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- Cumulative human impacts on mediterranean and black sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.Micheli F, Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Ciriaco S, Ferretti F, Fraschetti S, Lewison R, Nykjaer L, Rosenberg AAPLoS One
- Cardiovascular Events Associated with Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies: A Network Meta-Analysis.Mills EJ, Thorlund K, Eapen S, Wu P, Prochaska JJCirculation
- MicroRNAs Regulate the Chaperone Network in Cerebral Ischemia.Ouyang YB, Giffard RGTransl Stroke Res
- The combination of 9p21.3 genotype and biomarker profile improves a peripheral artery disease risk prediction model.Downing KP, Nead KT, Kojima Y, Assimes T, Maegdefessel L, Quertermous T, Cooke JP, Leeper NJVasc Med
- Teaching Health Advocacy to Medical Students: A Comparison Study.Belkowitz J, Sanders LM, Zhang C, Agarwal G, Lichtstein D, Mechaber AJ, Chung EKJ Public Health Manag Pract
- MR Vascular Fingerprinting: A New Approach to Compute Cerebral Blood Volume, Mean Vessel Radius, and Oxygenation Maps in the Human Brain.Christen T, Pannetier NA, Ni W, Qiu D, Moseley M, Schuff N, Zaharchuk GNeuroimage
- Reassessment of the Current American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.Qadan M, Ma Y, Visser BC, Kunz PL, Fisher GA, Norton JA, Poultsides GAJ Am Coll Surg
- The emerging field of affective science.Gross JJ, Barrett LFEmotion
- Patient dose simulations for scanning-beam digital x-ray tomosynthesis of the lungs.Nelson G, Yoon S, Krishna G, Wilfley B, Fahrig RMed Phys
- CONRAD-A software framework for cone-beam imaging in radiology.Maier A, Hofmann HG, Berger M, Fischer P, Schwemmer C, Wu H, Müller K, Hornegger J, Choi JH, Riess C, Keil A, Fahrig RMed Phys
- Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation.Shin M, Lillaney P, Hinshaw W, Fahrig RMed Phys
- Enhancement of strong-field multiple ionization in the vicinity of the conical intersection in 1,3-cyclohexadiene ring opening.Petrovic VS, Schorb S, Kim J, White J, Cryan JP, Glownia JM, Zipp L, Broege D, Miyabe S, Tao H, Martinez T, Bucksbaum PHJ Chem Phys
- In vivo neuron-wide analysis of synaptic vesicle precursor trafficking.Maeder CI, San-Miguel A, Wu EY, Lu H, Shen KTraffic
Cumulative human impacts on mediterranean and black sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e79889
Authors: Micheli F, Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Ciriaco S, Ferretti F, Fraschetti S, Lewison R, Nykjaer L, Rosenberg AA
Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.
PMID: 24324585 [PubMed - in process]
Cardiovascular Events Associated with Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies: A Network Meta-Analysis.
Circulation. 2013 Dec 9;
Authors: Mills EJ, Thorlund K, Eapen S, Wu P, Prochaska JJ
BACKGROUND: Stopping smoking is associated with many important improvements in health and quality of life. Use of cessation medications is recommended to increase the likelihood of quitting. However, there is historical and renewed concern that smoking cessation therapies may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events associated within the quitting period. We aimed to examine whether the three licensed smoking cessation therapies: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); bupropion, and; varenicline and were associated with an increased risk of CVD events using a network meta-analysis.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched ten electronic databases, and made communication with authors of published randomized clinical trials (RCT), and accessed internal US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports. We included any RCT of the 3 treatments that reported on CVD outcomes. Among 63 eligible RCTs involving 21 NRT RCTs, 28 bupropion RCTs and 18 varenicline RCTs, we found no increase in the risk of all-CVD events with bupropion (RR 0.98, 95% Confidence Intervals [CIs], 0.54-1.73) or varenicline (RR 1.30, 95% CI, 0.79-2.23). There was an elevated risk associated with NRT that was predominantly driven by less serious events (2.29, 95% CI, 1.39-3.82). When we examined major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) events, we found a protective effect with bupropion (RR 0.45, 95% CI, 0.21-0.85) and no clear evidence of harm with varenicline (RR 1.34, 95% CI, 0.66-2.66) or NRT (RR 1.95, 95% CI, 0.26-4.30).
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation therapies do not appear to raise the risk of serious CVD events.
PMID: 24323793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
MicroRNAs Regulate the Chaperone Network in Cerebral Ischemia.
Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Dec;4(6):693-703
Authors: Ouyang YB, Giffard RG
The highly evolutionarily conserved 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family was first understood for its role in protein folding and response to stress. Subsequently, additional functions have been identified for it in regulation of organelle interaction, of the inflammatory response, and of cell death and survival. Overexpression of HSP70 family members is associated with increased resistance to and improved recovery from cerebral ischemia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important posttranscriptional regulators that interact with multiple target messenger RNAs (mRNA) coordinately regulating target genes, including chaperones. The members of the HSP70 family are now appreciated to work together as networks to facilitate organelle communication and regulate inflammatory signaling and cell survival after cerebral ischemia. This review will focus on the new concept of the role of the chaperone network in the organelle network and its novel regulation by miRNA.
PMID: 24323423 [PubMed - in process]
The combination of 9p21.3 genotype and biomarker profile improves a peripheral artery disease risk prediction model.
Vasc Med. 2013 Dec 9;
Authors: Downing KP, Nead KT, Kojima Y, Assimes T, Maegdefessel L, Quertermous T, Cooke JP, Leeper NJ
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a highly morbid condition affecting more than 8 million Americans. Frequently, PAD patients are unrecognized and therefore do not receive appropriate therapies. Therefore, new methods to identify PAD have been pursued, but have thus far had only modest success. Here we describe a new approach combining genomic and metabolic information to enhance the diagnosis of PAD. We measured the genotype of the chromosome 9p21 cardiovascular-risk polymorphism rs10757269 as well as the biomarkers C-reactive protein, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and plasma glucose in a study population of 393 patients undergoing coronary angiography. The rs10757269 allele was associated with PAD status (ankle-brachial index < 0.9) independent of biomarkers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio=1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.85). Importantly, compared to a previously validated risk factor-based PAD prediction model, the addition of biomarkers and rs10757269 significantly and incrementally improved PAD risk prediction as assessed by the net reclassification index (NRI=33.5%; p=0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI=0.016; p=0.017). In conclusion, a model including a panel of biomarkers, which includes both genomic information (which is reflective of heritable risk) and metabolic information (which integrates environmental exposures), predicts the presence or absence of PAD better than established risk models, suggesting clinical utility for the diagnosis of PAD.
PMID: 24323119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Teaching Health Advocacy to Medical Students: A Comparison Study.
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2013 Dec 6;
Authors: Belkowitz J, Sanders LM, Zhang C, Agarwal G, Lichtstein D, Mechaber AJ, Chung EK
CONTEXT:: Many encourage service learning and health advocacy training in medical student education, but related evaluation is limited.
OBJECTIVES:: To assess (1) impact of a required community health advocacy training for medical students on student attitudes, knowledge, and skills; (2) student characteristics associated with higher advocacy knowledge and skills; and (3) perspectives of community-based organizations (CBOs).
DESIGN:: Cross-sectional surveys.
SETTING:: University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (UMMSM) Regional Medical Campus and main campus.
PARTICIPANTS:: Medical students at both UMMSM campuses.
INTERVENTION:: Required community health advocacy training for first- and second-year students including classroom experiences and hands-on project in partnership with a CBO.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Student characteristics, health advocacy-related attitudes, self-reported and objective knowledge, and skills. Scores were compared between campuses, with multivariable modeling adjusting for individual student characteristics. Community-based organization perspectives were assessed via separate surveys.
RESULTS:: Ninety-eight (77%) regional campus students (intervention group) and 139 (30%) main campus students (comparison group) completed surveys. Versus the comparison group, the intervention group reported greater: mean knowledge of community health needs: 34.6 versus 31.1 (range: 11-44, P < .01), knowledge about CBOs: 3.0 versus 2.7 (range 1-4, P < .01) and knowledge of community resources: 5.4 versus 2.3 (range, 0-11, P < .01), and mean skill scores: 12.7 versus 10.5 (score range: 4-16, P < .01), following the intervention. Using adjusted analysis across both groups, female gender was associated with higher attitudes score. High level of previous community involvement was associated with higher attitude and skill scores. Higher self-reported educational debt was associated with higher skill scores. Community-based organization perspectives included high satisfaction and a desire to influence the training of future physicians.
CONCLUSIONS:: Medical student advocacy training in partnership with community-based organizations could be beneficial in improving student advocacy knowledge and skills in addressing community health issues and in developing sustainable community partnerships.
PMID: 24322841 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
MR Vascular Fingerprinting: A New Approach to Compute Cerebral Blood Volume, Mean Vessel Radius, and Oxygenation Maps in the Human Brain.
Neuroimage. 2013 Dec 6;
Authors: Christen T, Pannetier NA, Ni W, Qiu D, Moseley M, Schuff N, Zaharchuk G
In the present study, we describe a fingerprinting approach to analyze the time evolution of the MR signal and retrieve quantitative information about the microvascular network. We used a Gradient Echo Sampling of the Free Induction Decay and Spin Echo (GESFIDE) sequence and defined a fingerprint as the ratio of signals acquired pre and post injection of an iron based contrast agent. We then simulated the same experiment with an advanced numerical tool that takes a virtual voxel containing blood vessels as input, then computes microscopic magnetic fields and water diffusion effects, and eventually derives the expected MR signal evolution. The parameters inputs of the simulations (cerebral blood volume [CBV], mean vessel radius [R], and blood oxygen saturation [SO2]) were varied to obtain a dictionary of all possible signal evolutions. The best fit between the observed fingerprint and the dictionary was then determined using least square minimization. This approach was evaluated in 5 normal subjects and the results were compared to those obtained using more conventional MR methods, steady-state contrast imaging for CBV and R and a global measure of oxygenation obtained from the superior sagittal sinus for SO2. The fingerprinting method enabled the creation of high-resolution parametric maps of the microvascular network showing expected contrast and fine details. Numerical values in gray matter (CBV=3.1±0.7%, R=12.6±2.4μm, SO2=59.5±4.7%) are consistent with literature reports and correlated with conventional MR approaches. SO2 values in white matter (53.0±4.0%) were slightly lower than expected. Numerous improvements can easily be made and the method should be useful to study brain pathologies.
PMID: 24321559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Reassessment of the Current American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.
J Am Coll Surg. 2013 Nov 6;
Authors: Qadan M, Ma Y, Visser BC, Kunz PL, Fisher GA, Norton JA, Poultsides GA
BACKGROUND: Adopting a unified staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has been challenging. Currently, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recommends use of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs. We sought to explore the prognostic usefulness of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma staging system for PNETs.
STUDY DESIGN: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data were used to identify patients with PNETs who underwent curative-intent surgical resection from 1983 to 2008. The discriminatory ability of the AJCC system was examined and a new TNM system was devised using extent of disease variables.
RESULTS: In 1,202 patients identified, lymph node metastasis was associated with worse 10-year overall survival after resection (51% vs 63%; p < 0.0001), as was the presence of distant metastatic disease (35% vs 62%; p < 0.0001). The current AJCC system (recorded by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program in 412 patients since 2004) distinguished 5-year overall survival only between stages I and II (p = 0.01), but not between stages II and III (p = 0.97), or stages III and IV (p = 0.36). By modifying the T stage to be based on size alone (0.1 to 1.0 cm, 1.1 to 2.0 cm, 2.1 to 4.0 cm, and >4.0 cm) and revising the TNM subgroups, we propose a novel TNM system with improved discriminatory ability between disease stages (stages I vs II; p = 0.16; II vs III; p < 0.0001; and III vs IV; p = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: In this study evaluating the current AJCC staging system for PNETs, there were no significant differences detected between stages II and III or stages III and IV. We propose a novel TNM system that might better discriminate between outcomes after surgical resection of PNETs.
PMID: 24321190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The emerging field of affective science.
Emotion. 2013 Dec;13(6):997-8
Authors: Gross JJ, Barrett LF
This commentary discusses the emerging field of affective science. The authors note that there have been more publications containing the phrase "affective science" in the past few years than in all prior years combined. The importance accorded to this field is evidenced by the attention it is now receiving in our field's highest tier journals, most notably right here in the pages of Emotion, as well as in the several dozen recent volumes on affective science, not to mention the growing number of journals dedicated to research in affective science. To provide an integrated professional home for the emerging field of affective science, the Society for Affective Science was founded in 2012, and will host its first meeting in April 2014 in Washington DC. The authors remark that these are exciting times in affective science, and it is very clear that the best is yet to come. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 24320711 [PubMed - in process]
Patient dose simulations for scanning-beam digital x-ray tomosynthesis of the lungs.
Med Phys. 2013 Nov;40(11):111917
Authors: Nelson G, Yoon S, Krishna G, Wilfley B, Fahrig R
Purpose: An improved method of image guidance for lung tumor biopsies could help reduce the high rate of false negatives. The aim of this work is to optimize the geometry of the scanning-beam digital tomography system (SBDX) for providing real-time 3D tomographic reconstructions for target verification. The unique geometry of the system requires trade-offs between patient dose, imaging field of view (FOV), and tomographic angle.Methods: Tomosynthetic angle as a function of tumor-to-detector distance was calculated. Monte Carlo Software (PCXMC) was used to calculate organ doses and effective dose for source-to-detector distances (SDDs) from 90 to 150 cm, patient locations with the tumor at 20 cm from the source to 20 cm from the detector, and FOVs centered on left lung and right lung as well as medial and distal peripheries of the lungs. These calculations were done for two systems, a SBDX system and a GE OEC-9800 C-arm fluoroscopic unit. To evaluate the dose effect of the system geometry, results from PCXMC were calculated using a scan of 300 mAs for both SBDX and fluoroscopy. The Rose Criterion was used to find the fluence required for a tumor SNR of 5, factoring in scatter, air-gap, system geometry, and patient position for all models generated with PCXMC. Using the calculated fluence for constant tumor SNR, the results from PCXMC were used to compare the patient dose for a given SNR between SBDX and fluoroscopy.Results: Tomographic angle changes with SDD only in the region near the detector. Due to their geometry, the source array and detector have a peak tomographic angle for any given SDD at a source to tumor distance that is 69.7% of the SDD assuming constant source and detector size. Changing the patient location in order to increase tomographic angle has a significant effect on organ dose distribution due to geometrical considerations. With SBDX and fluoroscopy geometries, the dose to organs typically changes in an opposing manner with changing patient location. When tumor SNR is held constant (i.e., x-ray fluence is scaled appropriately), SBDX gives 2-10 times less dose than fluoroscopy for the same conditions within the typical range of patient locations. The relative position of the patient (as a percent of SDD) has a much more significant impact on dose than either SDD or patient position. The patient position providing the minimum dose for a given tumor SNR and SDD is approximately the same as the position of maximum tomographic angle.Conclusions: SBDX offers a significant dose advantage over currently used C-arm fluoroscopy. The patient location with lowest dose coincides with the location of maximum tomographic angle. In order to provide adequate space for the patient and for the pulmonologists' equipment, a SDD of 100 cm is recommended.
PMID: 24320450 [PubMed - in process]
CONRAD-A software framework for cone-beam imaging in radiology.
Med Phys. 2013 Nov;40(11):111914
Authors: Maier A, Hofmann HG, Berger M, Fischer P, Schwemmer C, Wu H, Müller K, Hornegger J, Choi JH, Riess C, Keil A, Fahrig R
Purpose: In the community of x-ray imaging, there is a multitude of tools and applications that are used in scientific practice. Many of these tools are proprietary and can only be used within a certain lab. Often the same algorithm is implemented multiple times by different groups in order to enable comparison. In an effort to tackle this problem, the authors created CONRAD, a software framework that provides many of the tools that are required to simulate basic processes in x-ray imaging and perform image reconstruction with consideration of nonlinear physical effects.Methods: CONRAD is a Java-based state-of-the-art software platform with extensive documentation. It is based on platform-independent technologies. Special libraries offer access to hardware acceleration such as OpenCL. There is an easy-to-use interface for parallel processing. The software package includes different simulation tools that are able to generate up to 4D projection and volume data and respective vector motion fields. Well known reconstruction algorithms such as FBP, DBP, and ART are included. All algorithms in the package are referenced to a scientific source.Results: A total of 13 different phantoms and 30 processing steps have already been integrated into the platform at the time of writing. The platform comprises 74.000 nonblank lines of code out of which 19% are used for documentation. The software package is available for download at http://conrad.stanford.edu. To demonstrate the use of the package, the authors reconstructed images from two different scanners, a table top system and a clinical C-arm system. Runtimes were evaluated using the RabbitCT platform and demonstrate state-of-the-art runtimes with 2.5 s for the 256 problem size and 12.4 s for the 512 problem size.Conclusions: As a common software framework, CONRAD enables the medical physics community to share algorithms and develop new ideas. In particular this offers new opportunities for scientific collaboration and quantitative performance comparison between the methods of different groups.
PMID: 24320447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation.
Med Phys. 2013 Nov;40(11):111913
Authors: Shin M, Lillaney P, Hinshaw W, Fahrig R
Purpose: Hybrid x-ray∕MR systems can enhance the diagnosis and treatment of endovascular, cardiac, and neurologic disorders by using the complementary advantages of both modalities for image guidance during interventional procedures. Conventional rotating anode x-ray tubes fail near an MR imaging system, since MR fringe fields create eddy currents in the metal rotor which cause a reduction in the rotation speed of the x-ray tube motor. A new x-ray tube motor prototype has been designed and built to be operated close to a magnet. To ensure the stability and safety of the motor operation, dynamic characteristics must be analyzed to identify possible modes of mechanical failure. In this study a 3D finite element method (FEM) model was developed in order to explore possible modifications, and to optimize the motor design. The FEM provides a valuable tool that permits testing and evaluation using numerical simulation instead of building multiple prototypes.Methods: Two experimental approaches were used to measure resonance characteristics: the first obtained the angular speed curves of the x-ray tube motor employing an angle encoder; the second measured the power spectrum using a spectrum analyzer, in which the large amplitude of peaks indicates large vibrations. An estimate of the bearing stiffness is required to generate an accurate FEM model of motor operation. This stiffness depends on both the bearing geometry and adjacent structures (e.g., the number of balls, clearances, preload, etc.) in an assembly, and is therefore unknown. This parameter was set by matching the FEM results to measurements carried out with the anode attached to the motor, and verified by comparing FEM predictions and measurements with the anode removed. The validated FEM model was then used to sweep through design parameters [bearing stiffness (1×10(5)-5×10(7) N∕m), shaft diameter (0.372-0.625 in.), rotor diameter (2.4-2.9 in.), and total length of motor (5.66-7.36 in.)] to increase the fundamental frequency past the operating range at 50 Hz.Results: The first large vibration during the prototype motor operation was obtained at 21.64±0.68 Hz in the power spectrum. An abrupt decrease in acceleration occurred at 21.5 Hz due to struggling against the resonance vibrations. A bearing stiffness of 1.2×10(5) N∕m in the FEM simulation was used to obtain a critical speed of 21.4 Hz providing 1.1% error. This bearing stiffness value and the 3D model were then confirmed by the experiments with the anode removed, demonstrating an agreement within 6.4% between simulation results and measurements. A calculated first critical frequency (fundamental frequency) of 68.5 Hz was obtained by increasing the bearing stiffness to 1×10(7) N∕m and increasing the shaft diameter by 68.0%. Reducing the number of bearings in the design permits decreasing the total length of the motor by 1.7 in., and results in a fundamental frequency of 68.3 Hz in concert with additional changes (shaft diameter of 0.625 in., rotor diameter of 2.4 in., and bearing stiffness of 1×10(6) N∕m).Conclusions: An FEM model of the x-ray tube motor has been implemented and experimentally validated. A fundamental frequency above the operational rotation speed can be achieved through modification of multiple design parameters, which allows the motor to operate stably and safely in the MR environment during the repeated acceleration∕deceleration cycles required for an interventional procedure. The validated 3D FEM model can now be used to investigate trade-offs between generated torque, maximum speed, and motor inertia to further optimize motor design.
PMID: 24320446 [PubMed - in process]
Enhancement of strong-field multiple ionization in the vicinity of the conical intersection in 1,3-cyclohexadiene ring opening.
J Chem Phys. 2013 Nov 14;139(18):184309
Authors: Petrovic VS, Schorb S, Kim J, White J, Cryan JP, Glownia JM, Zipp L, Broege D, Miyabe S, Tao H, Martinez T, Bucksbaum PH
Nonradiative energy dissipation in electronically excited polyatomic molecules proceeds through conical intersections, loci of degeneracy between electronic states. We observe a marked enhancement of laser-induced double ionization in the vicinity of a conical intersection during a non-radiative transition. We measured double ionization by detecting the kinetic energy of ions released by laser-induced strong-field fragmentation during the ring-opening transition between 1,3-cyclohexadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. The enhancement of the double ionization correlates with the conical intersection between the HOMO and LUMO orbitals.
PMID: 24320276 [PubMed - in process]
In vivo neuron-wide analysis of synaptic vesicle precursor trafficking.
Traffic. 2013 Dec 9;
Authors: Maeder CI, San-Miguel A, Wu EY, Lu H, Shen K
During synapse development, synaptic proteins must be targeted to sites of presynaptic release. Directed transport as well as local sequestration of synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs), membranous organelles containing many synaptic proteins, might contribute to this process. Using neuron-wide time-lapse microscopy, we studied SVP dynamics in the DA9 motor neuron in C.elegans. SVP transport was highly dynamic and bi-directional throughout the entire neuron, including the dendrite. While SVP trafficking was anterogradely biased in axonal segments prior to the synaptic domain, directionality of SVP movement was stochastic in the dendrite and distal axon. Furthermore, frequency of movement and speed were variable between different compartments. These data provide evidence that SVP transport is differentially regulated in distinct neuronal domains. It also suggests that polarized SVP transport in concert with local vesicle capturing is necessary for accurate presynapse formation and maintenance. SVP trafficking analysis of two hypomorphs for UNC-104/KIF-1A in combination with mathematical modelling identified directionality of movement, entry of SVPs into the axon as well as axonal speeds as the important determinants of steady-state SVP distributions. Furthermore, detailed dissection of speed distributions for wild-type and unc-104/kif-1a mutant animals revealed an unexpected role for UNC-104/KIF1A in dendritic SVP trafficking.
PMID: 24320232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]