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World HealthAccess restricted to Stanford unless otherwise noted

  • The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization convened a Joint Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption from 25 to 29 January 2010. The tasks of the Expert Consultation were to review data on levels of nutrients (long-chain omega-3 fatty acids) and specific chemical contaminants (methylmercury and dioxins) in a range of fish species and to compare the health benefits of fish consumption and nutrient intake with the health risks associated with contaminants present in fish. The Expert Consultation drew a number of conclusions regarding the health benefits and health risks associated with fish consumption and recommended a series of steps that Member States should take to better assess and manage the risks and benefits of fish consumption and more effectively communicate these risks and benefits to their citizens. The output of the Expert Consultation is a framework for assessing the net health benefits or risks of fish consumption that will provide guidance to national food safety authorities and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in their work on managing risks, taking into account the existing data on the benefits of eating fish. The Expert Consultation concluded the following: Consumption of fish provides energy, protein and a range of other important nutrients, including the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs). Eating fish is part of the cultural traditions of many peoples. In some populations, fish is a major source of food and essential nutrients. Among the general adult population, consumption of fish, particularly fatty fish, lowers the risk of mortality from coronary heart disease. There is an absence of probable or convincing evidence of risk of coronary heart disease associated with methylmercury. Potential cancer risks associated with dioxins are well below established coronary heart disease benefits from fish consumption. When comparing the benefits of LCn3PUFAs with the risks of methylmercury among women of childbearing age, maternal fish consumption lowers the risk of suboptimal neurodevelopment in their offspring compared with the offspring of women not eating fish in most circumstances evaluated. At levels of maternal exposure to dioxins (from fish and other dietary sources) that do not exceed the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg/kg body weight established by JECFA (for PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs), neurodevelopmental risk for the fetus is negligible. At levels of maternal exposure to dioxins (from fish and other dietary sources) that exceed the PTMI, neurodevelopmental risk for the fetus may no longer be negligible. Among infants, young children and adolescents, the available data are currently insufficient to derive a quantitative framework of the health risks and health benefits of eating fish. However, healthy dietary patterns that include fish consumption and are established early in life influence dietary habits and health during adult life.
  • "This overview outlines the statutory background for WHO's research, identifies the milestones in health research over five decades, and discusses issues of both process and programs. This report also includes accounts of regional efforts in health research"--Publisher's description.African region; Eastern Mediterranean region; European region; South East Asia region; Western Pacific region; Pan American Health Organization
  • Safe piped water 2004, WHO
    The microbiology of piped distribution systems and public health -- Minimizing potential for changes in microbial quality of treated water -- Design and operation of distribution networks -- Maintenance and survey of distribution systems -- Precautions during construction and repairs -- Small animals in drinking-water distribution systems -- Risk management for distribution systems.
  • "This book [is] part of a series of documents and tools supporting the IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) strategy"--P. [4] of cover.
  • "Provides informed practical means of achieving and sustaining zero transmission. It is designed as a road map, providing direction and options from which to choose an appropriate path. The Prospectus reviews the operational, technical, and financial feasibility for those working on the front lines and outlines the tools that can be considered for an elimination program." "[summary]"--Provided by publisher.
  • Strategic Urban Health Communication Charles C. Okigbo, editor People are bombarded with messages continuously and sorting through them constantly. In this milieu, critical ideas about health promotion and illness prevention are forced to compete with distracting, conflicting, even contradictory information. To get vital messages through, communication must be effective, targeted, artful-in a word, strategic. Strategic Urban Health Communication provides a road map for understanding strategy, enhancing strategic planning skills, and implementing strategic communication campaigns. Deftly written chapters link the art and science of strategic planning to world health goals such as reducing health inequities and eradicating diseases. Flexibility is at the heart of these cases, which span developed and developing countries, uses of traditional and digital media, and chronic and acute health challenges. And the contributors ground their dispatches in the larger context of health promotion, giving readers useful examples of thinking globally while working locally. Included in the coverage: Urbanization, population, and health myths: addressing common misconceptions. Integrating HIV/family planning programs: opportunities for strategic communication. The role of sports in strategic health promotion in low-income areas. The Internet as a sex education tool: a case study from Thailand. Advertising and childhood obesity in China. Health communication strategies for sustainable development in a globalized world. Balancing depth of understanding of audiences and methods of reaching them, Strategic Urban Health Communication is a forward-looking resource geared toward professionals and researchers in urban health, global health, and health communication.
  • "Injury accounts for a significant proportion of the world's burden of disease. Each year 5.8 million people die from injury and millions more are disabled. The response to this global health problem needs to include a range of activities, from better surveillance to more in-depth research, and primary prevention. Also needed are efforts to strengthen care of the injured. The World Health Organization (WHO) has responded to this need with a variety of actions. ... WHO collected this set of case studies, documenting success stories and lessons learned from several countries. Through this publication, WHO seeks to increase communication ... among those working in the field of trauma care in different countries worldwide."--p. iii.
  • "The second WHO report builds on the growing sense of optimism generated by the 2012 publication of the WHO roadmap. Commitments on the part of ministries of health in endemic countries, global health initiatives, funding agencies and philanthropists have escalated since 2010, as have donations of medicines from pharmaceutical companies and the engagement of the scientific community. This report marks a new phase and assesses opportunities and obstacles in the control, elimination and eradication of several of these diseases. Unprecedented progress over the past two years has revealed unprecedented needs for refinements in control strategies, and new technical tools and protocols. The substantial increases in donations of medicines made since the previous report call for innovations that simplify and refine delivery strategies. However, some diseases, including especially deadly ones like human African trypanosomiasis and visceral Leishmaniasis, remain extremely difficult and costly to treat. The control of Buruli ulcer, Chagas disease and yaws is hampered by imperfect technical tools, although recent developments for yaws look promising. The report highlights progress against these especially challenging diseases, being made through the development of innovative and intensive management strategies. innovations in vector control deserve more attention as playing a key part in reducing transmission and disease burden, especially for dengue, Chagas disease and the Leishmaniases. Achieving universal health coverage with essential health interventions for neglected tropical diseases will be a powerful equalizer that abolishes distinctions between the rich and the poor, the young and the old, ethnic groups, and women and men."--P. 4 of cover.
  • Summary -- Charge to the committee -- a prominent role for health in U.S. foreign policy -- Progress in global health can be achieved now -- Urgent opportunity for action -- Restructure the U.S. global health enterprise -- Mobilize financial resources for health -- Focus U.S. government efforts on health outcomes -- Advance U.S. strengths in global health knowledge -- Support and collaborate with the WHO -- Call to action.
  • The U.S. Commitment to Global Health examines ways in which the United States could contribute to advances in global health, including the following four areas of action: Generate and share knowledge to address problems endemic to poor countries, Invest in people, institutions, and capacity building in resource-poor settings, Increase both quantity and quality of U.S. financial commitments to global health, Be a respectful partner and leader.
  • Part 1:Guidance document on characterizing and communicating uncertainty in exposure assessment --Part 2:Hallmarks of data quality in chemical exposure assessment.
  • Global health : past, present and future /Amir A. Khaliq and Raymond A. Smego, Jr. --The global burden of disease /Thuy D. Bui and William H. Markle --Epidemiology, biostatistics, and surveillance /Christopher Martin --The health of women/mothers and children /Judy Lewis, Monika Doshi, Deyanira Gonzalez de Leon, and Amany Refaat --Human trafficking /Clydette Powell --Environmental health in the global context /Jeffrey K. Griffiths and Edward Winant --Nutrition /Clydette Powell and John R. Butterly --Primary care in global health /Jeffrey F. Markuns and Alain J. Montegut --Malaria /Paul R. Larson and Mark W. Meyer --Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS /Lisa V. Adams and Godfrey B. Woelk --The neglected tropical diseases /Gregory Juckett --Emerging diseases and antimicrobial resistance /Arif R. Sarwari and Rashida A. Khakoo --Injury and global health /Jeffry P. McKinzie --Surgical issues in global health /Eileen S. Natuzzi, et al. --Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief /Sheri Fink, Vera Sistenich, and Clydette Powell --Aging populations and chronic illness /Wayne A. Hale, Jane D. Joubert, and Sebastiana Kalula --Global mental health : the world mental health surveys perspective /Jordi Alonso, Somnath Chatterji, Yanling He, Philip S. Wang, and Ronald C. Kessler --Global health communications, social marketing, and emerging communication technologies /Gary Snyder --Economics and global health /Kevin Chan --Health systems, management, and organization in global health /David Zakus, Onil Bhattacharyya, and Xiaolin Wei --Global health ethics /Anvar Velji and John H. Bryant --Education and careers in global health /Jessica Evert and Scott Loeliger.
  • "This publication addresses the broader issues of social cost-benefit analysis performed on options to invest in drinking-water supplies, with a focus on small community suppliers"--Back cover.
  • A timely exploration of the impact of global change on the emergence, reemergence, and control of vector-borne and zoonotic viral infections From massively destructive ""superstorms"" to rapidly rising sea levels, the world media is abuzz with talk of the threats to civilization posed by global warming. But one hazard that is rarely discussed is the dramatic rise in the number and magnitude of tropical virus outbreaks among human populations. One need only consider recent developments, such as the spread of chikungunya across southern Europe and dengue in Singapore, Brazil, and the so
  • "This document provides guidance for managing water supplies in buildings where people may drink water; use water for food preparation; wash, shower, swim or use water for other recreational activities; or be exposed to aerosols produced by water-using devices, such as cooling towers. These uses occur in a variety of buildings, such as hospitals, schools, child and aged care, medical and dental facilities, hotels, apartment blocks, sport centers, commercial buildings and transport terminals"--Publisher's description.
  • "Diseases related to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene are a huge burden in developing countries. It is estimated that 88% of diarrhoeal disease is caused by unsafe water supply, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WHO, 2004c). Many schools serve communities that have a high prevalence of diseases related to inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and where child malnutrition and other underlying health problems are common. Schools, particularly those in rural areas, often completely lack drinking-water and sanitation and handwashing facilities; alternatively, where such facilities do exist they are often inadequate in both quality and quantity. Schools with poor water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, and intense levels of person-to-person contact, are high-risk environments for children and staff, and exacerbate children's particular susceptibility to environmental health hazards. Children's ability to learn may be affected by inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in several ways. These include helminth infections (which affect hundreds of millions of school-age children), long-term exposure to chemical contaminants in water (e.g. lead and arsenic), diarrhoeal diseases and malaria infections, all of which force many schoolchildren to be absent from school. Poor environmental conditions in the classroom can also make both teaching and learning very difficult. Girls and boys are likely to be affected in different ways by inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in schools, and this may contribute to unequal learning opportunities. Sometimes, girls and female teachers are more affected than boys because the lack of sanitary facilities means that they cannot attend school during menstruation. The international policy environment increasingly reflects these issues. Providing adequate levels of water supply, sanitation and hygiene in schools is of direct relevance to the United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals of achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality and reducing child mortality. It is also supportive of other goals, especially those on major diseases and infant mortality." - p. iii
  • "The purpose of this publication is to provide its users with guidance to identify, acquire and use the information needed to assess chemical hazards, exposures and the corresponding health risks in their given health risk assessment contexts at local and/or national levels. The toolkit provides information for conducting a human health risk assessment, identifies information that must be gathered to complete an assessment and provides electronic links to international resources from which the user can obtain information and methods essential for conducting the human health risk assessment"--Publisher's description.
  • This landmark new report presents the first comprehensive worldwide analysis of tobacco use and control efforts. It provides countries with a roadmap to reverse the devastating global tobacco epidemic that could kill up to one billion people by the end of this century. The report outlines the MPOWER package, a set of six key tobacco control measures that reflect and build on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
  • Women and health 2009, WHO
  • "Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) blight the lives of a billion people worldwide and threaten the health of millions more. These ancient companions of poverty weaken impoverished populations, frustrate the achievement of health in the Millennium Development Goals and impede global development outcomes. A more reliable evaluation of their significance to public health and economies has convinced governments, donors, the pharmaceutical industry and other agencies, including nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), to invest in preventing and controlling this diverse group of diseases. Global efforts to control "hidden" diseases, such as dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease), leprosy, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and yaws, have yielded progressive health gains including the imminent eradication of dracunculiasis. Since 1989 (when most endemic countries began reporting monthly from each endemic village), the number of new dracunculiasis cases has fallen from 892 055 in 12 endemic countries to 3190 in 4 countries in 2009, a decrease of more than 99%. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends five public-health strategies for the prevention and control of NTDs: preventive chemotherapy; intensified case-management; vector control; the provision of safe water, sanitation and hygiene; and veterinary public health (that is, applying veterinary sciences to ensure the health and well-being of humans). Although one approach may predominate for control of a specific disease or group of diseases, evidence suggests that more effective control results when all five approaches are combined and delivered locally." - p. vii
  • 1. Introduction -- 2. Policies, strategies and targets for malaria control -- 3. Interventions to control malaria -- 4. Impact of malaria control -- 5. Elimination of malaria -- 6. Financing malaria control -- PROFILES -- 31 high-burden countries -- -- Annex 1. Methods for preparing the country profiles -- Annex 2. Reported malaria cases and deaths, 2008 -- Annex 3. A. Reported malaria cases, 1990--2008 -- Annex 3. B. Reported malaria deaths, 1990--2008 -- Annex 4. A. Recommended policies and strategies for malaria control, 2009 -- Annex 4. B. Antimalarial drug policy, 2009 -- Annex 5. Operational coverage of ITNs, IRS and antimalarial treatment, 2007--2008 -- Annex 6. A. Household surveys of mosquito nets ownership and usage, 2006--2008 -- Annex 6. B. Household surveys of antimalarial treatment, 2006--2008 -- Annex 7. Funding for malaria control, 2008
  • The World Malaria Report 2012 summarizes information received from 104 malaria-endemic countries and other sources, and updates the analyses presented in the 2011 report. It highlights the progress made towards the global malaria targets set for 2015 and describes current challenges for global malaria control and elimination.
  • 1. Introduction -- 2. Policies, strategies, goals and targets for malaria control and elimination -- 3. Financing malaria control -- 4. Vector control for malaria -- 5. Preventive therapies for malaria -- 6. Diagnostic testing and treatment of malaria -- 7. Malaria surveillance -- 8. Changes in malaria incidence and mortality -- Regional profiles -- Country profiles -- Annexes.
  • "Child injuries have been neglected for many years, and are largely absent from child survival initiatives presently on the global agenda. Through this World report on child injury prevention, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund and many partners have set out to elevate child injury to a priority for the global public health and development communities. The knowledge and experience of nearly two hundred experts from all continents and various sectors were invaluable in grounding the report in the realities faced in many countries. This World report on child injury prevention should be seen as a complement to the UN Secretary-General's study on violence against children released in late 2006. That report addressed violence-related or intentional injuries. Both reports suggest that child injury and violence prevention programmes need to be integrated into child survival and other broad strategies focused on improving the lives of children. Evidence demonstrates the dramatic successes in child injury prevention in countries which have made a concerted effort. These results make a case for increasing investments in human resources and institutional capacities. This would permit the development, implementation and evaluation of programmes to stem the tide of child injury and enhance the health and well-being of children and their families the world over. Implementing proven interventions could save more than a thousand children's lives a day." - p. vii
  • Understanding disability -- Disability: a global picture -- General health care -- Rehabilitation -- Assistance and support -- Enabling environments -- Education -- Work and employment -- The way forward: recommendations.

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