Recent Stanford Publications in PubMed
- Emergency Department-Based Health Insurance Enrollment for Children: Does Linkage Lead to Insurance Retention and Utilization?Kanak M, Rutman L, Pirrotta EA, Giammona M, Bermudez M, Wang NEPediatr Emerg Care
- Function through Synthesis-Informed Design.Wender PA, Quiroz RV, Stevens MCAcc Chem Res
- Stages of Weight Change Among an Occupational Cohort.Ott U, Stanford JB, Greenwood JL, Murtaugh MA, Gren LH, Thiese MS, Hegmann KTJ Occup Environ Med
- Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer.Lund M, Melbye M, Diaz LJ, Duno M, Wohlfahrt J, Vissing JBr J Cancer
- Toward recreating colon cancer in human organoids.Salahudeen AA, Kuo CJNat Med
- Beyond the hospital doors: Improving long-term outcomes for elderly trauma patients.Ayoung-Chee PR, Rivara FP, Weiser T, Maier RV, Arbabi SJ Trauma Acute Care Surg
- Toll Receptors Instruct Axon and Dendrite Targeting and Participate in Synaptic Partner Matching in a Drosophila Olfactory Circuit.Ward A, Hong W, Favaloro V, Luo LNeuron
- Intersectional Illumination of Neural Circuit Function.Allen WE, Luo LNeuron
- Conditional Risk Assessment of Adolescents' Electronic Cigarette Perceptions.Chaffee BW, Gansky SA, Halpern-Felsher B, Couch ET, Essex G, Walsh MMAm J Health Behav
- Maladaptive Neural Synchrony in Tinnitus: Origin and Restoration.Eggermont JJ, Tass PAFront Neurol
- Pregnancy Does Not Attenuate the Antibody or Plasmablast Response to Inactivated Influenza Vaccine.Kay AW, Bayless NL, Fukuyama J, Aziz N, Dekker CL, Mackey S, Swan GE, Davis MM, Blish CAJ Infect Dis
- Low Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Defects in Insulin Action and Insulin Secretion in Persons with Prediabetes.Abbasi F, Blasey C, Feldman D, Caulfield MP, Hantash FM, Reaven GMJ Nutr
- A Lack of Experience-Dependent Plasticity After More Than a Decade of Recovered Sight.Huber E, Webster JM, Brewer AA, MacLeod DI, Wandell BA, Boynton GM, Wade AR, Fine IPsychol Sci
- Memory leads the way to better computing.Wong HS, Salahuddin SNat Nanotechnol
- A mutation in the human tetraspanin CD81 gene is expressed as a truncated protein but does not enable CD19 maturation and cell surface expression.Vences-Catalán F, Kuo CC, Sagi Y, Chen H, Kela-Madar N, van Zelm MC, van Dongen JJ, Levy SJ Clin Immunol
- Optically switchable transistors by simple incorporation of photochromic systems into small-molecule semiconducting matrices.Gemayel ME, Börjesson K, Herder M, Duong DT, Hutchison JA, Ruzié C, Schweicher G, Salleo A, Geerts Y, Hecht S, Orgiu E, Samorì PNat Commun
- Abdominal compartment syndrome as a rare complication following component separation repair: case report and review of the literature.Oliver-Allen HS, Hunter C, Lee GKHernia
- In retrospect: A marine biologist's remarkable legacy.Albert S, Albert M, Kohrs DNature
- ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation without post-transplant therapeutic plasma exchange.Yabu JM, Fontaine MJJ Clin Apher
- Repurpose terbutaline sulfate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using electronic medical records.Paik H, Chung AY, Park HC, Park RW, Suk K, Kim J, Kim H, Lee K, Butte AJSci Rep
- Improvements in the early death rate among 9380 patients with acute myeloid leukemia after initial therapy: A SEER database analysis.Percival ME, Tao L, Medeiros BC, Clarke CACancer
Emergency Department-Based Health Insurance Enrollment for Children: Does Linkage Lead to Insurance Retention and Utilization?
Pediatr Emerg Care. 2015 Mar;31(3):169-172
Authors: Kanak M, Rutman L, Pirrotta EA, Giammona M, Bermudez M, Wang NE
OBJECTIVES: Although 40% of emergency departments (EDs) report having an insurance linkage program, no studies have evaluated the long-term success of these programs. This study aimed to examine insurance retention and utilization by children initially referred to insurance by our ED insurance linkage program.
METHODS: We retrospectively examined insurance records of all uninsured children successfully enrolled in public insurance by the insurance linkage program established in our suburban academic ED between 2004 and 2009. Emergency department-enrolled children were matched by age, sex, program, and year of enrollment to a control group of children from the same county who were enrolled in non-ED settings. Wilcoxon signed rank and χ tests were used to compare enrollment and claims variables.
RESULTS: Emergency department-enrolled children retained insurance for longer, had a higher reenrollment rate, and were higher users of insurance. The average length of enrollment for ED children was 734 days versus 597 days in the control group. Eighty percent of the ED cohort reenrolled in insurance after initial eligibility expiration versus 64% of the control group. Children enrolled via the ED averaged 26 claims (vs 12 claims) and $20,087 (vs $5216) in hospital charges per year of enrollment. This higher utilization was reflected in increased primary care, specialty care, ED visits, inpatient, and mental health claims in the ED group.
CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department-based insurance enrollment programs have the potential to improve access to health care for children. Policies aimed at expanding insurance enrollment among the uninsured population, including the Affordable Care Act, may consider the ED's potential as an effective enrollment site.
PMID: 25742607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Function through Synthesis-Informed Design.
Acc Chem Res. 2015 Mar 5;
Authors: Wender PA, Quiroz RV, Stevens MC
Conspectus In 1996, a snapshot of the field of synthesis was provided by many of its thought leaders in a Chemical Reviews thematic issue on "Frontiers in Organic Synthesis". This Accounts of Chemical Research thematic issue on "Synthesis, Design, and Molecular Function" is intended to provide further perspective now from well into the 21st century. Much has happened in the past few decades. The targets, methods, strategies, reagents, procedures, goals, funding, practices, and practitioners of synthesis have changed, some in dramatic ways as documented in impressive contributions to this issue. However, a constant for most synthesis studies continues to be the goal of achieving function with synthetic economy. Whether in the form of new catalysts, reagents, therapeutic leads, diagnostics, drug delivery systems, imaging agents, sensors, materials, energy generation and storage systems, bioremediation strategies, or molecules that challenge old theories or test new ones, the function of a target has been and continues to be a major and compelling justification for its synthesis. While the targets of synthesis have historically been heavily represented by natural products, increasingly design, often inspired by natural structures, is providing a new source of target structures exhibiting new or natural functions and new or natural synthetic challenges. Complementing isolation and screening approaches to new target identification, design enables one to create targets de novo with an emphasis on sought-after function and synthetic innovation with step-economy. Design provides choice. It allows one to determine how close a synthesis will come to the ideal synthesis and how close a structure will come to the ideal function. In this Account, we address studies in our laboratory on function-oriented synthesis (FOS), a strategy to achieve function by design and with synthetic economy. By starting with function rather than structure, FOS places an initial emphasis on target design, thereby harnessing the power of chemists and computers to create new structures with desired functions that could be prepared in a simple, safe, economical, and green, if not ideal, fashion. Reported herein are examples of FOS associated with (a) molecular recognition, leading to the first designed phorbol-inspired protein kinase C regulatory ligands, the first designed bryostatin analogs, the newest bryologs, and a new family of designed kinase inhibitors, (b) target modification, leading to highly simplified but functionally competent photonucleases-molecules that cleave DNA upon photoactivation, (c) drug delivery, leading to cell penetrating molecular transporters, molecules that ferry other attached or complexed molecules across biological barriers, and (d) new reactivity-regenerating reagents in the form of functional equivalents of butatrienes, reagents that allow for back-to-back three-component cycloaddition reactions, thus achieving structural complexity and value with step-economy. While retrosynthetic analysis seeks to identify the best way to make a target, retrofunction analysis seeks to identify the best targets to make. In essence, form (structure) follows function.
PMID: 25742599 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Stages of Weight Change Among an Occupational Cohort.
J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Mar;57(3):270-276
Authors: Ott U, Stanford JB, Greenwood JL, Murtaugh MA, Gren LH, Thiese MS, Hegmann KT
OBJECTIVE:: To assess the readiness to change dietary intake and body weight among production workers. We also ascertained differences between self-perceived and measured body mass index.
METHODS:: This cross-sectional study queried physical activity, psychosocial factors, fruit and vegetable intake, and readiness to change based on the transtheoretical model.
RESULTS:: Sixty-three (28%) workers were overweight, and 114 (50%) were obese. Obese workers were in the following stages of weight change: precontemplation (4%), contemplation (45%), preparation (13%), action (21%), and (17%) maintenance. Ten percent of overweight workers erroneously reported their body mass index to be normal.
CONCLUSIONS:: About half of overweight/obese workers were in the precontemplation or contemplation stages for healthy dietary changes or weight loss. Recognizing the stages of change with regard to weight and the self-perception of weight status may help tailor workplace health promotion programs.
PMID: 25742533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015 Mar 5;
Authors: Lund M, Melbye M, Diaz LJ, Duno M, Wohlfahrt J, Vissing J
Background:Mitochondrial mutations are commonly reported in tumours, but it is unclear whether impaired mitochondrial function per se is a cause or consequence of cancer. To elucidate this, we examined the risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort of patients with mitochondrial dysfunction.Methods:We used nationwide results on genetic testing for mitochondrial disease and the Danish Civil Registration System, to construct a cohort of 311 patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. A total of 177 cohort members were identified from genetic testing and 134 genetically untested cohort members were matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer.Results:During 7334 person-years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited mDNA mutation, cases=13.Conclusions:Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 5 March 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.66 www.bjcancer.com.
PMID: 25742477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Toward recreating colon cancer in human organoids.
Nat Med. 2015 Mar 5;21(3):215-216
Authors: Salahudeen AA, Kuo CJ
PMID: 25742455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Beyond the hospital doors: Improving long-term outcomes for elderly trauma patients.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Mar 4;
Authors: Ayoung-Chee PR, Rivara FP, Weiser T, Maier RV, Arbabi S
BACKGROUND: Elderly trauma patients (TPs) are the fastest growing trauma population, increasing the need for postacute care rehabilitation. For TP, discharge to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) has been associated with higher 1-year mortality compared with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) or home. The availability of IRF beds has been decreasing, but the proportion occupied by non-TPs, specifically stroke patients (SPs), has increased. We wanted to better characterize trends in trauma discharges and compare them with a population that is equally dependent on postdischarge rehabilitation. We hypothesized that discharge to SNF is rapidly increasing, while discharge to IRF is declining for trauma, but not for SPs.
METHODS: This is retrospective cohort study of adult trauma and SPs discharged from 2003 to 2009. The National Trauma Data Bank and National Inpatient Sample were used to study TPs and SPs, respectively.
RESULTS: Falls became the leading cause of injury, and the proportion of older TPs increased from 23% to 30%. Older TPs discharged to SNF increased from 30.7% in 2003 to 40.8% in 2009 (p < 0.001). TPs were 34% (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.57) more likely to be discharged to an SNF and 36% (adjusted RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85) less likely to be discharged to an IRF. From 2003 to 2009, SPs were 78% more likely to be discharged to an IRF (adjusted RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.74-1.82). The largest absolute increase in SP discharges to IRFs occurred the year following implementation of the stroke center certification program.
CONCLUSION: For TPs, there was a significant increase in SNF discharges and a decrease in IRF discharges. During the same period, after implementation of stroke center certification, SPs were more likely to be discharged to an IRF. Future research should focus on evaluating which postacute care setting is most effective in providing rehabilitation for TPs and adjusting our discharge efforts to improve long-term outcomes.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiologic, level III.
PMID: 25742250 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Toll Receptors Instruct Axon and Dendrite Targeting and Participate in Synaptic Partner Matching in a Drosophila Olfactory Circuit.
Neuron. 2015 Mar 4;85(5):1013-1028
Authors: Ward A, Hong W, Favaloro V, Luo L
Our understanding of the mechanisms that establish wiring specificity of complex neural circuits is far from complete. During Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly, axons of 50 olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and dendrites of 50 projection neuron (PN) classes precisely target to 50 discrete glomeruli, forming parallel information-processing pathways. Here we show that Toll-6 and Toll-7, members of the Toll receptor family best known for functions in innate immunity and embryonic patterning, cell autonomously instruct the targeting of specific classes of PN dendrites and ORN axons, respectively. The canonical ligands and downstream partners of Toll receptors in embryonic patterning and innate immunity are not required for the function of Toll-6/Toll-7 in wiring specificity, nor are their cytoplasmic domains. Interestingly, both Toll-6 and Toll-7 participate in synaptic partner matching between ORN axons and PN dendrites. Our investigations reveal that olfactory circuit assembly involves dynamic and long-range interactions between PN dendrites and ORN axons.
PMID: 25741726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Intersectional Illumination of Neural Circuit Function.
Neuron. 2015 Mar 4;85(5):889-892
Authors: Allen WE, Luo L
In this issue of Neuron, Madisen et al. (2015) report the construction of several new transgenic mouse lines that apply intersectional genetic tools to achieve high levels of expression and cell-type specificity, providing a useful resource for future studies.
PMID: 25741716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conditional Risk Assessment of Adolescents' Electronic Cigarette Perceptions.
Am J Health Behav. 2015 May;39(3):421-432
Authors: Chaffee BW, Gansky SA, Halpern-Felsher B, Couch ET, Essex G, Walsh MM
OBJECTIVES: To adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents' cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes).
METHODS: In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes, and analogously, for combustible cigarettes.
RESULTS: E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than for cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention.
CONCLUSION: Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents' perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in future studies.
PMID: 25741686 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Maladaptive Neural Synchrony in Tinnitus: Origin and Restoration.
Front Neurol. 2015;6:29
Authors: Eggermont JJ, Tass PA
Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound heard in the absence of physical sound sources external or internal to the body, reflected in aberrant neural synchrony of spontaneous or resting-state brain activity. Neural synchrony is generated by the nearly simultaneous firing of individual neurons, of the synchronization of membrane-potential changes in local neural groups as reflected in the local field potentials, resulting in the presence of oscillatory brain waves in the EEG. Noise-induced hearing loss, often resulting in tinnitus, causes a reorganization of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex and increased spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony. Spontaneous brain rhythms rely on neural synchrony. Abnormal neural synchrony in tinnitus appears to be confined to specific frequency bands of brain rhythms. Increases in delta-band activity are generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks resulting from hearing loss. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation was developed in order to specifically counteract such abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. The goal of acoustic CR neuromodulation is to desynchronize tinnitus-related abnormal delta-band oscillations. CR neuromodulation does not require permanent stimulus delivery in order to achieve long-lasting desynchronization or even a full-blown anti-kindling but may have cumulative effects, i.e., the effect of different CR epochs separated by pauses may accumulate. Unlike other approaches, acoustic CR neuromodulation does not intend to reduce tinnitus-related neuronal activity by employing lateral inhibition. The potential efficacy of acoustic CR modulation was shown in a clinical proof of concept trial, where effects achieved in 12 weeks of treatment delivered 4-6 h/day persisted through a preplanned 4-week therapy pause and showed sustained long-term effects after 10 months of therapy, leading to 75% responders.
PMID: 25741316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Pregnancy Does Not Attenuate the Antibody or Plasmablast Response to Inactivated Influenza Vaccine.
J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 4;
Authors: Kay AW, Bayless NL, Fukuyama J, Aziz N, Dekker CL, Mackey S, Swan GE, Davis MM, Blish CA
BACKGROUND: Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is recommended during pregnancy to prevent influenza infection and its complications in pregnant women and their infants. However, the extent to which pregnancy modifies the antibody response to vaccination remains unclear, and prior studies have focused primarily on hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titers. A more comprehensive understanding of how pregnancy modifies the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination will aid in maximizing vaccine efficacy.
METHODS: Healthy pregnant women and control women were studied prior to, 7 days after and 28 days after vaccination with IIV. HI titers, microneutralization (MN) titers and the frequency of circulating plasmablasts were evaluated in pregnant vs. control women.
RESULTS: Pregnant women and control women mount similarly robust serologic immune responses to IIV, with no significant differences for any influenza strain in post-vaccination geometric mean HI or MN titers. HI and MN titers correlate, though MN titers demonstrate more robust changes pre- vs. post-vaccination. The induction of circulating plasmablasts is increased in pregnant women vs. controls (median fold-change 2.60 vs. 1.49 [Interquartile Range 0.94-7.53 vs. 0.63-2.67]; p=0.03).
CONCLUSION: Pregnant women do not have impaired humoral immune responses to IIV and may have increased circulating plasmablast production compared to control women.
PMID: 25740957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Low Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Defects in Insulin Action and Insulin Secretion in Persons with Prediabetes.
J Nutr. 2015 Mar 4;
Authors: Abbasi F, Blasey C, Feldman D, Caulfield MP, Hantash FM, Reaven GM
BACKGROUND: Individuals with prediabetes mellitus (PreDM) and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether low 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with defects in insulin action and insulin secretion in persons with PreDM.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we stratified 488 nondiabetic subjects as having PreDM or normal fasting glucose (NFG) and a 25(OH)D concentration ≤20 ng/mL (deficient) or >20 ng/mL (sufficient). We determined insulin resistance by steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion by homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β). We compared insulin resistance and secretion measures in PreDM and NFG groups; 25(OH)D-deficient and 25(OH)D-sufficient groups; and PreDM-deficient, PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups, adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, multivitamin use, and season.
RESULTS: In the PreDM group, mean SSPG concentration and HOMA-IR were higher and mean HOMA-β was lower than in the NFG group (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). In the 25(OH)D-deficient group, mean SSPG concentration was higher (P < 0.001), but neither mean HOMA-IR nor HOMA-β was significantly different from that in the 25(OH)D-sufficient group. In the PreDM-deficient subgroup, mean (95% CI) SSPG concentration was higher (P < 0.01) than in the PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups [192 (177-207) mg/dL vs. 166 (155-177) mg/dL, 148 (138-159) mg/dL, and 136 (127-144) mg/dL, respectively]. Despite greater insulin resistance, mean HOMA-β was not significantly higher in the PreDM-deficient subgroup than in the PreDM-sufficient, NFG-deficient, and NFG-sufficient subgroups [98 (85-112) vs. 91 (82-101), 123 (112-136), and 115 (106-124), respectively].
CONCLUSION: Subjects with PreDM and low circulating 25(OH)D concentrations are the subgroup of nondiabetic individuals who are the most insulin resistant and have impaired β-cell function, attributes that put them at enhanced risk of T2DM.
PMID: 25740907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A Lack of Experience-Dependent Plasticity After More Than a Decade of Recovered Sight.
Psychol Sci. 2015 Mar 3;
Authors: Huber E, Webster JM, Brewer AA, MacLeod DI, Wandell BA, Boynton GM, Wade AR, Fine I
In 2000, monocular vision was restored to M. M., who had been blind between the ages of 3 and 46 years. Tests carried out over 2 years following the surgery revealed impairments of 3-D form, object, and face processing and an absence of object- and face-selective blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses in ventral visual cortex. In the present research, we reexamined M. M. to test for experience-dependent recovery of visual function. Behaviorally, M. M. remains impaired in 3-D form, object, and face processing. Accordingly, we found little to no evidence of the category-selective organization within ventral visual cortex typically associated with face, body, scene, or object processing. We did observe remarkably normal object selectivity within lateral occipital cortex, consistent with M. M.'s previously reported shape-discrimination performance. Together, these findings provide little evidence for recovery of high-level visual function after more than a decade of visual experience in adulthood.
PMID: 25740284 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Memory leads the way to better computing.
Nat Nanotechnol. 2015 Mar 5;10(3):191-194
Authors: Wong HS, Salahuddin S
PMID: 25740127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A mutation in the human tetraspanin CD81 gene is expressed as a truncated protein but does not enable CD19 maturation and cell surface expression.
J Clin Immunol. 2015 Mar 6;
Authors: Vences-Catalán F, Kuo CC, Sagi Y, Chen H, Kela-Madar N, van Zelm MC, van Dongen JJ, Levy S
A homozygous mutation in a splice site of the CD81 gene was identified previously in a patient, as the cause in a case of common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CD19 expression is reduced in mice that lack CD81; however, B cells in this patient lacked completely CD19 surface expression. The mutation led to an absence of the CD81 protein on the cell surface and it was assumed that the CD81 protein was not produced. Here we demonstrate that a truncated human CD81 mutant (CD81mut) was actually produced, but retained intracellularly. We also demonstrate that the truncated CD81mut protein is in close proximity to the intracellularly sequestered CD19. However, this interaction does not enable normal CD19 maturation and surface expression. In addition, we show that specific domains of CD81 enable retrieval and trafficking of human CD19 to the cell surface. Finally, we demonstrate that surface expression of CD19 requires CD81, even in non-B cells.
PMID: 25739915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Optically switchable transistors by simple incorporation of photochromic systems into small-molecule semiconducting matrices.
Nat Commun. 2015;6:6330
Authors: Gemayel ME, Börjesson K, Herder M, Duong DT, Hutchison JA, Ruzié C, Schweicher G, Salleo A, Geerts Y, Hecht S, Orgiu E, Samorì P
The fabrication of multifunctional high-performance organic thin-film transistors as key elements in future logic circuits is a major research challenge. Here we demonstrate that a photoresponsive bi-functional field-effect transistor with carrier mobilities exceeding 0.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) can be developed by incorporating photochromic molecules into an organic semiconductor matrix via a single-step solution processing deposition of a two components blend. Tuning the interactions between the photochromic diarylethene system and the organic semiconductor is achieved via ad-hoc side functionalization of the diarylethene. Thereby, a large-scale phase-segregation can be avoided and superior miscibility is provided, while retaining optimal π-π stacking to warrant efficient charge transport and to attenuate the effect of photoinduced switching on the extent of current modulation. This leads to enhanced electrical performance of transistors incorporating small conjugated molecules as compared with polymeric semiconductors. These findings are of interest for the development of high-performing optically gated electronic devices.
PMID: 25739864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Abdominal compartment syndrome as a rare complication following component separation repair: case report and review of the literature.
Hernia. 2015 Mar 5;
Authors: Oliver-Allen HS, Hunter C, Lee GK
One of the most feared complications following a massive ventral hernia repair is abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). ACS is caused by an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which can lead to multi-organ dysfunction and ultimately result in death. Component separation repair (CST) has been successful for most large hernia repairs in reducing the risk of ACS by increasing abdominal volume and reducing abdominal wall tension during a tight closure. However, reduction of a large hernia can lead to elevated IAP and possible progression to ACS. Here, we describe the detailed intra-operative and post-operative course of a patient who developed abdominal compartment syndrome following CST repair.
PMID: 25739715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In retrospect: A marine biologist's remarkable legacy.
Nature. 2015 Mar 4;519(7541):33
Authors: Albert S, Albert M, Kohrs D
PMID: 25739623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation without post-transplant therapeutic plasma exchange.
J Clin Apher. 2015 Mar 5;
Authors: Yabu JM, Fontaine MJ
Blood group incompatibility remains a significant barrier to kidney transplantation. Approximately, one-third of donors are blood group incompatible with their intended recipient. Options for these donor-recipient pairs include blood group incompatible transplantation or kidney paired donation. However, the optimal protocol for blood group incompatible transplantation is unknown. Protocols differ in techniques to remove ABO antibodies, titer targets, and immunosuppression regimens. In addition, the mechanisms of graft accommodation to blood group antigens remain poorly understood. We describe a blood group incompatible protocol using pretransplant therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab in addition to prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. In this protocol, we do not exclude patients based on a high initial titer and do not implement post-transplant TPE. All 16 patients who underwent this protocol received a living donor transplant with 100% patient and graft survival, and no reported episodes of antibody-mediated rejection to date with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (range 0.75-4.7 years). We conclude that blood group incompatible transplantation can be achieved without post-transplant TPE. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 25739580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Repurpose terbutaline sulfate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using electronic medical records.
Sci Rep. 2015;5:8580
Authors: Paik H, Chung AY, Park HC, Park RW, Suk K, Kim J, Kim H, Lee K, Butte AJ
Prediction of new disease indications for approved drugs by computational methods has been based largely on the genomics signatures of drugs and diseases. We propose a method for drug repositioning that uses the clinical signatures extracted from over 13 years of electronic medical records from a tertiary hospital, including >9.4 M laboratory tests from >530,000 patients, in addition to diverse genomics signatures. Cross-validation using over 17,000 known drug-disease associations shows this approach outperforms various predictive models based on genomics signatures and a well-known "guilt-by-association" method. Interestingly, the prediction suggests that terbutaline sulfate, which is widely used for asthma, is a promising candidate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis for which there are few therapeutic options. In vivo tests using zebrafish models found that terbutaline sulfate prevents defects in axons and neuromuscular junction degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. A therapeutic potential of terbutaline sulfate was also observed when axonal and neuromuscular junction degeneration have already occurred in zebrafish model. Cotreatment with a β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, butoxamine, suggests that the effect of terbutaline is mediated by activation of β2-adrenergic receptors.
PMID: 25739475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Improvements in the early death rate among 9380 patients with acute myeloid leukemia after initial therapy: A SEER database analysis.
Cancer. 2015 Mar 4;
Authors: Percival ME, Tao L, Medeiros BC, Clarke CA
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is treated with conventional induction chemotherapy shortly after diagnosis for the majority of patients aged ≤65 years. A recent report suggested a substantial decline in the early, or 1-month, mortality rate in patients treated on clinical trials over the past 2 decades. It is unknown whether a similar improvement has been observed in the general population.
METHODS: The authors examined the 1-month mortality rate in a large population-based series of 9380 patients with AML who were aged ≤65 years and were diagnosed and treated with chemotherapy between 1973 and 2010.
RESULTS: A significant decline was observed in the 1-month mortality rate from 18.7% among patients diagnosed from 1973 through 1977 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 16.4%-21.2%) to 5.8% for those diagnosed between 2008 and 2010 (95% CI, 4.5%-7.6%) (P <.001). The median overall survival improved significantly from 6 months (95% CI, 5 months-7 months) in 1973 to 1977 to 23 months (95% CI, 16 months-20 months) in 2008 to 2010 (P <.001). Although age and geographic variation were found to significantly influence the 1-month mortality for the period between 1973 and 1977, these differences in 1-month mortality were no longer significant among patients with AML who were treated more recently (2008-2010).
CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 4 decades, early mortality has become uncommon in younger patients (aged ≤65 years) with newly diagnosed AML undergoing induction chemotherapy. It is encouraging that the improvements noted in 1-month mortality rate among a selective cohort of patients in clinical trials have also been observed in a population-based analysis. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
PMID: 25739348 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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