Recent Stanford Publications in PubMedSubscribe to Recent Stanford Publications in PubMed
- Distributed circuits underlying anxiety.Adhikari AFront Behav Neurosci
- Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement: changes in neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress induced by lead in rat brain.Dabidi RV, Hosseinzadeh S, Mahjoub S, Hosseinzadeh M, Myers JBiol Sport
- Reply to "Inconclusive Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Comparison for Dengue Virus Detection and Serotyping".Waggoner JJ, Pinsky BAJ Clin Microbiol
- Analysis of Growth Curves in Children After Adenotonsillectomy.Czechowicz JA, Chang KWJAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
- Transdifferentiation of mouse fibroblasts and hepatocytes to functional neurons.Marro S, Yang NMethods Mol Biol
- Identifying Stem Cell Gene Expression Patterns and Phenotypic Networks with AutoSOME.Newman AM, Cooper JBMethods Mol Biol
- Genome-wide diet-gene interaction analyses for risk of colorectal cancer.Figueiredo JC, Hsu L, Hutter CM, Lin Y, Campbell PT, Baron JA, Berndt SI, Jiao S, Casey G, Fortini B, Chan AT, Cotterchio M, Lemire M, Gallinger S, Harrison TA, Le Marchand L, Newcomb PA, Slattery ML, Caan BJ, Carlson CS, Zanke BW, Rosse SA, Brenner H, Giovannucci EL, Wu K, Chang-Claude J, Chanock SJ, Curtis KR, Duggan D, Gong J, Haile RW, Hayes RB, Hoffmeister M, Hopper JL, Jenkins MA, Kolonel LN, Qu C, Rudolph A, Schoen RE, Schumacher FR, Seminara D, Stelling DL, Thibodeau SN, Thornquist M, Warnick GS, Henderson BE, Ulrich CM, Gauderman WJ, Potter JD, White E, Peters U, CCFR, GECCOPLoS Genet
- MULTIMODAL IMAGING AND MULTIFOCAL ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY DEMONSTRATE AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE STARGARDT DISEASE MAY PRESENT LIKE OCCULT MACULAR DYSTROPHY.Sisk RA, Leng TRetina
- Increasing Access to Specialty Surgical Care: Application of a New Resource Allocation Model to Bariatric Surgery.Leroux EJ, Morton JM, Rivas HAnn Surg
- α-Tubulin K40 Acetylation is Required for Contact Inhibition of Proliferation and Cell-Substrate Adhesion.Aguilar A, Becker L, Tedeschi T, Heller S, Iomini C, Nachury MVMol Biol Cell
- Intracranial Hemorrhage Among Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulated With Warfarin or Rivaroxaban: The Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation.Hankey GJ, Stevens SR, Piccini JP, Lokhnygina Y, Mahaffey KW, Halperin JL, Patel MR, Breithardt G, Singer DE, Becker RC, Berkowitz SD, Paolini JF, Nessel CC, Hacke W, Fox KA, Califf RM, on behalf of the ROCKET AF Steering Committee and InvestigatorsStroke
- Wormholes in host defense: how helminths manipulate host tissues to survive and reproduce.Boyett D, Hsieh MHPLoS Pathog
- End-tidal carbon monoxide and hemolysis.Tidmarsh GF, Wong RJ, Stevenson DKJ Perinatol
- Does the Multiple Mini-Interview Address Stakeholder Needs? An Applicant's Perspective.Phillips AW, Garmel GMAnn Emerg Med
- Automated Detection of Ambiguity in BI-RADS Assessment Categories in Mammography Reports.Bozkurt S, Rubin DStud Health Technol Inform
- Burnout in the NICU setting and its relation to safety culture.Profit J, Sharek PJ, Amspoker AB, Kowalkowski MA, Nisbet CC, Thomas EJ, Chadwick WA, Sexton JBBMJ Qual Saf
- Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: Interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.Aldao A, Jazaieri H, Goldin PR, Gross JJJ Anxiety Disord
- 50 years ago in the journal of pediatrics: convulsive equivalent syndrome of childhood.Maclean J, Porter BJ Pediatr
- Glucocorticoid therapy for gastrointestinal diseases.Triadafilopoulos GExpert Opin Drug Saf
- Psychiatry on trial: the Norway 2011 massacre.Roth WT, Dager SRJ Nerv Ment Dis
- Understanding protein folding using Markov state models.Pande VSAdv Exp Med Biol
- Highly substituted enantioenriched cyclopentane derivatives by palladium-catalyzed [3 + 2] trimethylenemethane cycloadditions with disubstituted nitroalkenes.Trost BM, Bringley DA, O'Keefe BMOrg Lett
- A unique model for treating chronic hepatitis C in patients with psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and/or housing instability.Ho CJ, Preston C, Fredericks K, Doorley SL, Kramer RJ, Kwan L, Kamal AJ Addict Med
- Variability in quantitative and qualitative analysis of intravascular ultrasound and frequency domain optical coherence tomography.Abnousi F, Waseda K, Kume T, Otake H, Kawarada O, Yong CM, Fitzgerald PJ, Honda Y, Yeung AC, Fearon WFCatheter Cardiovasc Interv
Distributed circuits underlying anxiety.
Front Behav Neurosci. 2014;8:112
Authors: Adhikari A
Anxiety is of paramount importance for animals, as it allows assessment of the environment while minimizing exposure to potential threats. Furthermore, anxiety disorders are highly prevalent. Consequently, the neural circuitry underlying anxiety has been a topic of great interest. In this mini review, we will discuss current views on anxiety circuits. We will focus on rodent anxiety paradigms, but we will also consider results from human neuroimaging and clinical studies. We briefly review studies demonstrating the central role that the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) play in modulating anxiety and present evidence showing how the bed nucleus uses different output pathways to influence specific features of anxiolysis. Lastly, we propose that several brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), act in a coordinated fashion with the amygdala and BNST, forming a distributed network of interconnected structures that control anxiety both in rodents and humans.
PMID: 24744710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement: changes in neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress induced by lead in rat brain.
Biol Sport. 2013 Mar;30(1):41-6
Authors: Dabidi RV, Hosseinzadeh S, Mahjoub S, Hosseinzadeh M, Myers J
Lead is a highly neurotoxic agent that particularly affects the developing central nervous system. In the current study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of exercise training and/or diferuloyl methane (DM) supplement, which is known as curcumin, on lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: 1) lead acetate, 2) DM supplement, 3) endurance training, 4) training+ DM supplement, 5) sham and 6) base. The rats in the training groups performed treadmill running consisting of 15 to 22 m · min(-1) for 25 to 64 min, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. All groups except sham received lead acetate (20 mg · kg(-1)), whereas the sham group received DM solvent. In addition, the DM and training + DM groups received DM solution (30 mg · kg(-1)) intraperitoneally. Chronic administration of lead acetate resulted in a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, but not in the hippocampus. In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, as compared to the sham group. Treadmill running, DM supplementation, or both resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and significantly increased BDNF and TAC levels, as compared to the lead acetate group. These results provide a rationale for an inhibitory role of DM supplement and regular exercise in the attenuation of lead-induced neurotoxicity.
PMID: 24744464 [PubMed]
Reply to "Inconclusive Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Comparison for Dengue Virus Detection and Serotyping".
J Clin Microbiol. 2014 May;52(5):1801-2
Authors: Waggoner JJ, Pinsky BA
PMID: 24744403 [PubMed - in process]
Analysis of Growth Curves in Children After Adenotonsillectomy.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Apr 17;
Authors: Czechowicz JA, Chang KW
IMPORTANCE Several studies have documented that children gain more weight than expected after adenotonsillectomy. OBJECTIVES To examine patterns of change in weight and stature percentiles in children after adenotonsillectomy and to analyze clinical and demographic correlates of shifts in the growth curve. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this retrospective medical record review, we studied patients 18 years and younger who underwent adenotonsillectomy at an academic pediatric tertiary medical center and had at least one height and weight measurement recorded at each of the following time points: within 3 months before surgery, within 3 to 9 months after surgery, and within 12 to 27 months after surgery. Data were procured from all children from January 1, 2007, through October 31, 2012, and initially included 2893 surgical patients and 161 458 height and weight measurements. The final database consisted of 815 patients with adequate growth data and multiple time points. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine patient age at surgery, preoperative weight, sex, and ethnic background for correlations with changes in weight, height, and body mass index percentiles. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Change in weight, height, and body mass index percentile before and after surgery. RESULTS At 18 months after surgery, weight percentiles in the study group increased by a mean of 6.3 percentile points (P < .001). Body mass index percentiles increased by a mean of 8.0 percentile points (P < .001). The greatest increases in weight percentiles were observed in children who were between the 1st and 60th percentiles for weight (P < .001) and younger than 4 years at the time of surgery (P < .001). An increase in weight percentile was not observed in children who preoperatively were already above the 80th percentile in weight (P = .15). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Weight gain after adenotonsillectomy occurs primarily in patients who are smaller and younger at the time of surgery and does not correlate with increased rates of obesity.
PMID: 24744140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Transdifferentiation of mouse fibroblasts and hepatocytes to functional neurons.
Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1150:237-46
Authors: Marro S, Yang N
Nuclear reprogramming by defined transcription factors became of broad interest in 2006 with the work of Takahashi and Yamanaka (Cell 126:663-676, 2006), but the first example of cell fate reshaping via ectopic expression of transcription factor was provided back in 1987 when Davis and colleagues induced features of a muscle cell in fibroblast using the muscle transcription factor MyoD (Davis et al., Cell 51:987-1000, 1987). In 2010 our laboratory described how forced expression of the three neuronal transcription factors Ascl1, Brn2, and Myt1l rapidly converts mouse fibroblasts into neuronal cells that exhibit biochemical and electrophysiological properties of neurons. We named these cells induced neuronal cells (iN cells) (Vierbuchen et al., Nature 463:1035-1041, 2010; Vierbuchen and Wernig, Nat Biotechnol 29:892-907, 2011). Interestingly, iN cells can also be derived from defined endodermal cells such as primary hepatocytes, suggesting the existence of a more general reprogramming paradigm (Marro et al., Cell Stem Cell 9:374-382, 2011). In this chapter we describe the detailed methods used to attain the direct conversion.
PMID: 24744003 [PubMed - in process]
Identifying Stem Cell Gene Expression Patterns and Phenotypic Networks with AutoSOME.
Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1150:115-30
Authors: Newman AM, Cooper JB
Stem cells have the unique property of differentiation and self-renewal and play critical roles in normal development, tissue repair, and disease. To promote systems-wide analysis of cells and tissues, we developed AutoSOME, a machine-learning method for identifying coordinated gene expression patterns and correlated cellular phenotypes in whole-transcriptome data, without prior knowledge of cluster number or structure. Here, we present a facile primer demonstrating the use of AutoSOME for identification and characterization of stem cell gene expression signatures and for visualization of transcriptome networks using Cytoscape. This protocol should serve as a general foundation for gene expression cluster analysis of stem cells, with applications for studying pluripotency, multi-lineage potential, and neoplastic disease.
PMID: 24743993 [PubMed - in process]
Genome-wide diet-gene interaction analyses for risk of colorectal cancer.
PLoS Genet. 2014 Apr;10(4):e1004228
Authors: Figueiredo JC, Hsu L, Hutter CM, Lin Y, Campbell PT, Baron JA, Berndt SI, Jiao S, Casey G, Fortini B, Chan AT, Cotterchio M, Lemire M, Gallinger S, Harrison TA, Le Marchand L, Newcomb PA, Slattery ML, Caan BJ, Carlson CS, Zanke BW, Rosse SA, Brenner H, Giovannucci EL, Wu K, Chang-Claude J, Chanock SJ, Curtis KR, Duggan D, Gong J, Haile RW, Hayes RB, Hoffmeister M, Hopper JL, Jenkins MA, Kolonel LN, Qu C, Rudolph A, Schoen RE, Schumacher FR, Seminara D, Stelling DL, Thibodeau SN, Thornquist M, Warnick GS, Henderson BE, Ulrich CM, Gauderman WJ, Potter JD, White E, Peters U, CCFR, GECCO
Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3) and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09), which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78). The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively) and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03). Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.
PMID: 24743840 [PubMed - in process]
MULTIMODAL IMAGING AND MULTIFOCAL ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY DEMONSTRATE AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE STARGARDT DISEASE MAY PRESENT LIKE OCCULT MACULAR DYSTROPHY.
Retina. 2014 Apr 16;
Authors: Sisk RA, Leng T
PURPOSE:: To describe multimodal imaging and electrophysiologic characteristics of an unusual subset of patients with genetically confirmed autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) who exhibited a central form of cone dysfunction resembling occult macular dystrophy that preceded the development of lipofuscin flecks, atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), or full-field electroretinography abnormalities.
METHODS:: Retrospective, observational descriptive case series.
RESULTS:: Five patients with compound heterozygous ABCA4 mutations presented with bilateral visual acuity reduction, normal-appearing fundi, and blocked choroidal fluorescence on fluorescein angiography. One sibling each of two probands with identical genotypes was also included for analysis. Full-field electroretinography testing was normal in all patients, but multifocal electroretinography demonstrated centripetally depressed amplitudes exceeding areas of fundus autofluorescence, infrared imaging, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography abnormalities. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography initially revealed disruption of the inner segment ellipsoid band accompanying an ovoid hypofluorescent foveolar lesion. Progression to later stages was accompanied by the loss of the foveal photoreceptor outer segments, creating foveal cavitation with preservation of the RPE. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated corresponding bull's eye lesions. Over time, the foveal potential space on spectral domain optical coherence tomography collapsed, and three patients developed RPE atrophy and visible lipofuscin flecks. The flecks were detectable by fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging earlier than by biomicroscopy. From these findings, a staging system for this subset of Stargardt disease presenting with central cone dysfunction was developed and presented herein.
CONCLUSION:: Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease may present as a central cone dysfunction syndrome before the development of lipofuscin flecks, atrophy of RPE, or full-field electroretinography abnormalities. If emerging therapies for Stargardt disease succeed, early recognition and treatment of patients with preserved foveal photoreceptor and RPE cell bodies may yield a more favorable visual prognosis.
PMID: 24743636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Increasing Access to Specialty Surgical Care: Application of a New Resource Allocation Model to Bariatric Surgery.
Ann Surg. 2014 Apr 16;
Authors: Leroux EJ, Morton JM, Rivas H
OBJECTIVES:: To calculate the public health impact and economic benefit of using ancillary health care professionals for routine postoperative care.
BACKGROUND:: The need for specialty surgical care far exceeds its supply, particularly in weight loss surgery. Bariatric surgery is cost-effective and the only effective long-term weight loss strategy for morbidly obese patients. Without clinically appropriate task shifting, surgeons, hospitals, and untreated patients incur a high opportunity cost.
METHODS:: Visit schedules, time per visit, and revenues were obtained from bariatric centers of excellence. Case-specific surgeon fees were derived from published Current Procedural Terminology data. The novel Microsoft Excel model was allowed to run until a steady state was evident (status quo). This model was compared with one in which the surgeon participates in follow-up visits beyond 3 months only if there is a complication (task shifting). Changes in operative capacity and national quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated.
RESULTS:: In the status quo model, per capita surgical volume capacity equilibrates at 7 surgical procedures per week, with 27% of the surgeon's time dedicated to routine long-term follow-up visits. Task shifting increases operative capacity by 38%, resulting in 143,000 to 882,000 QALYs gained annually. Per surgeon, task shifting achieves an annual increase of 95 to 588 QALYs, $5 million in facility revenue, 48 cases of cure of obstructive sleep apnea, 44 cases of remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 35 cases of cure of hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS:: Optimal resource allocation through task shifting is economically appealing and can achieve dramatic public health benefit by increasing access to specialty surgery.
PMID: 24743608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
α-Tubulin K40 Acetylation is Required for Contact Inhibition of Proliferation and Cell-Substrate Adhesion.
Mol Biol Cell. 2014 Apr 17;
Authors: Aguilar A, Becker L, Tedeschi T, Heller S, Iomini C, Nachury MV
Acetylation of α-tubulin on lysine 40 marks long-lived microtubules in structures such as axons and cilia, yet the physiological role of α-tubulin K40 acetylation remains elusive. While genetic ablation of the α-tubulin K40 acetyltransferase αTat1 in mice did not lead to detectable phenotypes in the developing animals, contact inhibition of proliferation and cell-substrate adhesion were significantly compromised in cultured αTat1(-/-) fibroblasts. First, αTat1(-/-) fibroblasts kept proliferating beyond the confluent monolayer stage. Congruently, αTat1(-/-) cells failed to activate Hippo signaling in response to increased cell density and the microtubule association of the Hippo regulator Merlin was disrupted. Second, αTat1(-/-) cells contained very few focal adhesions and their ability to adhere to growth surfaces was greatly impaired. While the catalytic activity of αTAT1 was dispensable for monolayer formation, it was necessary for cell adhesion, restrained cell proliferation and activation of the Hippo pathway at elevated cell density. Since α-tubulin K40 acetylation is largely eliminated by deletion of αTAT1, we propose that acetylated microtubules regulate contact inhibition of proliferation through the Hippo pathway.
PMID: 24743598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Intracranial Hemorrhage Among Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulated With Warfarin or Rivaroxaban: The Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation.
Stroke. 2014 Apr 17;
Authors: Hankey GJ, Stevens SR, Piccini JP, Lokhnygina Y, Mahaffey KW, Halperin JL, Patel MR, Breithardt G, Singer DE, Becker RC, Berkowitz SD, Paolini JF, Nessel CC, Hacke W, Fox KA, Califf RM, on behalf of the ROCKET AF Steering Committee and Investigators
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a life-threatening complication of anticoagulation.
METHODS: We investigated the rate, outcomes, and predictors of ICH in 14 264 patients with atrial fibrillation from Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used.
RESULTS: During 1.94 years (median) of follow-up, 172 patients (1.2%) experienced 175 ICH events at a rate of 0.67% per year. The significant, independent predictors of ICH were race (Asian: hazard ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.39-2.94; black: hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.43-7.41), age (1.35; 1.13-1.63 per 10-year increase), reduced serum albumin (1.39; 1.12-1.73 per 0.5 g/dL decrease), reduced platelet count below 210×10(9)/L (1.08; 1.02-1.13 per 10×10(9)/L decrease), previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (1.42; 1.02-1.96), and increased diastolic blood pressure (1.17; 1.01-1.36 per 10 mm Hg increase). Predictors of a reduced risk of ICH were randomization to rivaroxaban (0.60; 0.44-0.82) and history of congestive heart failure (0.65; 0.47-0.89). The ability of the model to discriminate individuals with and without ICH was good (C-index, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.64-0.73).
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with atrial fibrillation treated with anticoagulation, the risk of ICH was higher among Asians, blacks, the elderly, and in those with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, increased diastolic blood pressure, and reduced platelet count or serum albumin at baseline. The risk of ICH was significantly lower in patients with heart failure and in those who were randomized to rivaroxaban instead of warfarin. The external validity of these findings requires testing in other atrial fibrillation populations.
PMID: 24743444 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Wormholes in host defense: how helminths manipulate host tissues to survive and reproduce.
PLoS Pathog. 2014 Apr;10(4):e1004014
Authors: Boyett D, Hsieh MH
PMID: 24743351 [PubMed - in process]
End-tidal carbon monoxide and hemolysis.
J Perinatol. 2014 Apr 17;
Authors: Tidmarsh GF, Wong RJ, Stevenson DK
Hemolytic disease in newborns can result from a number of conditions, which can place such infants at an increased risk for the development of severe hyperbilirubinemia. Because the catabolism of heme produces equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin, measurements of end-tidal breath CO (corrected for ambient CO) or ETCOc can serve as an index of hemolysis as well as of bilirubin production from any cause. Elevated levels of ETCOc have been correlated with blood carboxyhemoglobin levels and thus hemolysis. However, the detection of hemolysis can be a clinically challenging problem in newborns. Here, we describe the importance of determining ETCOc levels and their application in identifying infants at risk for developing hyperbilirubinemia associated with hemolysis and other causes of increased bilirubin production.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 17 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.66.
PMID: 24743136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Does the Multiple Mini-Interview Address Stakeholder Needs? An Applicant's Perspective.
Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Apr 14;
Authors: Phillips AW, Garmel GM
PMID: 24743102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Automated Detection of Ambiguity in BI-RADS Assessment Categories in Mammography Reports.
Stud Health Technol Inform. 2014;197:35-9
Authors: Bozkurt S, Rubin D
An unsolved challenge in biomedical natural language processing (NLP) is detecting ambiguities in the reports that can help physicians to improve report clarity. Our goal was to develop NLP methods to tackle the challenges of identifying ambiguous descriptions of the laterality of BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories in mammography radiology reports. We developed a text processing system that uses a BI-RADS ontology we built as a knowledge source for automatic annotation of the entities in mammography reports relevant to this problem. We used the GATE NLP toolkit and developed customized processing resources for report segmentation, named entity recognition, and detection of mismatches between BI-RADS Final Assessment Categories and mammogram laterality. Our system detected 55 mismatched cases in 190 reports and the accuracy rate was 81%. We conclude that such NLP techniques can detect ambiguities in mammography reports and may reduce discrepancy and variability in reporting.
PMID: 24743074 [PubMed - in process]
Burnout in the NICU setting and its relation to safety culture.
BMJ Qual Saf. 2014 Apr 17;
Authors: Profit J, Sharek PJ, Amspoker AB, Kowalkowski MA, Nisbet CC, Thomas EJ, Chadwick WA, Sexton JB
BACKGROUND: Burnout is widespread among healthcare providers and is associated with adverse safety behaviours, operational and clinical outcomes. Little is known with regard to the explanatory links between burnout and these adverse outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: (1) Test the psychometric properties of a brief four-item burnout scale, (2) Provide neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) burnout and resilience benchmarking data across different units and caregiver types, (3) Examine the relationships between caregiver burnout and patient safety culture.
RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study.
SUBJECTS: Nurses, nurse practitioners, respiratory care providers and physicians in 44 NICUs.
MEASURES: Caregiver assessments of burnout and safety culture.
RESULTS: Of 3294 administered surveys, 2073 were returned for an overall response rate of 62.9%. The percentage of respondents in each NICU reporting burnout ranged from 7.5% to 54.4% (mean=25.9%, SD=10.8). The four-item burnout scale was reliable (α=0.85) and appropriate for aggregation (intra-class correlation coefficient-2=0.95). Burnout varied significantly between NICUs, p<0.0001, but was less prevalent in physicians (mean=15.1%, SD=19.6) compared with non-physicians (mean=26.9%, SD=11.4, p=0.0004). NICUs with more burnout had lower teamwork climate (r=-0.48, p=0.001), safety climate (r=-0.40, p=0.01), job satisfaction (r=-0.64, p<0.0001), perceptions of management (r=-0.50, p=0.0006) and working conditions (r=-0.45, p=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: NICU caregiver burnout appears to have 'climate-like' features, is prevalent, and associated with lower perceptions of patient safety culture.
PMID: 24742780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: Interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.
J Anxiety Disord. 2014 Mar 31;
Authors: Aldao A, Jazaieri H, Goldin PR, Gross JJ
There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD.
PMID: 24742755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
50 years ago in the journal of pediatrics: convulsive equivalent syndrome of childhood.
J Pediatr. 2014 May;164(5):1050
Authors: Maclean J, Porter B
PMID: 24742650 [PubMed - in process]
Glucocorticoid therapy for gastrointestinal diseases.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014 May;13(5):563-72
Authors: Triadafilopoulos G
Introduction: Glucocorticoids are widely used as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents in many immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. However, a number of undesirable side effects may occur and dictate continuous surveillance and monitoring to prevent complications. Areas covered: This review of the English language literature identified on PubMed focuses on key aspects of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with gastrointestinal diseases, highlighting specific aspects of recognition and management of its secondary effects. Expert opinion: Long-term cohort studies as well as placebo- and sham-controlled trials have evaluated the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of glucocorticoid therapy in many gastrointestinal diseases. Other immunosuppressive and biological therapies have made glucocorticoid therapy part of a broader arsenal of therapies. Newer compounds that carry less systemic toxicity and improved tolerability are increasingly used. For several gastrointestinal diseases, the role of the mucosal immunity is currently being explored and microscopic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa may have an important pathogenetic role. Glucocorticoid therapy, particularly with newer, safer compounds, may play an important new role in patients with altered motility and visceral hypersensitivity. The interplay of the gut microbiota and the host that contributes to the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues and gut-specific immune responses will also undoubtedly be explored.
PMID: 24742121 [PubMed - in process]
Psychiatry on trial: the Norway 2011 massacre.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2014 Mar;202(3):181-5
Authors: Roth WT, Dager SR
On July 22, 2011, Anders Breivik, a Norwegian citizen, detonated a fertilizer bomb near government buildings in Oslo, killing eight people, and then proceeded to a nearby island where the Labor Party was holding a youth camp. There, he killed 69 people before being arrested. Just before these events, he posted a "compendium" on the Web explaining his actions and encouraging others to do likewise. Much of the ensuing media coverage and trial focused on whether he was sane and whether he had a psychiatric diagnosis. One team of court-appointed psychiatrists found him to be psychotic with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia and legally insane. A second team found him neither psychotic nor schizophrenic and, thus, legally sane. Their contrary opinions were not reconciled by observing his behavior in court. We discuss why experienced psychiatrists reached such fundamentally opposing diagnostic conclusions about a "home-grown" terrorist holding extreme political views.
PMID: 24566502 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Understanding protein folding using Markov state models.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;797:101-6
Authors: Pande VS
PMID: 24297278 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Highly substituted enantioenriched cyclopentane derivatives by palladium-catalyzed [3 + 2] trimethylenemethane cycloadditions with disubstituted nitroalkenes.
Org Lett. 2013 Nov 15;15(22):5630-3
Authors: Trost BM, Bringley DA, O'Keefe BM
β,β-Disubstituted nitroalkenes readily undergo palladium-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition with trimethylenemethane to generate nitrocyclopentanes in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. The reaction provides access to heavily substituted cyclopentanes containing up to three contiguous stereocenters, and the products may be converted to both cyclopentylamines and cyclopentenones. A rare dependence of the sense of chirality of the cycloadducts was observed to be exclusively dependent on the structure of the palladium-bound trimethylenemethane intermediate.
PMID: 24161190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A unique model for treating chronic hepatitis C in patients with psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and/or housing instability.
J Addict Med. 2013 Sep-Oct;7(5):320-4
Authors: Ho CJ, Preston C, Fredericks K, Doorley SL, Kramer RJ, Kwan L, Kamal A
BACKGROUND: Individuals with psychiatric disease, substance abuse, and/or housing instability have a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, such individuals are often excluded from treatment for HCV infection because of a perceived inability to adhere to the rigorous medication regimen required.
METHODS: A pilot program using a multidisciplinary group medical visit model to treat HCV infection in the aforementioned population was created. Medication adherence and virologic response rates were prospectively followed.
RESULTS: Approximately 80% of patients were adherent to their HCV infection treatment regimen, as measured by attendance at group medical visits and by medication adherence. A sustained virologic response rate of 55% among individuals with genotype 1 infection and 80% among individuals with genotype 2 or 3 infections was observed. These results compare favorably with those seen in large, randomized controlled trials. Rates of discontinuation and adverse effects were similar to those seen in other studies.
CONCLUSIONS: An intensive, multidisciplinary treatment approach toward HCV infection treatment can achieve favorable results even in persons traditionally considered to be "poor treatment candidates." Programs aimed at bringing HCV infection treatment to this population are needed.
PMID: 23896750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Variability in quantitative and qualitative analysis of intravascular ultrasound and frequency domain optical coherence tomography.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 Sep 1;82(3):E192-9
Authors: Abnousi F, Waseda K, Kume T, Otake H, Kawarada O, Yong CM, Fitzgerald PJ, Honda Y, Yeung AC, Fearon WF
BACKGROUND: Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is an intravascular imaging technique now available in the United States. However, the importance of level of training required for analysis using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and FD-OCT is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate inter- and intra-observer variability between expert and beginner analysts interpreting IVUS and FD-OCT images.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Two independent expert analysts and two independent beginner analysts evaluated a total of 226 ± 2 stent cross-sections with IVUS and 232 ± 2 stent cross-sections with FD-OCT in 14 patients after stenting. Inter- and intra-observer variability for determining stent volume index (VI), as well as identifying incomplete stent apposition and dissection were assessed. The inter- and intra-observer variability of stent VI was minimal for both beginner and expert analysts regardless of imaging technology (random variability: 0.38 vs. 0.05 mm(3) /mm for IVUS, 0.26 vs. 0.08 mm(3) /mm for FD-OCT). Although qualitative IVUS analysis at the patient level revealed no significant difference between beginners and experts, this was not the case for FD-OCT. The number of overall qualitative findings noted by beginner and expert analysts were more variable (overestimated or underestimated) with FD-OCT.
CONCLUSION: Despite varying levels of training, the increased resolution of FD-OCT compared to IVUS provides better detection and less variability in quantitative image analysis. On the contrary, this increased resolution not only increases the rate but also the variability of detection of qualitative image analysis, especially for beginner analysts.
PMID: 23412754 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]