers.Carpenter CM, Ma X, Liu H, Sun C, Pratx G, Wang J, Gambhir SS, Xing L, Cheng ZJ Nucl Med
- Human atrial fibrillation initiates via organized rather than disorganized mechanisms.Schricker AA, Lalani GG, Krummen DE, Rappel WJ, Narayan SMCirc Arrhythm Electrophysiol
- Beta-glucan for Pneumocystis pneumonia diagnosis in persons with AIDS: authors' reply.Wood BR, Komarow L, Zolopa AR, Finkelman MA, Powderly WG, Sax PEAIDS
- Preserving human cells for regenerative, reproductive, and transfusion medicine.Asghar W, El Assal R, Shafiee H, Anchan RM, Demirci UBiotechnol J
- Frontal cortex control dysfunction related to long-term suicide risk in recent-onset schizophrenia.Minzenberg MJ, Lesh TA, Niendam TA, Yoon JH, Rhoades RN, Carter CSSchizophr Res
- Nonverbal dominance behavior among individuals at risk for mania.Bartholomew ME, Johnson SLJ Affect Disord
- Effects of antidepressant medication on emotion regulation in depressed patients: an iSPOT-D report.McRae K, Rekshan W, Williams LM, Cooper N, Gross JJJ Affect Disord
- Children at risk for depression: memory biases, self-schemas, and genotypic variation.Asarnow LD, Thompson RJ, Joormann J, Gotlib IHJ Affect Disord
- Prevalence and clinical significance of night eating syndrome in university students.Runfola CD, Allison KC, Hardy KK, Lock J, Peebles RJ Adolesc Health
Reduced Bone Density and Vertebral Fractures in Smokers: Men and COPD Patients at Increased Risk.
Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Feb 26;
Authors: Jaramillo JD, Wilson C, Stinson DJ, Lynch DA, Bowler RP, Lutz S, Bon JM, Arnold B, McDonald ML, Washko GR, Wan ES, DeMeo DL, Foreman MG, Soler X, Lindsay SE, Lane NE, Genant HK, Silverman EK, Hokanson JE, Make BJ, Crapo JD, Regan EA, the COPDGene Investigators
Rationale: Former smoking history and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are potential risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Under existing guidelines for osteoporosis screening, women are included but men are not, and only current smoking is considered. Objectives: To demonstrate the impact of COPD and smoking history on the risk of osteoporosis and vertebral fracture in men and women. Measurements: Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by calibrated quantitative CT (QCT), visually scored vertebral fractures and severity of lung disease were determined from chest CT scans of 3321 current and ex-smokers in COPDGene study. Low volumetric bone mineral density as a surrogate for osteoporosis was calculated from young adult normal values. Methods: Characteristics of participants with low volumetric bone mineral density were identified and associated to COPD and other risk factors. We tested associations of gender and COPD to both volumetric bone mineral density and fractures adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and glucocorticoid use. Main Results: Male smokers had a small but significantly greater risk of low volumetric bone mineral density (- 2.5 SD below young adult mean by calibrated quantitative CT) and more fractures than female smokers. Low volumetric bone mineral density was present in 58% of all subjects, was more frequent with worse COPD and rose to 84% of very severe COPD subjects. Vertebral fractures were present in 37% of all subjects and were associated with lower volumetric bone mineral density at each GOLD stage. Vertebral fractures were most common in the mid-thoracic region. COPD and specifically emphysema were associated with both low volumetric bone mineral density and vertebral fractures after adjustment for steroid use, age, pack years, current smoking and exacerbations. Airway disease was associated with higher bone density after adjustment for other variables. Calibrated quantitative CT identified more abnormal subjects than the standard DXA in a subset of subjects and correlated well with prevalent fractures. Conclusion: Male smokers with and without COPD, have a significant risk of low bone mineral density and vertebral fractures. COPD was associated with low volumetric bone mineral density after adjusting for race, gender, BMI, smoking, steroid use, exacerbations and increasing age. Screening for low bone mineral density in men and women smokers using quantitative CT scanning will increase opportunities to identify and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population.
PMID: 25719895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Looking at Plastic Surgery through Google Glass: Part 1. Systematic Review of Google Glass Evidence and the First Plastic Surgical Procedures.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Mar;135(3):918-928
Authors: Davis CR, Rosenfield LK
BACKGROUND:: Google Glass has the potential to become a ubiquitous and translational technological tool within clinical plastic surgery. Google Glass allows clinicians to remotely view patient notes, laboratory results, and imaging; training can be augmented via streamed expert master classes; and patient safety can be improved by remote advice from a senior colleague. This systematic review identified and appraised every Google Glass publication relevant to plastic surgery and describes the first plastic surgical procedures recorded using Google Glass.
METHODS:: A systematic review was performed using PubMed National Center for Biotechnology Information, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, following modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Key search terms "Google" and "Glass" identified mutually inclusive publications that were screened for inclusion.
RESULTS:: Eighty-two publications were identified, with 21 included for review. Google Glass publications were formal articles (n = 3), editorial/commentary articles (n = 7), conference proceedings (n = 1), news reports (n = 3), and online articles (n = 7). Data support Google Glass' positive impact on health care delivery, clinical training, medical documentation, and patient safety. Concerns exist regarding patient confidentiality, technical issues, and limited software. The first plastic surgical procedure performed using Google Glass was a blepharoplasty on October 29, 2013.
CONCLUSIONS:: Google Glass is an exciting translational technology with the potential to positively impact health care delivery, medical documentation, surgical training, and patient safety. Further high-quality scientific research is required to formally appraise Google Glass in the clinical setting.
PMID: 25719707 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Scarless Wound Healing: Chasing the Holy Grail.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Mar;135(3):907-917
Authors: Walmsley GG, Maan ZN, Wong VW, Duscher D, Hu MS, Zielins ER, Wearda T, Muhonen E, McArdle A, Tevlin R, Atashroo DA, Senarath-Yapa K, Lorenz HP, Gurtner GC, Longaker MT
SUMMARY:: Over 100 million patients acquire scars in the industrialized world each year, primarily as a result of elective operations. Although undefined, the global incidence of scarring is even larger, extending to significant numbers of burn and other trauma-related wounds. Scars have the potential to exert a profound psychological and physical impact on the individual. Beyond aesthetic considerations and potential disfigurement, scarring can result in restriction of movement and reduced quality of life. The formation of a scar following skin injury is a consequence of wound healing occurring through reparative rather than regenerative mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the basic stages of wound healing; differences between adult and fetal wound healing; various mechanical, genetic, and pharmacologic strategies to reduce scarring; and the biology of skin stem/progenitor cells that may hold the key to scarless regeneration.
PMID: 25719706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The Role and Regulation of Osteoclasts in Normal Bone Homeostasis and in Response to Injury.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Mar;135(3):808-816
Authors: McArdle A, Marecic O, Tevlin R, Walmsley GG, Chan CK, Longaker MT, Wan DC
SUMMARY:: Bone is a dynamic tissue, with a range of diverse functions, including locomotion, protection of internal organs, and hematopoiesis. Optimum treatment of fractures and/or bone defects requires knowledge of the complex cellular interactions involved with bone healing and remodeling. Emerging data have underscored the importance of osteoclasts in this process, playing a key role both in normal bone turnover and in facilitating bone regeneration. In this review, the authors discuss the basic principles of osteoclast biology, including its cellular origins, its function, and key regulatory mechanisms, in addition to conditions that arise when osteoclast function is altered.
PMID: 25719699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Hox genes control vertebrate body elongation by collinear Wnt repression.
Elife. 2015 Feb 26;4
Authors: Denans N, Iimura T, Pourquié O
In vertebrates, the total number of vertebrae is precisely defined. Vertebrae derive from embryonic somites which are continuously produced posteriorly from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) during body formation. We show that in the chicken embryo, activation of posterior Hox genes (paralogs 9-13) in the tail-bud correlates with the slowing-down of axis elongation. Our data indicate that a subset of progressively more posterior Hox genes, which are collinearly activated in vertebral precursors, repress Wnt activity with increasing strength. This leads to a graded repression of the Brachyury/T transcription factor, reducing mesoderm ingression and slowing down the elongation process. Due to the continuation of somite formation, this mechanism leads to the progressive reduction of PSM size. This ultimately brings the retinoic acid (RA)-producing segmented region in close vicinity to the tail bud, potentially accounting for the termination of segmentation and axis elongation.
PMID: 25719209 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Special requirements for electronic medical records in neurology.
Neurol Clin Pract. 2015 Feb;5(1):67-73
Authors: McCarthy LH, Longhurst CA, Hahn JS
Electronic medical records (EMRs) are being rapidly adapted in the United States with goals of improving patient care, increasing efficiency, and reducing costs. Neurologists must become knowledgeable about the utility and effectiveness of the important parts of these systems specifically needed for care of neurology patients. The field of neurology encompasses complex disorders whose diagnosis and management heavily relies on detailed medical documentation of history and physical examination, and often on specialty-specific ancillary tests and extensive neuroimaging. Small discrepancies in documentation or absence of an in-hand ancillary test result can drastically change the current workup or treatment decision of a complex patient with neurologic disease. We describe current models and opportunities for improvements to EMRs that provide utility and efficiency in the care of neurology patients.
PMID: 25717421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Automated physician order recommendations and outcome predictions by data-mining electronic medical records.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2014;2014:206-10
Authors: Chen JH, Altman RB
The meaningful use of electronic medical records (EMR) will come from effective clinical decision support (CDS) applied to physician orders, the concrete manifestation of clinical decision making. CDS development is currently limited by a top-down approach, requiring manual production and limited end-user awareness. A statistical data-mining alternative automatically extracts expertise as association statistics from structured EMR data (>5.4M data elements from >19K inpatient encounters). This powers an order recommendation system analogous to commercial systems (e.g., Amazon.com's "Customers who bought this…"). Compared to a standard benchmark, the association method improves order prediction precision from 26% to 37% (p<0.01). Introducing an inverse frequency weighted recall metric demonstrates a quantifiable improvement from 3% to 17% (p<0.01) in recommending more specifically relevant orders. The system also predicts clinical outcomes, such as 30 day mortality and 1 week ICU intervention, with ROC AUC of 0.88 and 0.78 respectively, comparable to state-of-the-art prognosis scores.
PMID: 25717414 [PubMed]
Drug-drug interaction data source survey and linking.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2014;2014:16
Authors: Ayvaz S, Zhu Q, Hochheiser H, Brochhausen M, Horn J, Dumontier M, Samwald M, Boyce RD
As an initial step towards the goal of a common data model for potential drug-drug interactions, we surveyed the data elements provided by the publicly available sources. Our analysis found that there is very little overlap between or across publicly available resources and that the information provided is very heterogeneous.
PMID: 25717393 [PubMed]
Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.
Authors: Nhem S, Letchford J, Meas C, Thann S, McLaughlin JC, Baron EJ, West TE
Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown's medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.
PMID: 25717370 [PubMed]
An object oriented implementation of the Yeadon human inertia model.
Authors: Dembia C, Moore JK, Hubbard M
We present an open source software implementation of a popular mathematical method developed by M.R. Yeadon for calculating the body and segment inertia parameters of a human body. The software is written in a high level open source language and provides three interfaces for manipulating the data and the model: a Python API, a command-line user interface, and a graphical user interface. Thus the software can fit into various data processing pipelines and requires only simple geometrical measures as input.
PMID: 25717365 [PubMed]
Anticipating Divine Protection? Reminders of God Can Increase Nonmoral Risk Taking.
Psychol Sci. 2015 Feb 25;
Authors: Kupor DM, Laurin K, Levav J
Religiosity and participation in religious activities have been linked with decreased risky behavior. In the current research, we hypothesized that exposure to the concept of God can actually increase people's willingness to engage in certain types of risks. Across seven studies, reminders of God increased risk taking in nonmoral domains. This effect was mediated by the perceived danger of a risky option and emerged more strongly among individuals who perceive God as a reliable source of safety and protection than among those who do not. Moreover, in an eighth study, when participants were first reminded of God and then took a risk that produced negative consequences (i.e., when divine protection failed to materialize), participants reported feeling more negatively toward God than did participants in the same situation who were not first reminded of God. This research contributes to an understanding of the divergent effects that distinct components of religion can exert on behavior.
PMID: 25717040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Ischaemic stroke or TIA in older subjects associated with impaired dynamic blood pressure control in the absence of severe large artery stenosis.
Age Ageing. 2015 Feb 25;
Authors: Ryan DJ, Kenny RA, Christensen S, Meaney JF, Fagan AJ, Harbison J
BACKGROUND: older subjects may require higher baseline blood pressures to maintain cerebral perfusion. We investigated whether episodic hypotension is associated with tissue infarction in subjects with syncopal symptoms at stroke onset.
METHODS: over 30 months, all acute strokes/TIAs were prospectively screened for symptoms of syncope or presyncope at stroke onset. Subjects with severe large vessel stenosis were excluded, while cases were referred for syncope unit investigation. All underwent 1.5 T MRI acutely, and suspected borderzone infarctions (BZI) were confirmed through Matlab-derived perfusion software. Case-control comparison was derived from stroke controls with no prior syncope history.
RESULTS: thirty-eight of 772 stroke patients described presyncope or syncope at stroke onset and had patent large vessels (4.9% of all strokes). Median age was 72 years (IQR 21.4). Twenty-two patients (58%) were prescribed antihypertensive agents at symptom onset. Twenty-six (68.4%) reported focal neurology <24 h in duration. 63.2% (n = 24) of cases reported prior syncope history, compared with 33% (N = 103) of controls, P < 0.001. Cases exhibited greater orthostatic BP drop than controls, P < 0.05 Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with vasovagal syncope through head-up tilt symptom reproduction, 9 with orthostatic hypotension, 4 with cardiac syncope and 1 with carotid sinus syndrome. Nineteen (50%) patients had an acute infarct on MRI, 14 of these were in the arterial borderzone (73.6%). The BZI group were significantly older than the non-BZI group, 79.2yrs versus 63.3 yrs, P = 0.002.
CONCLUSION: subjects reporting hypotensive symptoms at stroke onset have a higher prevalence of borderzone infarction, despite being normotensive or hypertensive at baseline.
PMID: 25716898 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Munc18a does not alter fusion rates mediated by neuronal SNAREs, synaptotagmin, and complexin.
J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 25;
Authors: Zhang Y, Diao J, Colbert KN, Lai Y, Pfuetzner RA, Padolina MS, Vivona S, Ressl S, Cipriano DJ, Choi UB, Shah N, Weis WI, Brunger AT
Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins are essential membrane trafficking, but their molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a single vesicle-vesicle content mixing assay with reconstituted neuronal SNAREs, synaptotagmin-1, and complexin-1, we show that the neuronal SM protein Munc18a/nSec1 has no effect on the intrinsic kinetics of both spontaneous fusion and Ca2+-triggered fusion between vesicles that mimic synaptic vesicles and the plasma membrane. However, wildtype Munc18a reduced vesicle association approximately 50% when the vesicles bearing the t-SNAREs syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25 were pre-incubated with Munc18 for 30 min. Single molecule experiments with labeled SNAP-25 indicate that the reduction of vesicle association is a consequence of sequestration of syntaxin-1A by Munc18a, and subsequent release of SNAP-25, i.e., Munc18a captures syntaxin-1A via its high-affinity interaction. Moreover, a phosphorylation-mimic mutant of Munc18a with reduced affinity to syntaxin-1A results in less reduction of vesicle association. In summary, Munc18a does not directly affect fusion, although it has an effect on the t-SNARE complex depending on the presence of other factors and experimental conditions. Our results suggest that Munc18a primarily acts at the pre-fusion stage.
PMID: 25716318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Injuries to appendage extremities and digit tips: A clinical and cellular update.
Dev Dyn. 2015 Feb 25;
Authors: Rinkevich Y, Maan ZN, Walmsley GG, Sen SK
The regrowth of amputated appendage extremities and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in multiple vertebrate taxa. In humans, digit tip injuries, including traumatic amputation and crush injuries, are among the most common type of injury to the human hand. Despite clinical reports demonstrating natural regeneration of appendages in lower vertebrates and human digits, current treatment options are suboptimal, and are complicated by the anatomical complexities and functions of the different tissues within the digits. In light of these challenges, we focus on recent advancements in understanding appendage regeneration from model organisms. We pay special attention to the cellular programs underlying appendage regeneration, where cumulative data from salamanders, fish, frogs and mice indicate that regeneration occurs by the actions of lineage-restricted precursors. We focus on pathologic states and the interdependency that exists, in both humans and animal models, between the nail organ and the peripheral nerves for successful regeneration. The increased understanding of regeneration in animal models may open new opportunities for basic and translational research aimed at understanding the mechanisms that support limb regeneration, as well as amelioration of limb abnormalities and pathologies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25715837 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Quantity of lymph nodes correlates with improvement in lymphatic drainage in treatment of hind limb lymphedema with lymph node flap transfer in rats.
Microsurgery. 2015 Feb 25;
Authors: Nguyen DH, Chou PY, Hsieh YH, Momeni A, Fang YH, Patel KM, Yang CY, Cheng MH
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the number of vascularized lymph nodes (LN) transferred and resolution of hind limb lymphedema in a rat model.
METHODS: Unilateral hind limb lymphedema was created in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats following inguinal and popliteal LN resection and radiation. A para-aortic LN flap based on the celiac artery was subsequently transferred to the affected groin. The three study groups consisted of Group A (no LN transfer), Group B (transfer of a single vascularized LN), and Group C (transfer of three vascularized LNs). Volumetric analysis of bilateral hind limbs was performed using micro-CT imaging at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively. Lymphatic drainage was assessed with Tc(99) lymphoscintigraphy preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively.
RESULTS: A statistically significant volume reduction was seen in Groups B and C compared to Group A at all time points. Volume reduction of Group A vs.Group B at 1 month (8.6% ± 2.0% vs. 2.7% ± 2.6%, P < 0.05), 2 months (9.3% ± 2.2% vs. -4.3% ± 2.7%, P < 0.05), and 3 months (7.6% ± 3.3% vs. -8.9% ± 5.2%, P < 0.05). Volume reduction of Group A vs. Group C at 1 month (8.6% ± 2.0% vs. -6.6% ± 3.1%, P < 0.05), 2 months (9.3% ± 2.2% vs. -10.2% ± 4.6%, P < 0.05), and 3 months (7.6% ± 3.3% vs. -9.1% ± 3.1%, P < 0.05). Of note, comparison of Groups B and C demonstrated greater volume reduction in Group C at 1 (P < 0.02) and 2 (P = 0.07) months postoperatively.
CONCLUSIONS: LN flap transfer is an effective procedure for the treatment of lymphedema. The number of vascularized LNs transferred correlates positively with the degree of volume reduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2015.
PMID: 25715830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Ex uno plures: molecular designs for embryonic pluripotency.
Physiol Rev. 2015 Jan;95(1):245-95
Authors: Loh KM, Lim B, Ang LT
Pluripotent cells in embryos are situated near the apex of the hierarchy of developmental potential. They are capable of generating all cell types of the mammalian body proper. Therefore, they are the exemplar of stem cells. In vivo, pluripotent cells exist transiently and become expended within a few days of their establishment. Yet, when explanted into artificial culture conditions, they can be indefinitely propagated in vitro as pluripotent stem cell lines. A host of transcription factors and regulatory genes are now known to underpin the pluripotent state. Nonetheless, how pluripotent cells are equipped with their vast multilineage differentiation potential remains elusive. Consensus holds that pluripotency transcription factors prevent differentiation by inhibiting the expression of differentiation genes. However, this does not explain the developmental potential of pluripotent cells. We have presented another emergent perspective, namely, that pluripotency factors function as lineage specifiers that enable pluripotent cells to differentiate into specific lineages, therefore endowing pluripotent cells with their multilineage potential. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the developmental biology, transcription factors, and extrinsic signaling associated with pluripotent cells, and their accompanying subtypes, in vitro heterogeneity and chromatin states. Although much has been learned since the appreciation of mammalian pluripotency in the 1950s and the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines in 1981, we will specifically emphasize what currently remains unclear. However, the view that pluripotency factors capacitate differentiation, recently corroborated by experimental evidence, might perhaps address the long-standing question of how pluripotent cells are endowed with their multilineage differentiation potential.
PMID: 25540144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pronecrotic kinase activity.
Mol Cell. 2014 Nov 20;56(4):481-95
Authors: Mandal P, Berger SB, Pillay S, Moriwaki K, Huang C, Guo H, Lich JD, Finger J, Kasparcova V, Votta B, Ouellette M, King BW, Wisnoski D, Lakdawala AS, DeMartino MP, Casillas LN, Haile PA, Sehon CA, Marquis RW, Upton J, Daley-Bauer LP, Roback L, Ramia N, Dovey CM, Carette JE, Chan FK, Bertin J, Gough PJ, Mocarski ES, Kaiser WJ
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) has emerged as a central player in necroptosis and a potential target to control inflammatory disease. Here, three selective small-molecule compounds are shown to inhibit RIP3 kinase-dependent necroptosis, although their therapeutic value is undermined by a surprising, concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. These compounds interact with RIP3 to activate caspase 8 (Casp8) via RHIM-driven recruitment of RIP1 (RIPK1) to assemble a Casp8-FADD-cFLIP complex completely independent of pronecrotic kinase activities and MLKL. RIP3 kinase-dead D161N mutant induces spontaneous apoptosis independent of compound, whereas D161G, D143N, and K51A mutants, like wild-type, only trigger apoptosis when compound is present. Accordingly, RIP3-K51A mutant mice (Rip3(K51A/K51A)) are viable and fertile, in stark contrast to the perinatal lethality of Rip3(D161N/D161N) mice. RIP3 therefore holds both necroptosis and apoptosis in balance through a Ripoptosome-like platform. This work highlights a common mechanism unveiling RHIM-driven apoptosis by therapeutic or genetic perturbation of RIP3.
PMID: 25459880 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions in American football: 18 years of experience.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Dec;203(6):W674-83
Authors: Dave RB, Stevens KJ, Shivaram GM, McAdams TR, Dillingham MF, Beaulieu CF
OBJECTIVE: Myotendinous strains, contusions, and hematomas are common injuries in American football. Along with ligament sprains and inflammatory disorders, musculoskeletal injuries often result in lost participation time. This article summarizes 18 years of experience with 128 ultrasound-guided drainages and injections in 69 football players with 88 injuries.
CONCLUSION: When performed by an operator with sufficient expertise in diagnostic and procedural skills, ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions are minimally invasive, are safe, and can play an integral role in injury management.
PMID: 25415734 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Elective ceasarean section at 38 weeks versus 39 weeks: neonatal and maternal outcomes in a randomised controlled trial.
BJOG. 2014 Dec;121(13):1748
Authors: Cho Y, Carvalho B, Butwick A, Blumenfeld Y, Riley E
PMID: 25413764 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy: improved molecular sensitivity with β--emitting radiotracers.
J Nucl Med. 2014 Nov;55(11):1905-9
Authors: Carpenter CM, Ma X, Liu H, Sun C, Pratx G, Wang J, Gambhir SS, Xing L, Cheng Z
UNLABELLED: Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy (CLE) is an optical technique that captures the Cerenkov photons emitted from highly energetic moving charged particles (β(+) or β(-)) and can be used to monitor the distribution of many clinically available radioactive probes. A main limitation of CLE is its limited sensitivity to small concentrations of radiotracer, especially when used with a light guide. We investigated the improvement in the sensitivity of CLE brought about by using a β(-) radiotracer that improved Cerenkov signal due to both higher β-particle energy and lower γ noise in the imaging optics because of the lack of positron annihilation.
METHODS: The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of (90)Y was compared with that of (18)F in both phantoms and small-animal tumor models. Sensitivity and noise characteristics were demonstrated using vials of activity both at the surface and beneath 1 cm of tissue. Rodent U87MG glioma xenograft models were imaged with radiotracers bound to arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides to determine the SNR.
RESULTS: γ noise from (18)F was demonstrated by both an observed blurring across the field of view and a more pronounced fall-off with distance. A decreased γ background and increased energy of the β particles resulted in a 207-fold improvement in the sensitivity of (90)Y compared with (18)F in phantoms. (90)Y-bound RGD peptide produced a higher tumor-to-background SNR than (18)F in a mouse model.
CONCLUSION: The use of (90)Y for Cerenkov endoscopic imaging enabled superior results compared with an (18)F radiotracer.
PMID: 25300598 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Human atrial fibrillation initiates via organized rather than disorganized mechanisms.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Oct;7(5):816-24
Authors: Schricker AA, Lalani GG, Krummen DE, Rappel WJ, Narayan SM
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how atrial fibrillation (AF) is actually initiated by triggers. Based on consistencies in atrial structure and function in individual patients between episodes of AF, we hypothesized that human AF initiates when triggers interact with deterministic properties of the atria and may engage organized mechanisms.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In 31 patients with AF, we mapped AF initiation after spontaneous triggers or programmed stimulation. We used 64-pole basket catheters to measure regional dynamic conduction slowing and to create biatrial activation maps during transitions to AF. Sixty-two AF initiations were recorded (spontaneous, n=28; induced, n=34). Notably, AF did not initiate by disorganized mechanisms, but by either a dominant reentrant spiral wave (76%) or a repetitive focal driver. Both mechanisms were located 21±17 mm from their triggers. AF-initiating spirals formed at the site showing the greatest rate-dependent slowing in each patient. Accordingly, in 10 of 12 patients with multiple observed AF episodes, AF initiated using spatially conserved mechanisms despite diverse triggers.
CONCLUSIONS: Human AF initiates from triggers by organized rather than disorganized mechanisms, either via spiral wave re-entry at sites of dynamic conduction slowing or via repetitive focal drivers. The finding that diverse triggers initiate AF at predictable, spatially conserved functional sites in each individual provides a novel deterministic paradigm for AF with therapeutic implications.
PMID: 25217042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Beta-glucan for Pneumocystis pneumonia diagnosis in persons with AIDS: authors' reply.
AIDS. 2013 Nov 28;27(18):2967-8
Authors: Wood BR, Komarow L, Zolopa AR, Finkelman MA, Powderly WG, Sax PE
PMID: 25119691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Preserving human cells for regenerative, reproductive, and transfusion medicine.
Biotechnol J. 2014 Jul;9(7):895-903
Authors: Asghar W, El Assal R, Shafiee H, Anchan RM, Demirci U
Cell cryopreservation maintains cellular life at sub-zero temperatures by slowing down biochemical processes. Various cell types are routinely cryopreserved in modern reproductive, regenerative, and transfusion medicine. Current cell cryopreservation methods involve freezing (slow/rapid) or vitrifying cells in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA). Although these methods are clinically utilized, cryo-injury due to ice crystals, osmotic shock, and CPA toxicity cause loss of cell viability and function. Recent approaches using minimum volume vitrification provide alternatives to the conventional cryopreservation methods. Minimum volume vitrification provides ultra-high cooling and rewarming rates that enable preserving cells without ice crystal formation. Herein, we review recent advances in cell cryopreservation technology and provide examples of techniques that are utilized in oocyte, stem cell, and red blood cell cryopreservation.
PMID: 24995723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Frontal cortex control dysfunction related to long-term suicide risk in recent-onset schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res. 2014 Aug;157(1-3):19-25
Authors: Minzenberg MJ, Lesh TA, Niendam TA, Yoon JH, Rhoades RN, Carter CS
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is highly-prevalent and the most serious outcome in schizophrenia, yet the disturbances in neural system functions that confer suicide risk remain obscure. Circuits operated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in psychotic disorders, and various PFC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of completed suicide. We tested whether PFC activity during goal-representation (an important component of cognitive control) relates to long-term suicide risk in recent-onset schizophrenia.
METHOD: 35 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined schizophrenia (SZ) were evaluated for long-term suicide risk (using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale) and functional MRI during cognitive control task performance. Group-level regression models associating control-related brain activation with suicide risk controlled for depression, psychosis and impulsivity.
RESULTS: Within this group, past suicidal ideation was associated with lower activation with goal-representation demands in multiple PFC sectors. Among those with past suicidal ideation (n=18), reported suicidal behavior was associated with lower control-related activation in premotor cortex ipsilateral to the active primary motor cortex.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides unique evidence that suicide risk directly relates to PFC-based circuit dysfunction during goal-representation, in a major mental illness with significant suicide rates. Among those with suicidal ideation, the overt expression in suicidal behavior may stem from impairments in premotor cortex support of action-planning as an expression of control. Further work should address how PFC-based control function changes with risk over time, whether this brain-behavior relationship is specific to schizophrenia, and address its potential utility as a biomarker for interventions to mitigate suicide risk.
PMID: 24972755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Nonverbal dominance behavior among individuals at risk for mania.
J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr;159:133-8
Authors: Bartholomew ME, Johnson SL
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that people with bipolar disorder may be highly motivated to attain dominance and may over-estimate their social power (Johnson and Carver, 2012). This manic temperament may provide an adaptive advantage in the pursuit of dominance and leadership (Akiskal and Akiskal, 1992). It was hypothesized that people at high risk for bipolar disorder, as defined by the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), would fail to assume a submissive role when it was appropriate to do so.
METHOD: Participants (81 undergraduates) completed an image description task with a confederate. Participants were randomly assigned to interact with a confederate who assumed one of three nonverbal postures: dominant (expanded), neutral, or submissive (constricted). Nonverbal dominance behavior was defined as the rate at which participants expanded their body span during the task.
RESULTS: Consistent with hypotheses, an ANOVA indicated an interaction of Mania risk x Dominance condition on body expansion. Whereas participants with low mania risk (HPS scores) adapted complementary behavior in response to the confederate, participants with high mania risk demonstrated a consistently dominant (expanded) nonverbal posture.
LIMITATIONS: A major limitation of this study is the use of an analog measure of mania risk in place of clinical diagnoses.
CONCLUSIONS: In this experiment, participants at high risk for mania maintained a dominant posture even when submissiveness would have been more appropriate. It is argued that persistent dominance behavior may play an important role in the interpersonal interactions of individuals at risk for bipolar disorder.
PMID: 24679401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effects of antidepressant medication on emotion regulation in depressed patients: an iSPOT-D report.
J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr;159:127-32
Authors: McRae K, Rekshan W, Williams LM, Cooper N, Gross JJ
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant medication (ADM) is thought to reduce depressive symptoms by altering emotion-generative brain systems. However, it is unknown whether successful ADM treatment is associated with changes in psychobehavioral strategies used to regulate emotions. We examined depressive symptoms and emotion regulation strategies before and after ADM in the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D).
METHODS: The study enrolled 1008 adult patients with MDD (18-65 years old) from 18 primary and psychiatric care sites worldwide. Patients were randomly assigned to an 8-week course of escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine-extended-release. We examined whether ADM is associated with changes in suppression, usually associated with maladaptive outcomes, and reappraisal, usually associated with adaptive outcomes. We also tested whether changes in emotion regulation predict changes in depressive symptoms following ADM.
RESULTS: We observed more adaptive emotion regulation (decreased use of suppression and increased use of reappraisal) following ADM. Furthermore, the largest improvements in emotion regulation were associated with the best treatment outcomes.
LIMITATIONS: Because we assessed acute outcomes, it is not yet known if the effects of ADM on emotion regulation would persist over time.
CONCLUSIONS: ADMs are associated with acute, adaptive changes in the psychobehavioral strategies used to regulate emotions.
PMID: 24679400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Children at risk for depression: memory biases, self-schemas, and genotypic variation.
J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr;159:66-72
Authors: Asarnow LD, Thompson RJ, Joormann J, Gotlib IH
BACKGROUND: Daughters of depressed mothers are at increased risk for developing a depressive disorder. We know relatively little, however, about the specific factors that contribute to this elevated risk. The present study investigated the effects of familial risk for depression and the 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms, which have been associated with risk for depression, on biases in endorsement of and memory for positive and negative adjectives.
METHODS: Following a negative mood induction, 60 girls between the ages of 10 and 14 who had recurrent depressed mothers (high risk for depression) and 91 age-matched daughters of never-disordered mothers (low risk for depression) completed a Self-Referent Encoding Task in which they decided whether negative and positive adjectives described them. Following the task they were asked to recall as many of the adjectives as they could.
RESULTS: Despite the absence of significant group differences in endorsement of positive or negative adjectives, high-risk girls with the COMT Val158Met Val/Val polymorphism recalled more positive (but not negative) words that they had endorsed than did high-risk girls who were homozygous for the Met allele. COMT was not associated with recall of valenced adjectives in low-risk girls. Across risk groups, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was not associated with recall of valenced adjectives.
LIMITATIONS: Even with over 150 participants, there were relatively small numbers in some of the cells of this study, limiting its statistical power.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that assessing the interaction of familial risk status and COMT polymorphism is important in understanding the development of depressive disorders.
PMID: 24679392 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prevalence and clinical significance of night eating syndrome in university students.
J Adolesc Health. 2014 Jul;55(1):41-8
Authors: Runfola CD, Allison KC, Hardy KK, Lock J, Peebles R
PURPOSE: Most studies of night eating syndrome (NES) fail to control for binge eating, despite moderate overlap between the two conditions. Establishing the independent clinical significance of NES is imperative for it to be considered worthy of clinical attention. We compared students with and without NES on eating disorder symptomatology, quality of life, and mental health, while exploring the role of binge eating in associations.
METHODS: Students (N = 1,636) ages 18-26 years (M = 20.9) recruited from 10 U.S. universities completed an online survey including the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Project Eating Among Teens, and the Health-Related Quality of Life-4. NES was diagnosed according to endorsement of proposed diagnostic criteria on the NEQ. Groups (NES vs. non-NES) were compared on all dependent variables and stratified by binge eating status in secondary analyses.
RESULTS: The prevalence of NES in our sample was 4.2%; it decreased to 2.9% after excluding those with binge eating. Body mass index did not differ between groups, but students with NES were significantly more likely to have histories of underweight and anorexia nervosa. In students with NES, EDE-Q scores were significantly higher; purging, laxative use, and compulsive exercise were more frequent; quality of life was reduced; and histories of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and self-injury were more common. Binge eating did not account for all of these differences; the presence of it and NES was associated with additive risk for psychopathology on some items.
CONCLUSIONS: NES may be a distinct clinical entity from other DSM-5 eating disorders.
PMID: 24485551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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