Recent Stanford Publications in PubMedSubscribe to Recent Stanford Publications in PubMed
- Higher Landing Accuracy in Expert Pilots is Associated with Lower Activity in the Caudate Nucleus.Adamson MM, Taylor JL, Heraldez D, Khorasani A, Noda A, Hernandez B, Yesavage JAPLoS One
- Shape Mode Analysis Exposes Movement Patterns in Biology: Flagella and Flatworms as Case Studies.Werner S, Rink JC, Riedel-Kruse IH, Friedrich BMPLoS One
- Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Roadmap for Physical Activity and Lifestyle.Jakicic JM, Sox H, Blair SN, Bensink M, Johnson WG, King AC, Lee IM, Nahum-Shani I, Sallis JF, Sallis RE, Craft L, Whitehead JR, Ainsworth BEMed Sci Sports Exerc
- Uncertainty and Denial: A Resource-Rational Model of the Value of Information.Pierson E, Goodman NPLoS One
- Right inferior frontal cortex: addressing the rebuttals.Aron AR, Robbins TW, Poldrack RAFront Hum Neurosci
- Dissecting the clonal origins of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by single-cell genomics.Gawad C, Koh W, Quake SRProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
- Diabetes and other comorbidities in breast cancer survival by race/ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC).Wu AH, Kurian AW, Kwan ML, John EM, Lu Y, Keegan TH, Gomez SL, Cheng I, Shariff-Marco S, Caan BJ, Lee VS, Sullivan-Halley J, Tseng CC, Bernstein L, Sposto R, Vigen CCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
- A nurse-driven screening tool for the early identification of sepsis in an intermediate care unit setting.Gyang E, Shieh L, Forsey L, Maggio PJ Hosp Med
- A pilot in vitro evaluation of the "air test" for perineural catheter tip localization by a novice regional anesthesiologist.Johns J, Harrison TK, Steffel L, Howard SK, Kim TE, Kou A, Mariano ERJ Ultrasound Med
- Accuracy of sonographic chorionicity classification in twin gestations.Blumenfeld YJ, Momirova V, Rouse DJ, Caritis SN, Sciscione A, Peaceman AM, Reddy UM, Varner MW, Malone FD, Iams JD, Mercer BM, Thorp JM, Sorokin Y, Carpenter MW, Lo J, Ramin SM, Harper M, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units NetworkJ Ultrasound Med
- Chimeric TK-NOG Mice: A Predictive Model for Cholestatic Human Liver Toxicity.Xu D, Wu M, Nishimura S, Nishimura T, Michie SA, Zheng M, Yang Z, Yates AJ, Day JS, Hillgren KM, Takeda ST, Guan Y, Guo Y, Peltz GAJ Pharmacol Exp Ther
- Oral immunotherapy for the treatment of food allergy.Begin P, Chinthrajah RS, Nadeau KCHum Vaccin Immunother
- Imaging Evidence and Recommendations for Traumatic Brain Injury: Advanced Neuro- and Neurovascular Imaging Techniques.Wintermark M, Sanelli PC, Anzai Y, Tsiouris AJ, Whitlow CT, on behalf of the American College of Radiology Head Injury InstituteAJNR Am J Neuroradiol
- Evaluating toxicity from definitive radiation therapy for prostate cancer in men with inflammatory bowel disease: Patient selection and dosimetric parameters with modern treatment techniques.Murphy CT, Heller S, Ruth K, Buyyounouski MK, Weinberg D, Uzzo RG, Plimack E, Kutikov A, Chen DY, Horwitz EMPract Radiat Oncol
- Patient preferences on telemedicine for preanesthesia evaluation.Fishman M, Mirante B, Dai F, Kurup VCan J Anaesth
Higher Landing Accuracy in Expert Pilots is Associated with Lower Activity in the Caudate Nucleus.
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112607
Authors: Adamson MM, Taylor JL, Heraldez D, Khorasani A, Noda A, Hernandez B, Yesavage JA
The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66) were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land) or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land). Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8) or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12). High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62±2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98±1.04; p<.01). Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97±0.80) compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91±1.16) (p<.05). These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions involved in it.
PMID: 25426935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Shape Mode Analysis Exposes Movement Patterns in Biology: Flagella and Flatworms as Case Studies.
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e113083
Authors: Werner S, Rink JC, Riedel-Kruse IH, Friedrich BM
We illustrate shape mode analysis as a simple, yet powerful technique to concisely describe complex biological shapes and their dynamics. We characterize undulatory bending waves of beating flagella and reconstruct a limit cycle of flagellar oscillations, paying particular attention to the periodicity of angular data. As a second example, we analyze non-convex boundary outlines of gliding flatworms, which allows us to expose stereotypic body postures that can be related to two different locomotion mechanisms. Further, shape mode analysis based on principal component analysis allows to discriminate different flatworm species, despite large motion-associated shape variability. Thus, complex shape dynamics is characterized by a small number of shape scores that change in time. We present this method using descriptive examples, explaining abstract mathematics in a graphic way.
PMID: 25426857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Roadmap for Physical Activity and Lifestyle.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014 Nov 25;
Authors: Jakicic JM, Sox H, Blair SN, Bensink M, Johnson WG, King AC, Lee IM, Nahum-Shani I, Sallis JF, Sallis RE, Craft L, Whitehead JR, Ainsworth BE
PURPOSE: Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is designed to support informed decision making at both the individual, population, and policy levels. The American College of Sports Medicine and partners convened a conference with the focus of building an agenda for CER within the context of physical activity and non-pharmacological lifestyle approaches in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. This report summarizes the conference content and consensus recommendations that culminated in a CER Roadmap for Physical Activity and Lifestyle approaches to reducing the risk of chronic disease.
METHODS: This conference focused on presentations and discussion around the following topic areas: 1) defining CER, 2) identifying the current funding climate to support CER, 3) summarizing methods for conducting CER, and 4) identifying CER opportunities for physical activity.
RESULTS: This conference resulted in consensus recommendations to adopt a CER Roadmap for Physical Activity and Lifestyle approaches to reducing the risk of chronic disease. In general, this roadmap provides a systematic framework by which CER for physical activity can move from a planning phase, to a phase of engagement in CER related to lifestyle factors with particular emphasis on physical activity, to a societal change phase that results in changes in policy, practice, and health.
CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that physical activity researchers and healthcare providers use the roadmap developed from this conference as a method to systematically engage in and apply CER to the promotion of physical activity as a key lifestyle behavior that can be effective at impacting a variety of health-related outcomes.
PMID: 25426735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Uncertainty and Denial: A Resource-Rational Model of the Value of Information.
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e113342
Authors: Pierson E, Goodman N
Classical decision theory predicts that people should be indifferent to information that is not useful for making decisions, but this model often fails to describe human behavior. Here we investigate one such scenario, where people desire information about whether an event (the gain/loss of money) will occur even though there is no obvious decision to be made on the basis of this information. We find a curious dual trend: if information is costless, as the probability of the event increases people want the information more; if information is not costless, people's desire for the information peaks at an intermediate probability. People also want information more as the importance of the event increases, and less as the cost of the information increases. We propose a model that explains these results, based on the assumption that people have limited cognitive resources and obtain information about which events will occur so they can determine whether to expend effort planning for them.
PMID: 25426631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Right inferior frontal cortex: addressing the rebuttals.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:905
Authors: Aron AR, Robbins TW, Poldrack RA
PMID: 25426053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Dissecting the clonal origins of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by single-cell genomics.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 25;
Authors: Gawad C, Koh W, Quake SR
Many cancers have substantial genomic heterogeneity within a given tumor, and to fully understand that diversity requires the ability to perform single cell analysis. We performed targeted sequencing of a panel of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), deletions, and IgH sequences in 1,479 single tumor cells from six acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. By accurately segregating groups of cooccurring mutations into distinct clonal populations, we identified codominant clones in the majority of patients. Evaluation of intraclonal mutation patterns identified clone-specific punctuated cytosine mutagenesis events, showed that most structural variants are acquired before SNVs, determined that KRAS mutations occur late in disease development but are not sufficient for clonal dominance, and identified clones within the same patient that are arrested at varied stages in B-cell development. Taken together, these data order the sequence of genetic events that underlie childhood ALL and provide a framework for understanding the development of the disease at single-cell resolution.
PMID: 25425670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Diabetes and other comorbidities in breast cancer survival by race/ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC).
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Nov 25;
Authors: Wu AH, Kurian AW, Kwan ML, John EM, Lu Y, Keegan TH, Gomez SL, Cheng I, Shariff-Marco S, Caan BJ, Lee VS, Sullivan-Halley J, Tseng CC, Bernstein L, Sposto R, Vigen C
Background:The role of comorbidities in survival of breast cancer patients has not been well studied, particularly in non-white populations. Methods:We investigated the association of specific comorbidities with mortality in a multiethnic cohort of 8,952 breast cancer cases within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC), which pooled questionnaire and cancer registry data from five California-based studies. In total, 2,187 deaths (1,122 from breast cancer) were observed through December 31, 2010. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality associated with previous cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure (HBP), and myocardial infarction (MI). Results:Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality increased among breast cancer cases with a history of diabetes (HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.18, 1.87) or MI (HR=1.94, 95% CI=1.27-2.97). Risk patterns were similar across race/ethnicity (non-Latina White, Latina, African American and Asian American), body size, menopausal status, and stage at diagnosis. In subgroup analyses, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated among cases with diabetes who received neither radiation nor chemotherapy (HR=2.11, 95% CI=1.32-3.36); no increased risk was observed among those who received both treatments (HR=1.13, 95% CI= 0.70-1.84) (P interaction= 0.03). A similar pattern was found for MI by radiation and chemotherapy (P interaction=0.09). Conclusion:These results may inform future treatment guidelines for breast cancer patients with a history of diabetes or MI. Impact:Given the growing number of breast cancer survivors worldwide, we need to better understand how comorbidities may adversely affect treatment decisions and ultimately outcome.
PMID: 25425578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A nurse-driven screening tool for the early identification of sepsis in an intermediate care unit setting.
J Hosp Med. 2014 Nov 25;
Authors: Gyang E, Shieh L, Forsey L, Maggio P
BACKGROUND: Use of a screening tool as a decision support mechanism for early detection of sepsis has been widely advocated, yet studies validating tool performance are scarce, especially in non-intensive care unit settings.
METHODS: For this pilot study we prospectively screened consecutive patients admitted to a medical/surgical intermediate care unit at an academic medical center over a 1-month period and retrospectively analyzed their clinical data. Patients were screened with a 3-tiered, paper-based, nurse-driven sepsis assessment tool every 8 hours. For patients screening positive for sepsis or severe sepsis, the primary treatment team was notified and the team's clinical actions were recorded. Results of the screening test were then compared to patient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock identified during the study time period, and performance of the screening test was assessed.
RESULTS: A total of 2143 screening tests were completed in 245 patients (169 surgical, 76 medical). ICD-9 codes confirmed sepsis incidence was 9%. Of the 39 patients who screened positive, 51% were positive for sepsis, and 49% screened positive for severe sepsis. Screening tool sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 92%, respectively. Negative predictive value was 99% and positive predictive value was 54%. Overall test accuracy was 92%. There was no statistically significant difference in tool performance between medical and surgical patients.
CONCLUSIONS: A simple screening tool for sepsis utilized as part of nursing assessment may be a useful way of identifying early sepsis in both medical and surgical patients in an intermediate care unit setting. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
PMID: 25425449 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A pilot in vitro evaluation of the "air test" for perineural catheter tip localization by a novice regional anesthesiologist.
J Ultrasound Med. 2014 Dec;33(12):2197-200
Authors: Johns J, Harrison TK, Steffel L, Howard SK, Kim TE, Kou A, Mariano ER
The "air test" is used clinically to infer perineural catheter location and has been recently evaluated for use by experts. However, its utility for practitioners with less experience is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the air test, when performed by a novice regional anesthesiologist, will improve assessment of perineural catheter tip position in a validated porcine-bovine model and determined the test's positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity, and specificity for a novice. In contrast to the results of the expert study, the air test did not improve the novice's assessment of perineural catheter tip location over chance.
PMID: 25425379 [PubMed - in process]
Accuracy of sonographic chorionicity classification in twin gestations.
J Ultrasound Med. 2014 Dec;33(12):2187-92
Authors: Blumenfeld YJ, Momirova V, Rouse DJ, Caritis SN, Sciscione A, Peaceman AM, Reddy UM, Varner MW, Malone FD, Iams JD, Mercer BM, Thorp JM, Sorokin Y, Carpenter MW, Lo J, Ramin SM, Harper M, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of sonographic classification of chorionicity in a large cohort of twins and investigate which factors may be associated with sonographic accuracy.
METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of preterm birth prevention in twins. Sonographic classification of chorionicity was compared with pathologic examination of the placenta. Maternal (age, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension), obstetric (prior cesarean delivery, gestational age at the first sonographic examination, and antepartum bleeding), and sonographic (oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, and twin-twin transfusion syndrome) factors were assessed for their possible association with accuracy.
RESULTS: A total of 545 twin sets in which chorionicity was classified by sonography before 20 weeks' gestation were included; 455 were dichorionic and 90 were monochorionic based on pathologic examination. Sonography misclassified 35 of 545 twin pregnancies (6.4%): 18 of 455 dichorionic twins (4.0%) and 17 of 90 monochorionic twins (19.0%). The sensitivity and specificity of sonographic diagnosis of monochorionicity were 81.1% and 96.0%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, pregnancies with initial sonographic examinations before 14 weeks' gestation were less likely to have misclassified chorionicity than those with sonographic examinations at 15 to 20 weeks (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.96). For each week increase in gestational age, the odds of misclassification rose by 10% (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.2). In the multivariable analysis, maternal age, body mass index, parity, and prior cesarean delivery were not associated with sonographic accuracy.
CONCLUSIONS: Sonography before 20 weeks incorrectly classified chorionicity in 6.4% of twin gestations. Those with first sonographic examinations performed at earlier gestational ages had improved chorionicity diagnosis.
PMID: 25425377 [PubMed - in process]
Chimeric TK-NOG Mice: A Predictive Model for Cholestatic Human Liver Toxicity.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Nov 25;
Authors: Xu D, Wu M, Nishimura S, Nishimura T, Michie SA, Zheng M, Yang Z, Yates AJ, Day JS, Hillgren KM, Takeda ST, Guan Y, Guo Y, Peltz GA
Due to the substantial inter-species differences in drug metabolism and drug disposition, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in humans is often not predicted by studies performed in animal species. For example, a drug (bosentan) used to treat pulmonary artery hypertension caused unexpected cholestatic liver toxicity in humans, which was not predicted by pre-clinical toxicology studies in multiple animal species. Here, we demonstrate that TK-NOG mice with humanized livers have a humanized profile of biliary excretion of a test (cefmetazole) drug, which was shown by an in situ perfusion study to result from inter-species differences in the rate of biliary transport and in liver retention of this drug. We also found that readily detectable cholestatic liver injury develops in TK-NOG mice with humanized livers after one week of treatment with bosentan (160, 32 or 6 mg/kg/day PO), while liver toxicity did not develop in control mice after one month of treatment. The laboratory and histologic features of bosentan-induced liver toxicity in humanized mice mirrored that of human subjects. Since DILI has become a significant public health problem, drug safety could be improved if pre-clinical toxicology studies were performed using humanized TK-NOG.
PMID: 25424997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Oral immunotherapy for the treatment of food allergy.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014 Aug;10(8):2295-302
Authors: Begin P, Chinthrajah RS, Nadeau KC
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an emerging new therapy for food allergy. With multiple small exploratory trials and some large randomized-controlled phase 2 trials recently published and under way, there is a clear progress and interest toward making this a treatment option for patients suffering from food allergies. However, there are still many questions to be answered and parameters to fine-tune before OIT becomes an accepted option outside of the research setting. This review covers the main milestones in the development of OIT for food allergy and further discusses important specific issues that will have direct impact on its clinical application. More specifically, previous publications showing evidence for the induction of tolerance are specifically reviewed and varying safety, tolerability and efficacy parameters from previous reports are also discussed.
PMID: 25424935 [PubMed - in process]
Imaging Evidence and Recommendations for Traumatic Brain Injury: Advanced Neuro- and Neurovascular Imaging Techniques.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Nov 25;
Authors: Wintermark M, Sanelli PC, Anzai Y, Tsiouris AJ, Whitlow CT, on behalf of the American College of Radiology Head Injury Institute
SUMMARY: Neuroimaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of patients with traumatic brain injury, with NCCT as the first-line of imaging for patients with traumatic brain injury and MR imaging being recommended in specific settings. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, including MR imaging DTI, blood oxygen level\Ndependent fMRI, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, PET/SPECT, and magnetoencephalography, are of particular interest in identifying further injury in patients with traumatic brain injury when conventional NCCT and MR imaging findings are normal, as well as for prognostication in patients with persistent symptoms. These advanced neuroimaging techniques are currently under investigation in an attempt to optimize them and substantiate their clinical relevance in individual patients. However, the data currently available confine their use to the research arena for group comparisons, and there remains insufficient evidence at the time of this writing to conclude that these advanced techniques can be used for routine clinical use at the individual patient level. TBI imaging is a rapidly evolving field, and a number of the recommendations presented will be updated in the future to reflect the advances in medical knowledge.
PMID: 25424870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Evaluating toxicity from definitive radiation therapy for prostate cancer in men with inflammatory bowel disease: Patient selection and dosimetric parameters with modern treatment techniques.
Pract Radiat Oncol. 2014 Oct 29;
Authors: Murphy CT, Heller S, Ruth K, Buyyounouski MK, Weinberg D, Uzzo RG, Plimack E, Kutikov A, Chen DY, Horwitz EM
PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered a contraindication to abdominopelvic radiation therapy (RT). We examined our experience in men with IBD who were treated with definitive RT for prostate cancer.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: We queried our institutional database for patients with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, or IBD not otherwise specified. Endpoints were: acute and late ≥grade 2 (G2) GI toxicity and IBD flare after RT. Outcomes were compared with controls using propensity scoring matched 3 to 1. We matched controls to the IBD cohort according to: RT technique, RT dose, risk group, hormone use, treatment year, and age. We determined predictors of acute outcomes using the Fisher exact test and time to outcomes using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2010, 84 men were included. Sixty-three men served as matched controls and 21 with IBD: 13 ulcerative colitis, 7 Crohn disease, and 1 IBD not otherwise specified. For men with IBD, median age was 69 years, and median follow-up was 49 months. Median flare-free interval before RT was 10 years. Seven were taking IBD medications during RT. There was no difference in acute or late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in the IBD group versus controls. Among IBD patients, IBD medication use was the only predictor of acute ≥G2 GI toxicity: 57.1% with medication versus7.7% without (49.4% absolute difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.0%-88.9%, P = .03). The 5-year risk of late GI toxicity in men with IBD versus controls was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 1.19, 95%CI 0.28-5.01, P = .83). The crude incidence of late ≥G2 GI toxicity was 10%.
CONCLUSIONS: Acute GI toxicity appears to be exacerbated in patients on concomitant medical therapy for IBD. Overall, late GI toxicity was relatively low and not significantly different between patients with IBD versus no IBD. However, the small sample size limits the interpretation of our estimates and the wide confidence intervals indicate these patients warrant careful selection.
PMID: 25424586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Patient preferences on telemedicine for preanesthesia evaluation.
Can J Anaesth. 2014 Nov 26;
Authors: Fishman M, Mirante B, Dai F, Kurup V
PMID: 25424380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- All Biomedical Resources
- Specialty Portals
- Obstetrics & Gynecology
- Biomedical Ethics
- Palliative Care
- Comparative Medicine
- Consumer Health
- Emergency Medicine
- Global Health
- Physical Medicine & Rehab.
- Infectious Diseases
- Internal Medicine
- LPCH Heart Center Nursing
- Reference Desk
- Medical Education
- Spiritual Care
- Multicultural Health
- Student IL Materials
- Classes & Tutorials
- Using the Library
- About Lane
- How To