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Public Health

  • This book is the first major work that addresses a core question in biomedical research: the question of acceptable risk. The acceptable level of risks is regulated by the requirement of proportionality in biomedical research law, which state that the risk and burden to the participant must be in proportion to potential benefits to the participant, society or science. This investigation addresses research on healthy volunteers, children, vulnerable subjects, and includes placebo controlled clinical trials.
  • "The probability for exposure to damaging radiation, toxic chemicals in the environment and adverse biological agents has increased exponentially today. The more frequent and faster travel that we experience today also escalates the risk of contraction and transmission of potentially deadly infections. This has created a very real and escalating risk for injuries and deaths. This is accentuated in the military and medical staff that is more frequently exposed to radiological, chemical, and biological agents in their normal working environment. Understanding the mechanisms whereby these toxic agents inflict damage to our bodies is essential to prepare us for these challenges. Much of the damage is inflicted through the generation of free radicals and non-radical oxidants which then act through oxidative mechanisms to injury the body. This volume will discuss the damage caused by these radiological, chemical, and biological environmental stressors, the mechanisms through which the damage can occur and the novel strategies that can be used to reduce the injury inflicted by these toxic compounds. Using basic and clinical research approaches, the contents of this book discuss new ideas for the development of bioactive products and environmental approaches to lessen or negate the biological damage inflicted by these noxious compounds."--Publisher's website.
  • This book examines the landmark 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) from the perspective that health policy innovation is translational research directed at improving health. It delineates a new perspective about the creation and potential impact of the ACA and guides the development of health policy that is supported by best evidence that, in turn, transforms into practice, policy, and public benefit. Told by those involved in the creation and implementation of the ACA, the book reviews the history and impact of this ground-breaking legislation and recommends priorities, objectives, and next steps for translational research as the ACA is implemented. Featuring contributions from nationally renowned leaders in healthcare policy, this book adds to the public conversation about the ACA and its role in shaping health policy and contributes to a more realistic, nuanced, and productive understanding of this ground-breaking legislation by physicians, policy makers, and the public. It also provides a framework for next steps in continuing to improve U.S. health policy.
  • The Singapore healthcare system : an overview -- High quality, low cost -- Helping patients pay -- Controlling costs -- Financing -- Design and infrastructure -- Investing in the future through medical education and research -- Facing the future.
  • Also available: Print – 2013
  • Print Material
    Based on a careful study of the history of Alzheimer's disease and extensive in-depth interviews with clinicians, scientists, epidemiologists, geneticists, and others, Margaret Lock highlights the limitations and the dissent implicated in this approach. She stresses that one major difficulty is the well-documented absence of behavioral signs of Alzheimer's disease in a significant proportion of elderly individuals, even when Alzheimer neuropathology is present in their brains. This incongruity makes it difficult to distinguish between what counts as normal versus pathological and, further, makes it evident that social and biological processes contribute inseparably to aging. Lock argues that basic research must continue, but it should be complemented by a realistic public health approach available everywhere that will be more effective and more humane than one focused almost exclusively on an increasingly frenzied search for a cure.
  • Also available: Print – 2012
  • This book looks at health policy through the lens of public versus private: population health versus the somatic, social, or emotional experiences of a patient. Rather than presenting policy/ethics as overly technical, this book takes a novel approach of framing public and private health in terms of political philosophy, ethics, and popular examples. Each chapter ties back to the general ethics or political literature as applicable, which are not customarily parts of the current public health curriculum. The author's work on the Orgcomplexity blog has touched on this subject by systemically exploring public policy issues, and the tone of this book mimics the blog with an extension of the arguments.
  • This book explores a number of issues related to the stigma arising from HIV/AIDS infection, perceived or actual discrimination from the community and society, and the extent of vulnerabilities for infected Asian refugees and immigrants. It assesses the health care and treatment regimen for HIV/AIDS accessed by immigrants and refugee claimants in North America, including treatments offered by the health-care system and ethnic communities, and their perceptions and biases relating to HIV/AIDS issues. On another level, the book identifies the ways in which HIV-sufferer immigrants and refugees/refugee claimants from Asia are vulnerable to discrimination due to 1) lack of information about HIV/AIDS incidence in the community; 2) inability of the health system to respond appropriately; and 3) the community{u2019}s need for introspection on their own health issues. This book reveals the dynamics that influence choice, behavior, and lifestyle of HIV sufferer immigrants, adds to the existing knowledge about refugees and migrants, and proposes a unified theory of discrimination and stigmatization within the context of human rights. In addition, the book presents a number of policy recommendations based on empirical findings with a view to helping reshape polices regarding refugee HIV sufferers and their social ramifications. This book will be of interest to researchers and students in any field from social sciences, health and psychology, as well as practitioners in the field of development and public policy. The book will be beneficial to policy formulators and implementers engaged in addressing the serious threat emanating from the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
  • Prologue -- pt. 1. Foundations -- 1. Constructing categories : context and consequences -- 2. Methodological considerations -- pt. 2. Constructs : their definition and use -- 3. Defining race, ethnicity and related constructs -- 4. Defining sex, gender, and sexual orientation constructs -- 5. Race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation in health -- pt. 3. Assessing gender, ethnicity, and related constructs -- 6. Measures of ethnicity, ethnic identification, acculturation, and immigration status -- 7. Measures of sex, gender, gender role, and sexual orientation -- Index.
  • Public health continues to evolve as professionals work not only to prevent disease and promote well-being but also to reduce health disparities and protect the environment. To a greater extent, policy is intimately linked to this process, a reality that is gaining traction in the public health sector.
  • Also available: Print – 2011
    Introduction. Headache disorders -- Epidemiology and burden -- Barriers to care -- Purpose of the atlas of headache disorders -- Methods. Questionnaire development -- Identification of respondents -- Data collection -- Data management and analysis -- Results. Data quality. Representativeness -- Limitations -- Data organization and presentation -- Themes. Epidemiology -- Impact on society, and national data -- Health-care utilization -- Diagnosis and assessment -- Treatment -- Professional training -- National professional organizations -- Issues -- The way forward.
  • History of behavioral interventions in STD control / Laura J. McGough and H. Hunter Handsfield -- Behavioral interventions for STDs : theoretical models and intervention methods / Janet S. St. Lawrence and J. Dennis Fortenberry -- Biomedical interventions / Stuart Berman and Mary L. Kamb -- Dyadic, small group, and community-level behavioral interventions for STD/HIV prevention / Donna Hubbard McCree, Agatha Eke, and Samantha P. Wiliams -- Structural interventions / Frederick R. Bloom and Deborah A. Cohen -- STD prevention communication : using social marketing techniques with an eye on behavioral change / Miriam Y. Vega and Khalil G. Ghanem -- Partner notification and management interventions / Matthew Hogben, Devon D. Brewer and Matthew R. Golden -- Interventions in sexual health care-seeking and provision at multiple levels of the U.S. health care system / Matthew Hogben and Lydia A. Shrier -- Use of the internet in STD/HIV prevention / Mary McFarlane and Sheana S. Bull -- Male condoms / Lee Warner and Katherine M. Stone -- STI vaccines : status of development, potential impact, and important factors for implementation / Nicole Liddon, Gregory D. Zimet, and Lawrence R. Stanberry -- Behavioral interventions for prevention and control of STDs among adolescents / Kathleen A. Ethier and Donald P. Orr -- Biological and behavioral risk factors associated with STDs/HIV in women : implications for behavioral interventions / Donna Hubbard McCree and Anne M. Rompalo -- STD prevention with men who have sex with men in the United States / Kevin A. Fenton and Frederick R. Bloom -- STD repeaters : implications for the individual and STD transmission in a population / Jami S. Leichliter, Jonathan M. Ellen and Robert A. Gunn -- Looking inside and affecting the outside : corrections-based interventions for STD prevention / Saimantha P. Williams and Richard H. Kahn -- STDs among illicit drug users in the United States : the need for interventions / Salaam Semaan, Don C. Des Jarlais, and Robert M. Malow -- Quantitative measurement / Mary McFarlane and Janet S. St. Lawrence -- Qualitative methods / Pamina M. Gorbach and Jerome Galea -- From data to action : integrating program evaluation and program improvement / Thomas J. Chapel and Kim Seechuk -- Cost-effectiveness analysis / Thomas L. Gift and Jeanne Marrazzo -- From best practices to better practice : adopting model behavioral interventions in the real world of STD/HIV prevention / Cornelis A. Rietmeijer and Alice A. Gandelman -- The ethics of public health practice for the prevention and control of STDs / Salaam Semaan and Mary Leinhos -- Policy and behavioral interventions for STDs / Jonathan M. Zenilman.
  • Emergency preparedness for the primary care physician -- Biological terrorism -- Chemical terrorism -- Radiological terrorism -- Mental health and terrorism -- The primary care physician's role in supporting the public health response to biological, chemical, and radiological terrorism.
  • Three decades into the epidemic, a great deal is known about HIV and its transmission, more people are living with the disease, and the virus is no longer seen as a death sentence. But new people continue to be infected with HIV each year, making prevention strategies that are medically effective and behaviorally engaging as urgent a priority as ever. Biomedical Advances in HIV Prevention: Social and Behavioral Perspectives assembles the latest improvements, barriers to implementation, and possibilities for--and challenges to--future progress. Innovations such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (antiretroviral regimens for the high-risk uninfected) and treatment as prevention (early use of ART to reduce infectiousness of new patients) are examined, as are current findings on ongoing prevention and treatment concerns. Contributors illuminate the complex realities entailing adherence, pointing out technological, behavioral, and cultural roadblocks as well as opportunities to significantly reduce infection rates.
  • The terrorist use of diseases as bioweapons has been one of the major security concerns in recent years, particularly after the anthrax letter attacks in the USA in 2001. This uncertain threat of intentional outbreaks of diseases exists side by side with the constantly changing very real threat from diseases, epidemics and pandemics as recently illustrated by the H1N1 influenza pandemic, SARS, and H5N1 bird influenza events. This publication contains case studies on the public health planning for (un)usual disease outbreaks for 11 large and small countries with a focus on South Eastern Europe. In many countries, military entities traditionally play an important role in emergency response to disease outbreaks. In smaller countries, very little exists, however, in terms of specific biopreparedness efforts (in both the military and civilian area), which is at least partly due to a relatively low bioterrorism threat perception, and serious resource constraints. The uncertainty associated with the bioterrorism threat makes public health preparedness planning for such events politically and financially very difficult. The similarity of responding to bioterrorism events and natural disease outbreaks from a public health point of view suggests the merit of looking at biopreparedness as a part of overall health emergency planning, not as a separate effort.
  • Bioterrorism sourcebook 2006
    Introduction to terrorism and bioterrorism -- A clinical approach to biological, chemical, and nuclear terrorism -- Clinicians' roles in public health preparedness and emergency response -- Environmental terrorism -- Surveillance systems and bioterrorism -- Vulnerable groups: a summary of relevant concerns -- Psychological effects of the BCN threat -- Toxicology and bioterrorism -- Legal and ethical issues -- A brief history of biological weapons -- Introduction to biological agents -- Smallpox (Variola major) -- Viral hemorrhagic fevers -- Anthrax -- Plague (Yersinia pestis) -- Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) -- Introduction to biotoxins -- Botulinum toxin -- Ricin -- Category B and C and additional agents -- Introduction to chemical weapons -- A brief history of chemical weapons -- Pulmonary agents -- Vesicants or blistering agents -- Nerve and incapacitating agents -- Blood agents -- A brief history of nuclear weapons and the atomic age -- An overview of radiation physics and injury -- Introduction to nucelar and radiation weapons -- Radiologic terrorism.
  • In our complex, fast changing society, health is strongly influenced by the continuously changing interactions between organisations and their employees. Three major fields contribute to health-oriented improvements of these interactions: occupational health, organizational health and public health. As currently only partial links exist amongst these fields, the book aims to explore potential synergies more systematically. Considering the high mental and social demands in a service and knowledge sector economy, the first part of the book focuses on work-related psychosocial factors. As a large proportion of inequalities in health in developed countries can be explained by inequalities in working conditions, those psychosocial factors with a particularly high public health impact are highlighted. As addressing these psychosocial factors requires to involve the organization as the key change agent, the second part covers approaches to improve public health through organizational level health interventions. The last section takes a look into the future of occupational, organizational and public health: what are the future challenges regarding occupational health and how can they be tackled within and beyond the organizational level. Overall, this integrating book will help to broaden the evidence-base, legitimacy and efficacy of occupational- and organizational-level health interventions and thus increase their public health impact.
  • Like other international jurisdictions, the Canadian health sector faces significant demands for change and improvement to meet the needs of the 21st Century. To achieve that goal, highly sophisticated and capable leaders are required across all dimensions of the health system. Bringing Leadership to Life in Health: LEADS in a Caring Environment examines the essence of leadership itself and what it means to be a leader in today's world. The authors describe key challenges that demand reform in the health sector, examine why better leadership is the source code for better system performance, and look at the issues that stand in the way of getting that leadership. This book describes the five domains of the Caring Environment capabilities framework: Lead Self, Engage Others, Achieve Results, Develop Coalitions, and Systems Transformation. Bringing Leadership to Life in Health: LEADS in a Caring Environment is a simple, easily accessible, and research informed book which will explain the LEADS in a Caring Environment capabilities framework that has been adopted across Canada as the foundation for health leadership talent management. This book will illustrate this framework through supportive research, relevant stories solicited from health leaders at all levels as well as the inclusion of "learning moments" to help the readers reflect on their own experiences.
  • Also available: Print – 2011
    Smallpox : eradicating an ancient scourge -- Oral rehydration salts : a miracle cure -- Mental health : unlocking the asylum doors -- The tobacco trap : fighting back -- AIDS : fear, stigma, and hope -- Tuberculosis : complacency kills -- Outbreak : the world's emergency room.
  • Also available: Print – 2009
    This book addresses whether or not calcium and magnesium ('hardness') in drinking water can contribute to preventing disease. It includes a comprehensive consensus view on what is known and what is not about the role and possible health benefit of calcium and magnesium in drinking-water. Also included is a series of chapters each authored by internationally renowned experts reviewing the state of the art in different aspects, including: global dietary calcium and magnesium intakes; the contribution of drinking water to calcium and magnesium intake; health significance of calcium and magnesium; role of drinking-water in relation to bone metabolism; epidemiological studies and the association of cardiovascular disease risks with water hardness and magnesium in particular; water production, technical issues and economics.--Publisher's description.
  • Who are the uninsured? / Howard Eng -- Why are people uninsured? ; The culture of poverty and the uninsured ; Health disparities and the uninsured ; Providers of care for the uninsured ; Chronic disease and the uninsured ; Medical homes (preferably "health home") and the uninsured / Nancy J. Johnson -- Medication assistance for the uninsured / Nancy J. Johnson and Janet S. Smith -- Medically uninsured refugees and immigrants / Lane P. Johnson -- Medically uninsured and the homeless / Jennifer Vanderleest -- Care of underserved people with mental illness / Francisco A. Moreno and Sarah Heron -- Medically uninsured older Americans / Lynne Tomasa -- Direct caregivers association: an option for a rapidly growing aging population? / Judith B. Clinco -- The rural uninsured ; Dental care for the uninsured / Lane P. Johnson -- Uninsured children at school / Fran Bartholomeaux and Nancy J. Johnson -- Building community collaborations around care for the uninsured / Nancy J. Johnson -- Information technology and medically uninsured / Theresa Cullen -- The role of government in providing health care to the uninsured / James E. Dalen -- Think nationally, act locally / Lane P. Johnson.
  • Print Material
    Mapping and mapmaking -- Medical mapping: early histories -- Mapping and statistics: 1830-1849 -- John Snow: the London epidemics -- The cholera debate -- Map as intent: variations on John Snow -- Mapping legacy -- Public health: the divorce -- Disease ecologies: disease atlases -- Complex processes: diffusion and structure -- GIS and medical mapping -- Map thinking: an afterward.
  • pt. 1. The study of disasters -- pt. 2. Causes of disasters -- pt. 3. Behavioral consequences of disasters -- pt. 4. Our models : applying a public health perspective.
  • "The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific Evidence, and Future Studies reviews scientific findings and stakeholders concerns related to the safety of the recommended childhood immunization schedule. This report also identifies potential research approaches, methodologies and study designs that could inform this question, considering strengths, weaknesses as well as ethical and financial feasibility of each approach. This report draws on data from existing surveillance systems, such as the Vaccine Safety Datalink, could be used and offers the best means for ongoing research efforts regarding the safety of the schedule. In recognition of this, future federal research approaches should: collect and assess evidence regarding public confidence in and concerns about the entire childhood immunization schedule, with the goal to improve communication with health care professionals, and between health care professionals and the public regarding safety; standardize definitions of key elements of the schedule, and relevant health outcomes; establish research priorities on the basis of epidemiological evidence, biological plausibility, and feasibility; and continue to fund and support the Vaccine Safety Datalink project to study the safety of the recommended immunization schedule"--Publisher's description.
  • Epidemiology and prevention and control programs for chlamydia / C.L. Satterwhite, J.M. Douglas, Jr. -- Chlamydia trachomatis pathogenicity and disease / D. Dean -- Chlamydia trachomatis genome structure / T.E. Putman, D.D. Rockey -- Chlamydia trachomatis : molecular testing methods / C.A. Gaydos -- Treatment of chlamydia trachomatis infections / M.R. Hammerschlag -- The Immunologic Response to Urogenital Infection / R.M. Johnson, W. Geisler -- Chlamydia vaccine development / J.U. Igietseme, C.M. Black -- Maternal and infant chlamydia trachomatis infections / I.G.I.J.G. Rours, M.R. Hammerschlag -- Chlamydia trachomatis infection among sexual minorities / D. Singh, J.M. Marrazzo -- Lymphogranuloma venereum : a concise outline of an emerging infection among men who have sex with men / H.J.C. de Vries, S. Morré.
  • On framing the research question and choosing the appropriate research design / Patrick Parfrey and Pietro Ravani -- Longitudinal studies and determination of risk / Sean W. Murphy -- Modeling longitudinal data, I : principles of multivariate analysis / Pietro Ravani, Brendan Barrett, and Patrick Parfrey -- Modeling longitudinal data, II : standard regression models and extensions / Pietro Ravani, Brendan Barrett, and Patrick Parfrey -- The design of randomized controlled trials / Bryan M. Curtis, Brendan J. Barrett, and Patrick Parfrey -- Analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials / Robert N. Foley -- Evaluation of diagnostic tests / John M. Fardy -- Biomarkers and surrogates in clinical studies / Claudio Rigatto and Brendan J. Barrett -- Measurement and analysis of patient-reported outcomes / Klemens B. Meyer and Kimberly A. Clayton -- Bias in clinical studies of genetic diseases / Susan Stuckless and Patrick Parfrey -- Genetic epidemiology of complex phenotypes / Lynette Peddle and Proton Rahman. Qualitative research in clinical epidemiology / Deborah M. Gregory and Christine Y. Way -- Primer on systematic review and meta-analysis / Marcello Tonelli, Dan Hackman, and Amit X. Garg -- The role of health economics within clinical research / Braden J. Manns -- Development and limitations of clinical practice guidelines / Bruce Culleton -- Basics of health technology assessment / Daria O'Reilly, Kaitryn Campbell, and Ron Goeree -- Research ethics for clinical researchers / John D. Harnett and Richard Neumann -- Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects / Elizabeth Hatfield, Elizabeth Dicks, and Patrick Parfrey.
  • Also available: Print – 2103
    What Is Community-Based Participatory Research? -- Background Preparation for the CBPR Process -- Beginning Partnerships with Communities -- Finding Common Ground Within the Partnership -- Sustaining the Partnership -- Evaluating the Partnership and Enhancing Future Successes.
  • Also available: Print – 2008
    The fundamentals : human rights and health -- Humanitarian medicine -- International, UN and WHO cooperation -- Disasters and conflicts -- Science, research and perspectives -- Society, health and equity.
  • Print Material
    "A rude place and an unpolisht man" : William Penn and the nature of Pennsylvania -- "An infancy of government" : population, authority, and the problem of proprietorship -- "A suitable charity or an effectual security" : community, contagion, and the care of strangers -- "A body corporate and politick" : association, interest, and improvement in a provincial city -- "Improvement in every part of the healing art" : transatlantic cultures of medical improvement -- "A fine field for professional improvement" : sites and sources of medical authority in the Revolutionary War -- "In a yielding state" : nervous nationalism in the new republic -- "Those friendly reciprocities" : panic and participation in the age of yellow fever -- "A matter of police" : fever and betrayal in the federal union.
  • Introducing a transdisciplinary approach to applied urban health research -- Benefits and challenges of transdisciplinary research for urban health researchers -- In search of empowering health research for marginalized populations in urban settings: the value of a transdisciplinary approach -- Reducing health disparities experienced by refugees resettled in urban areas: a community-based transdisciplinary intervention model -- The Street Health Report 2007: community-based research for social change -- Safety as a social value: revisiting a participatory case study in Scotland -- Methodological notes on conducting transdisciplinary research -- Collaborative processes in transdisciplinary research -- From complex problems to complex problem-solving: transdisciplinary practice as knowledge translation -- Transdisciplinary training in health research: distinctive features and future directions -- Funding agencies and transdisciplinary research -- Moving forward: the future of transdisciplinary health research.
  • Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA"), states are encouraged to increase their role in improving access to evidence-based preventive screenings and strategies. One of these provisions goes into effect on January 1, 2013, when state Medicaid programs will have the opportunity to receive a one percentage point increase in their Federal Medical Assistance Percentage matching rate ("FMAP") if they cover the immunizations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ("ACIP") and the preventive services rated "A" or "B" by the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force ("USPSTF") without cost-sharing. The USPSTF is an independent panel of experts that reviews scientific evidence on clinical preventive health care services and issues recommendations for primary care providers and health systems. This study evaluates Medicaid coverage across the country for twenty-four of those services that focus on non-pregnant adults. There was significant variation among states in which services were covered under Medicaid for non-elderly, non-pregnant adults. While some research has been published examining Medicaid coverage of select preventive services, there has not been a comprehensive look at state-level Medicaid coverage of preventive services for adults. This study is intended to provide a better understanding of Medicaid coverage of preventive services for adults in the current state programs, help guide federal policymakers as they make decisions about the criteria qualifying a state for the FMAP increase, and inform state policy makers as they consider the level of preventive benefits and services to offer should they expand Medicaid in 2014.
  • 1. The border region: its culture and health disparities -- 2. Understanding health disparities -- 3. A critique of U.S.-Mexico Border health interventions -- 4. Ethical issues in health interventions across contexts and cultures -- Index.
  • Print Material
    Overview -- Occurance workgroup -- Causes, prevention, and mitigation workgroup -- Toxins workgroup -- Analytical methods workgroup -- Human health effects workgroup -- Ecosystem effects workgroup -- Risk assessment workgroup.
  • Introduction -- Specimen Collection and Handling -- Host Reactions to Infection -- Microbiology -- Gynecological Infections -- Pulmonary Infections -- Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Infections -- Urinary Tract Infections -- Central Nervous System Infections -- Hematologic Infections -- Breast, Skin, and Musculoskeletal Infections -- Head and Neck Infections -- Immunosuppressed Host -- Ancillary Investigations -- Mimics and Contaminants.
  • Also available: Print – 2011
    Part A. Report of WHO expert consultation on DDT rish characterization -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Consensus statement -- Part B. Hazard and exposure assessments -- 1. Summary and conclusions -- 2. Chemical identity -- 3. Exposure sources and metrics -- 4. Kinetics and metabolism -- 5. Hepatic effects and enzyme induction -- 6. Neurotoxicity -- 7. Immunotoxicity -- 8. Carcinogenicity -- 9. Genotoxicity -- 10. Endocrinological and reproductive effects -- 11. Hazard characterization -- 12. Exposure assessment.
  • Current economic, demographic, and environmental shifts are presenting major challenges to health care systems around the world. In response, decentralization--the transfer of control from central to local authorities--is emerging as a successful means of meeting these challenges and reducing inequities of care. But as with health care itself, one size does not fit all, and care systems must be responsive to global reality as well as local demand. Decentralizing Health Services explores a variety of applications of decentralization to health care delivery in both the developing and developed worlds. Outfitted with principles, blueprints, and examples, this ambitious text clearly sets out the potential role of decentralized care as a major player in public health. Its models of service delivery illustrate care that is effective, inclusive, flexible, and in tune with the current era of preventive and evidence-based healthcare. Contributors point out opportunities, caveats, and controversies as they: Clarify the relationships among decentralization, politics, and policy Differentiate between political, fiscal, and administrative decentralization in health care systems. Consider public/private partnerships in health systems. Explain how the effects of decentralization can be evaluated. Present the newest data on the health outcomes of decentralization. Explore some challenges and global issues of health systems in the 21st century. And each chapter features learning goals, discussion questions, activities, and recommendations for further reading. Heralding changes poised to revolutionize care, Decentralizing Health Services will broaden the horizons of researchers and administrators in health services, health economics, and health policy.
  • Prevention Science: An Epidemiological Approach -- Individual Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Vulnerability Across the Life Course: Benchmarks and Developmental Challenges -- Benchmarks, Developmental Challenges, and Risks During the Prenatal and Infancy Period -- Childhood and the Entry into Adolescence: A Pivotal Period in Health-Related Behaviors and Prevention -- Adolescence and Early Adulthood -- Stressors and Vulnerabilities in Middle and Old Age: Opportunities for Prevention -- Environmental Influences and Implications for Intervention Development -- Family -- School Influences on Child and Youth Development -- Peer Networks -- Risk and Resilience Processes in Single-Mother Families: An Interactionist Perspective -- Environmental Influences: The Workplace and Mental Health-Models, Vulnerability Factors, and Interventions -- An Integrated Prevention Science Model: A Conceptual Foundation for Prevention Research -- Design of Prevention Interventions -- Implementation Science and the Effective Delivery of Evidence-Based Prevention -- Factors Affecting Implementation: Cultural Adaptation and Training -- Measuring Fidelity -- Research Design -- Translating the Intervention Approach into an Appropriate Research Design: The Next-Generation Adaptive Designs for Effectiveness and Implementation Research -- The Epidemiologic Case-Crossover and Case-Control Approaches in Prevention Research -- The Use of Simulation Models in Public Health with Applications to Substance Abuse and Obesity Problems -- Meta-analysis in Prevention Science -- Mixed Methods Research Design for Prevention Science: Methods, Critiques, and Recommendations -- Analytic Methods -- Latent Class Analysis in Prevention Science -- Discrete-Time Survival Analysis in Prevention Science -- Using Mediation and Moderation Analyses to Enhance Prevention Research -- Advances in Missing Data Models and Fidelity Issues of Implementing These Methods in Prevention Science -- Cost Analysis and Policy -- Economic Analysis and Policy Studies: Special Challenges in the Prevention Sciences -- Strengthening Prevention Science to Ensure Effectiveness of Intervention in Practice: Setting up an International Agenda.
  • Part 1. BIOTERRORISM PREVENTION -- Bioterrorism: A Potential Weapon for Terrorist Attacks Through Food and Water Contamination: Evolution of Our Understanding of the Use of Chemical and Bacteriological Weapons / Vincenzo Costigliola and Franco Quagliata -- Detection and Quantification of Bacteria and Fungi Using Solid-Phase Cytometry / Lies ME Vanhee, Eva D'Haese, Ils Cools, Hans J Nelis and Tom Coenye -- Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping of Akounq Groundwater Body, Armenia / Vahram Vardanyan and Artashes Aginian -- Part 2. BACTERIA DIAGNOSTIC TESTS -- Methods for Detection of Shiga-Toxin Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) / Jordan Madic -- Genetic Diversity of Enterococci in Bryndza Cheese / Roman Dušinský, Anna Belicová, Libor Ebringer, Dušan Jurkovič and Lívia Križková, et al. -- Salmonella Infections / Constantine Arvanitakis -- Molecular Diagnostics of Staphylococcus aureus / Jiří Doškař, Roman Pantůček, Vladislava Růžičková and Ivo Sedláček -- Molecular Methods to Detect Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Foods / Marisa Manzano, Lucilla Iacumin, Cristina Giusto and Giuseppe Comi -- Control of Listeria monocytogenes in San Daniele Dry Cured Ham by Different Technologies: Reduction of L. Monocytogenes in Dry Cured Ham / Lucilla Iacumin, Marisa Manzano, Milena Osualdini, Carlo Cantoni and Giuseppe Comi -- Part 3. VIRAL INFECTIONS -- Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Hepatitis B in the Mediterranean Region and Elsewhere / Nurdan Tözün, Özdal Ersoy, Fatih Eren and Veysel Tahan -- Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) - An Emerging Viral Pathogen / Avrelija Cencič and Walter Chingwaru -- Dengue Virus Diagnostics / Evgeni Eltzov, Danit Atias, Levi Gheber and Robert S. Marks -- Part 4. PARASITES AND FUNGI -- Infectious Forms of Parasites in Food: Man Embedded in Ecosystems / Eduardo Dei-Cas, Cécile-Marie Aliouat, Gabriela Certad, Colette Creusy and Karine Guyot -- Unusual Developmental Pattern of Expression of Enzymes Involved in DNA Biosynthesis in Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis / Magdalena Dąbrowska, Barbara Gołos, Elżbieta Wałajtys-Rode, Patrycja Wińska and Joanna Cieśla, et al. -- Immunodulation and Helminths: Towards New Strategies for Treatment of Immune-Mediated Diseases? / Fabrizio Bruschi, Lorena Chiumiento and Gianfranco Del Prete -- Parasites and Oncogenesis with a Special Reference to Gastro-Intestinal Neoplasia Induced by Cryptosporidium parvum / C Creusy, G Certad, K Guyot and E Dei-Cas -- Smart Biosensors for Determination of Mycotoxines / Lyubov Yotova, Ivo Grabchev, Rossica Betcheva and Dessislava Marinkova.
  • Print Material
  • Disaster Response -- Immediate Response to Disasters -- Priorities in Post-disaster Management -- Refugee Camps -- Complex Emergencies -- Security for the Humanitarian Worker -- Global Players -- Global Development: Millennium Development Goals -- Nongovernmental Organizations and Aid -- Developing Healthcare Systems -- International Aid -- Future of Global Health -- Trauma and Surgery -- Prehospital Care -- Mass Casualty Incident -- Military Trauma -- Tropical Surgery -- Surgery in Austere Environments -- Tropical Medicine -- Polio and Vaccination Campaigns -- Malaria in Children -- Cholera: An Infectious Waterborne Disease -- HIV/AIDS -- Blinding Eye Diseases -- Public Health -- Malnutrition -- Sexual and Reproductive Health -- Maternal and Neonatal Health -- Mental Health Following Armed Conflict -- The Global Crisis in Noncommunicable Disease.
  • General public health preparedness -- Bioterrorism -- Bombings and explosions -- Chemical disasters -- Earthquakes -- Floods -- Heat waves -- Hurricanes -- Nuclear and radiological disasters -- Pandemic influenza -- Thunderstorms and tornadoes -- Volcanoes -- Wildfires -- Winter storms.
  • Changing patterns of disease and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an overview / Florence K. Baingana and Eduard R. Bos -- Levels and trends in mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an overview / Jacob Adetunji and Eduard R. Bos -- Trends in child mortality, 1960 to 2000 / Kenneth Hill and Agbessi Amouzou -- Levels and trends of adult mortality / Debbie Bradshaw and Ian M. Timaeus -- Causes of death / Chalapati Rao, Alan D. Lopez, and Yusuf Hemed -- Population and mortality after AIDS / Rodolfo A. Bulatao -- Levels and patterns of mortality at INDEPTH demographic surveillance systems / Osman A. Sankoh ... [et al.] -- Trends and issues in child undernutrition / Todd Benson and Meera Shekar -- Diarrheal diseases / Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Claudio F. Lanata, Walter Mendoza, and Demissie Habte -- Developmental disabilities / Geoff Solarsh and Karen J. Hofman -- Acute respiratory infections / Shabir A. Mahdi and Keith P. Klugman -- Vaccine-preventable diseases / Mark A. Miller and John T. Sentz -- Tuberculosis / Christopher Dye ... [et al.] -- Malaria / Robert W. Snow and Judy A. Omumbo -- Onchocerciasis / Uche Amazigo ... [et al.] -- Maternal mortality / Khama O. Rogo, John Oucho, and Philip Mwalali -- HIV/AIDS / Souleymane Mboup ... [et al.] -- Lifestyle and related risk factors for chronic diseases / Krisela Steyn and Albertino Damasceno -- Diabetes mellitus / Jean-Claude Mbanya and Kaushik Ramiaya -- Cancers / Freddy Sitas ... [et al.] -- Cardiovascular disease / Anthony Mbewu and Jean-Claude Mbanya -- Mental health and the abuse of alcohol and controlled substances / Florence K. Baingana, Atalay Alem, and Rachel Jenkins -- Neurological disorders / Donald Silberberg and Elly Katabira -- Violence and injuries / Brett Bowman ... [et al.].
  • Print Material
    Mental disorders / Steven Hyman ... [et al.] -- Neurological disorders / Vijay Chandra ... [et al.] -- Learning and developmental disabilities / Maureen S. Durkin ... [et al.] -- Alcohol / Jürgen Rehm ... [et al.] -- Illicit opiate abuse / Wayne Hall ... [et al.].
  • Exploring the linkages between ecosystems and human health -- Evolution towards an ecosystem approach to public health -- Ecosystem approaches to human health: key concepts and principles -- Community-based participatory research for ecohealth -- The process of conducting an ecohealth research project: a participatory action research approach -- Applying an ecosystem approach to community health research in Ghana: a case study -- Planning for a healthy community: a case study: phase II -- Challenges and ethical dilemmas in conducting participatory ecohealth research -- Ecosystem approaches to indigenous health -- Policy frameworks on health and environmental linkages -- Applying critical theory to environmental and health issues -- Examining environmental problems from a critical perspective -- Examining public health concerns from a critical perspective -- Towards a critical approach to ecohealth research and practice.
  • An overview of healthcare disparities -- Provider factors in healthcare disparities -- Patient factors in healthcare disparities -- Healthcare system factors in healthcare disparities -- The social "nonmedical" determinants of health -- The role of the Internet in American life -- The iHealth revolution -- Digital disparities -- The role of eHealth in patient engagement and quality improvement -- Medical informatics -- Public health informatics -- Beyond traditional paradigms in disparities research -- Health information technology policy perspectives and healthcare disparities -- Disparities and eHealth: achieving the promise and the potential.
  • Also available: Print – 2012
    Chapter 1. Identifying general requirements -- Chapter 2. Identifying detailed requirements -- Chapter 3. Selecting a solution -- Chapter 4. Implementing an electronic recording and reporting system .
  • I. Underlying causes of healthcare disparities -- 1. Historical perspectives on healthcare disparities : is the past prologue? / Richard Allen Williams -- 2. Epidemiology of racial and ethnic disparities in health and healthcare / George A. Mensah and Maleeka J. Glover -- 3. Cultural diversity in medicine and in healthcare delivery / Richard Allen Williams -- II. Current problems -- 4. Healthcare and the politics of race / M. Gregg Bloche -- 5. Barriers to eliminating disparities in clinical practice: lessons from the IOM report "Unequal Treatment" / Joseph R. Betancourt and Angela Maina -- 6. Second-class medicine: implications of evidence-based medicine for improving minority access to the correct pharmaceutical therapy / Randall W. Maxey and Richard Allen Williams -- 7. The diversity benefit: how does diversity among health professionals address public needs? / Brian D. Smedley -- III. Approaches to correcting the problems -- 8. Eliminating disparities in healthcare through quality improvement / Kevin Fiscella -- 9. Eliminating racial discrimination in healthcare: a call for state healthcare anti-discrimination law / Vernellia R. Randall -- 10. Quality of care and health disparities: the evolving role of government / Garth N. Graham -- 11. The role of communities in eliminating healthcare disparities: getting down to the grass roots / JudyAnn Bigby -- 12. The potential impact of performance incentive programs on racial disparities in healthcare / Alyna T. Chien -- IV. Examples of what works -- 13. Monitoring socioeconomic determinants for healthcare disparities: tools from the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project / Nancy Krieger ... [et a.] -- 14. The Association of Black Cardiologists: a small-group success story / Richard Allen Williams -- 15. Breathe easy in Seattle: addressing asthma disparities through healthier housing / James W. Krieger ... [et al.] -- 16. Access Health Solutions: a minority physician network model that works / Kathy B. Jackson -- 17. Carolinas Association for Community Health Equity-CACHE: a community coalition to address health disparities in racial and ethnic minorities in Mecklenburg County North Carolina / Yele Aluko -- V. Concluding recommendations -- 18. Principles for eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare / John Z. Ayanian and Richard Allen Williams.
  • 1. Introduction -- 2. Investigative Toxicology: The State of the Art -- 3. Screening Technologies I: Human Cell-Based Approaches -- 4. Screening Technologies II: Toxicogenomics -- 5. Screening Technologies III: Metabolomics -- 6. Screening Technologies IV: Pharmacogenetics -- 7. Qualifying Biomarkers -- 8. Pharmacovigilance -- 9. Integration -- 10. The Future of Safety Science.
  • Foundation topics. Biology of aging / Teresa Dolinar. The history and demography of aging in the United States / Gail E. Souare, Linda S. Lloyd. Cultural diversity among elders in the US : meeting the challenge of the ethnogeriatric imperative / Gwen Yeo. Legal aspects of aging / Janet L. Lowder ... [et al.] The participation of cognitivelly impaired elderly in research / Sana Loue -- Topics in aging and public health.
  • Part 1. Immigrant Health Overview Chapters -- Immigration in the Global Context / Bettina Rausa, Linda S. Lloyd -- Immigration Processes and Health in the U.S.: A Brief History / Sana Loue -- Alternative and Complementary Medicine / Brenda L. Lovell, Jamileh Daneshnia, Christopher J. Fries -- Culture-Specific Diagnoses / Delaney Smith, Tara Mayes, Riley Smith -- Health Determinants / M. David Low, Barbara J. Low -- Occupational and Environmental Health / Doug Brugge, C. Eduardo Siqueira -- Methodological Issues in Immigrant Health Research / Patrick J. M. Murphy, Irin Rachel Allen , Mo-Kyung Sin -- Ethical Issues in Research with Immigrants and Refugees / Sana Loue -- Ethical Issues in the Clinical Context / Beatrice Gabriela Ioan -- Part 2. Immigrant Health Topics A-Z.
  • Public Health is one of the fastest growing university programs in the United States today. At the same time, the challenges that face the practitioner continue to grow and become more complex. This Encyclopedia of Primary Prevention and Health Promotion, 2nd ed covers more than 250 topics, taking a lifespan approach to the fields of public health and prevention. The encyclopedia is divided into four volumes: 1. Foundational Topics 2. Early Childhood and Childhood 3. Adolescence 4. Adulthood and Older Adulthood Within each volume, issues of illness prevention and health promotion (sometimes referred to as "positive psychology") are addressed in chapter-length entries arranged alphabetically. An international group of contributors synthesizes research focusing on improving the physical and mental health of the community as a whole. Each entry will have a structured format: Introduction, Definition of Terms, Prevalence, Theories, Empirical Studies, and Strategies (What Works, What Is Promising, What Doesn't Work). Each entry concludes with a look ahead to the coming decades of Public Health - what are the next steps to primary prevention and health promotion - and a "See Also" box recommending books, films, or articles by the editors for further reading. The encyclopedia is designed for practitioners, students, and researchers working in prevention, public health, and psychology. It will also serve as reference for practitioners in sociology, social work, nursing and medicine. The second edition more than doubles the number of entries in the first edition by adding entries focusing on gender, African American and Latino issues, social support, social and emotional learning, and physical health and disease. All entries from the first edition will be rewritten and expanded, reflecting the most up to date thinking in the field.
  • Enhancing Medication Adherence: The Public Health Dilemma is a comprehensive guide to medication adherence for the healthcare professional. Clinicians and pharmacists alike can benefit from key opinion leader and author Hayden Bosworth's text as he explains the details and causes behind medication nonadherence as well as methods on how healthcare providers can determine if a patient is nonadherent. Additionally, Bosworth discusses various studies, which assess adherence, adherence-related technology, best practices for clinicians and pharmacists, and future directions and recommendations in the field.
  • Also available: Print – 2011
    Introduction to the guidelines. Purpose, target and scope -- Background -- A dual obligation, a quadruple imperative -- Indispensability of controlled medicines in contemporary medical practices -- Safety of controlled medicines -- Current availability -- Impediments to availability, accessibility and affordability -- Why and how to work with this document? -- Guidelines for ensuring balance in national policies on controlled substances. Content of drug control legislation and policy -- Authorities and their role in the system -- Policy planning for availability and accessibility -- Healthcare professionals -- Estimates and statistics -- Procurement -- Other -- Country assessment checklist.
  • "Enumerating Invisibility, Humanizing Numbers: Public Health and the Production of Inequities 1938-1974" is directed at answering one question: Why in spite of intensive study that has resulted in a wealth of numerical and statistical information on public health does the San Joaquin Valley and the residents therein remain, among one of the most underfunded, overlooked, impoverished and unhealthy regions? Through an examination of historical materials-- surveys, reports, occupational surveillance, and decision making-- this dissertation seeks to better understand how data and policy, through the social processes of classification and quantification, may have contributed to the production of inequities in the San Joaquin Valley. There are few studies to date that systematically examine the relationship between knowledge and numbers and even fewer that address the concerns of frequently overlooked communities of agricultural laborers in the San Joaquin Valley. This dissertation begins to fill these gaps by reviewing a diverse array of source material to trace how institutions counted and measured agricultural laborers, how the institutions shaped these counting practices, and how numbers shaped policies. Given that institutional identities and strategies of governance are at stake in the production of these numbers, the story of agricultural laborers their health, social, and scientific visibility must be told alongside the stories of state bureaucracies. In tracing how institutions counted and measured agricultural laborers, how the institutions shaped these counting practices, how numbers shaped policies and decisions, there is an opportunity to understand historically the potential consequences of these counting practices. Together they reveal how institutional identities contributed to the making of public health data-- its production, content and interpretation. This data, meant to reveal patterns of disease and improve public health, has paradoxically played a role in concentrating health inequities in the San Joaquin Valley because it has often made invisible the relationships between material deprivation and health or the environment and health. This dissertation does not advocate that we cease to use numbers in science and in policy. Rather, it is meant to recognize that every system of data collection and surveillance, regardless of the institution producing the data, is subjective and is shaped by particular values that have material consequences on populations As a result, the analysis intends to render numbers and their production more transparent and therefore open to critical analysis, and to provoke reflection on how the human elements- history, culture, and experiences --can explain the inequities that data alone can conceal.
  • "Satellite imagery and data are widely used in public health surveillance to provide early warning of disease outbreaks and for averting pandemics. Convergence of these technologies began in the 1970s and has gained wide acceptance in the 21st Century. This book is written jointly by experts in both the health and Earth-science technologies. Each chapter is accompanied by an extensive list of citations to provide background and validation of the current state-of-the-art for a variety of high-interest human diseases and associated health and well-being issues. The importance of day-to-day weather patterns, the impacts of severe weather events and longer-term climate cycles form the basis for developing information systems that meet goals and expectations of national and international health monitoring bodies"--Provided by publisher.
  • Print Material
  • Print Material
  • Systems and Network Biology to Investigate Epigenetic De-regulatory Mechanisms of MicroRNAs in Pancreatic Cancer / Irfana Muqbil, Fazlul H. Sarkar, Ramzi M. Mohammad -- Role of MicroRNAs in Cancer Epigenetics / Kishore B. Challagundla, Petra Wise, Muller Fabbri -- Epigenetic Regulation of EZH2 and Its Targeted MicroRNAs / Sandy Leung-Kuen Au, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Chun-Ming Wong -- Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Renal Cancer / Shahana Majid ... [et al.] -- Epigenetic Regulation of MicroRNA in Colon Cancer / Qiong Zhang, Mukesh Verma, Sharad Khare -- Epigenetic Regulation of miRNAs in Breast Cancer Formation and Progression / Zhiqian Zhang ... [et al.] -- Epigenetic Variations of Stem Cell Markers in Cancer / Sripathi M. Sureban, Dongfeng Qu, Courtney W. Houchen -- Recent Updates on Epigenetic Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer / Karen Chiam, Tanya Kate Day, Tina Bianco-Miotto -- Epigenetics and Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer / Benjamin A. Rybicki -- Epigenetic Signatures of Breast Cancer Genes / Shrikant Anant, Animesh Dhar, Satish Ramalingam -- Exploiting Epigenetic Modifiers to Circumvent Melanoma Dual Resistance to TCR-Engineered Immunotherapy- and BRAF V⁶⁰⁰E-Kinase Inhibitor / Ali R. Jazirehi CLS, -- The Role of Epigenetics in Radiation Therapy and the DNA Damage Response / Steven P. Zielske -- Plant Polyphenols as Epigenetic Modulators of Glutathione S-Transferase P1 Activity / Vijay S. Thakur, Sanjay Gupta -- Epigenetic Regulations of mRNAs and miRNAs by Nutraceuticals / Yiwei Li ... [et al.] -- Towards Curative Cancer Therapy with Maspin: A Unique Window of Opportunity to Target Cancer Dormancy / Alexander Kaplun, M. Margarida Bernardo, Sijana Dzinic.
  • "Although epilepsy is one of the nation's most common neurological disorders, public understanding of it is limited. Many people do not know the causes of epilepsy or what they should do if they see someone having a seizure. Epilepsy is a complex spectrum of disorders that affects an estimated 2.2 million Americans in a variety of ways, and is characterized by unpredictable seizures that differ in type, cause, and severity. Yet living with epilepsy is about much more than just seizures; the disorder is often defined in practical terms, such as challenges in school, uncertainties about social situations and employment, limitations on driving, and questions about independent living. The Institute of Medicine was asked to examine the public health dimensions of the epilepsies, focusing on public health surveillance and data collection; population and public health research; health policy, health care, and human services; and education for people with the disorder and their families, health care providers, and the public. In Epilepsy Across the Spectrum, the IOM makes recommendations ranging from the expansion of collaborative epilepsy surveillance efforts, to the coordination of public awareness efforts, to the engagement of people with epilepsy and their families in education, dissemination, and advocacy for improved care and services. Taking action across multiple dimensions will improve the lives of people with epilepsy and their families. The realistic, feasible, and action-oriented recommendations in this report can help enable short- and long-term improvements for people with epilepsy. For all epilepsy organizations and advocates, local, state, and federal agencies, researchers, health care professionals, people with epilepsy, as well as the public, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum is an essential resource"--Publisher's description.
  • Also available: Print – 2010
  • Print Material
    How shall we improve human health? One answer is: by eradication. The Gates Foundation announced in 2007 that their goal is malaria eradication; another of their priorities is polio eradication. Eradication means the complete elimination of a disease through deliberate human intervention. It stands for an absolute in public health. This book by the award-winning historian of medicine Nancy Leys Stepan is an accessible, beautifully written, and deeply researched examination of one of the most controversial issues in public health today. The eradication of disease might seem like an absolute good. But critics of eradication argue that the huge resources needed to achieve eradication could be better allocated toward developing primary health services and general improvement in health. This book aims to look at the benefits and drawbacks of single-minded efforts to rid the world of particular diseases, one at a time. The sweep of the book is impressive, from the origins of the idea of complete eradication in the early twentieth century until the present-day campaigns against polio, Guinea worm disease, and now malaria. The author places eradication's story in its many contexts, from imperialism, changing notions of public health, the history of medicine and its technologies, the development of international health agencies such as the World Health Organization, and the impact of the Cold War on the shift of attention to disease in developing countries. -- Jacket.
  • "Evidence for Health: From Patient Choice to Global Policy is a practical guide to evidence-informed decision-making. It provides health practitioners and policy-makers with a broad overview of how to improve health and reduce health inequities, as well as the tools needed to make informed decisions that will have a positive influence on health. Chapters address questions such as: What are the major threats to health? What are the causes of poor health? What works to improve health? How do we know that it works? What are the barriers to implementation? What are the measures of success? The book provides an algorithm for arriving at evidence-informed decisions that take into consideration the multiple contextual factors and value judgements involved. Written by a specialist in public health with a wealth of international experience, this user-friendly guide demystifies the decision-making process, from personal decisions made by individual patients to global policy decisions"--Provided by publisher.
  • Also available: Print – 2012
    Chapter 1. The evolving threat of antimicrobial resistance: Introduction -- Chapter 2. Surveillance to track antimicrobial use and resistance in bacteria -- Chapter 3. Measures to ensure better use of antibiotics -- Chapter 4. Reducing antimicrobial use in animal husbandry -- Chapter 5. Infection prevention and control in health-care facilities -- Chapter 6. Fostering innovation to combat antimicrobial resistance -- Chapter 7. The way forward: political commitment to enable options for action -- Appendix 1. List of 2001 WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance recommendations -- Appendix 2. List of 2011 WHO World Health Day six-point policy briefs.
  • "In Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth, the IOM assesses the relationship between youth fitness test items and health outcomes, recommends the best fitness test items, provides guidance for interpreting fitness scores, and provides an agenda for needed research. The report concludes that selected cardiorespiratory endurance, musculoskeletal fitness, and body composition measures should be in fitness surveys and in schools. Collecting fitness data nationally and in schools helps with setting and achieving fitness goals and priorities for public health at an individual and national level" Publisher's Summary (excerpt).
  • A Quick sketch of Florence Nightingale's life -- pt. 1. The Making of Florence Nightingale. Faith and church ; Domestic arrangements, friends, the arts ; Illness and working style ; Companion animals and love of nature ; Last days, will and death -- pt. 2. The Social reformer. Science, law and probability ; Social class, government and politics ; Women and family ; Suggestions for thought -- pt. 3. War. The Crimean War ; Nightingale's 'confidential report' ; War Office reform ; The Geneva Convention, the Franco-Prussian War and Militarism ; Militarism and the causes of war -- pt. 4. Health care, nursing and midwifery. Nightingale's approach to health and healing ; The Nightingale system of nursing ; The Influence of Nightingale nursing worldwide ; The Evolution of nursing practice ; Midwifery training and maternity care ; District nursing -- pt. 5. Workhouse infirmaries and hospitals. Workhouse infirmary reform ; Safer hospitals -- pt. 6. India and Empire. Imperialism, racism and independence ; Famine ; Indian women -- pt. 7. Nightingale's legacy.
  • Social Change in India shows the shift of focus that occurred during Florence Nightingale's more than forty years of work on public health in India. While the focus in the preceding volume, Health in India, was top-down reform, notably in the Royal Commission on the Sanitary State of the Army in India, this book documents concrete proposals for self-government, especially at the municipal level, and the encouragement of leading Indian nationals themselves. Famine and related epidemics continue to be issues, demonstrating the need for public works like irrigation and for greater self-help meas.
  • pt. 1. Factors that influence interactions between foodborne pathogenic agents and consumers -- pt. 2. Human host factors that influence foodborne disease -- pt. 3. Agent factors of pathogenicity and virulence that influence foodborne disease.
  • Also available: Print – 2011
    "WHO's third decade was characterized by a sense of optimism, perhaps naive in retrospect. There was a feeling that progress was possible, not only in health, but in social and economic ways to improve individual and collective well-being. This optimism was reflected in the approval by the Thirtieth World Health Assembly in May 1977 of resolution WHA30.43, which stated that WHO's main social target for the coming decades should be for all citizens of the world to attain by the year 2000 a level of health to enable them to lead socially and economically productive lives."--Introduction, p. vii.
  • China's concentrated HIV epidemic is on the brink of becoming a generalized one and syphilis infection has become a major public health threat. Social factors relating to gender and gender inequality exacerbate the spread of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in China. A better understanding of the proximate social determinants of HIV related to gender will be crucial to effectively curbing HIV and other STIs in China. Aspects of China's governance - including administrative procedures, the developing legal system, social institutions, and the public health infrastructure are instrumental in shaping strategies and responses to HIV. International studies suggest that women who are more economically and socially vulnerable may also have a greater risk of HIV infection, yet few initiatives have focused on discrete areas where achievable and sustainable gender policy measures could be linked to the public health response. This study presents perspectives ranging from criminology to social psychology to better understand how gender perspectives can inform HIV policy in the context of China. - Publisher's Description.
  • Also available: Print – 2013
    "The report presents the first global systematic review of scientific data on the prevalence of two forms of violence against women: violence by an intimate partner (intimate partner violence) and sexual violence by someone other than a partner (non-partner sexual violence). It shows, for the first time, global and regional estimates of the prevalence of these two forms of violence, using data from around the world. Previous reporting on violence against women has not differentiated between partner and non-partner violence."--Website.
  • Section I. Theoretical and methodological issues -- High-risk versus population prevention strategies for NCDs: Geoffrey Rose revisited in the twenty-first century -- Current and future theoretical foundations for NCDs and health promotion -- The nature of causality: beyond traditional evidence -- Surveillance for NCDs and health promotion: an issue of theory and method -- Section II. Lenses for understanding NCDs -- Learning from the social sciences in chronic diseases health promotion: structure, agency and distributive justice -- Contextual factors in health and illness -- The social determinants of non-communicable diseases: a political perspective -- Risk factors: tobacco -- Physical inactivity and health promotion: evidence and challenges -- NGOs addressing NCDs through a health promotion lens -- Health literacy as a lens for understanding non-communicable diseases and health promotion -- From healthy public policy to intersectoral action and health-in-all policies -- Section III. Approaches to NCDs -- Population health intervention research: a fundamental science for NCD prevention -- Planning and management of cross-sectoral programs: strategies to address NCDs -- The public policy approach: governments, institutions, welfare states and social justice -- Accelerating action on NCDs: Understanding and applying a social determinants of health framework for changes -- Cardiovascular health, risk, and disease: primordial and remedial strategies -- Advocacy strategies to address NCDs: actions to increase the profile of physical activity -- Advocacy strategies to address NCDs: tobacco control -- Evidence synthesis to inform NCD prevention and health promotion -- Using evidence to inform NCD prevention and heal promotion -- The health promotion argument: NCDs and public health -- Public health, NDCs, health promotion, and business partnering: benefits, concerns, remedies, and moving towards creative partnering -- Section IV. Institutions and organizations -- Framing international trade and chronic disease -- Addressing NCDs through multilateral engagement at the United Nations: The role of WHO -- Governance, policy, and institutions -- NCDs and civil society: a history and a roadmap -- Developing health promotion workforce capacity for addressing non-communicable diseases globally -- Health promotion for NCDs in and by hospitals: a health promoting hospital perspective.
  • Print Material
    Global health justice : towards a transformative agenda for health equity -- Globalized health hazards : the need for collective global action -- Global health law in the broader currents of global governance for health -- Fulfilling the promise of the World Health Organization -- Old and new institutions : from the World Bank to the Global Fund, GAVI Alliance, and Gates Foundation -- The international health regulations : responding to public health emergencies of international concern -- The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control : the global response to tobacco -- Health and human rights : human dignity, global justice, and personal security -- Global health, international trade, and intellectual property : toward a fair deal for the global south -- "Getting to zero" : scientific innovation, social mobilization, and human rights in the AIDS pandemic -- The international migration of health workers : a troubling example of global injustice -- Pandemic influenza: a case study on global health security -- The "silent" pandemic of non-communicable diseases -- Imagining global health with justice.
  • Hepatitis B (HBV) is a vaccine-preventable viral disease that, if untreated, can lead to death from liver disease in 25 percent of patients. Infection with HBV is a major global public health problem, particularly in Asian populations. In an era of limited healthcare budgets, mathematical models can be useful tools to identify cost-effective programs and to support policymakers in making informed decisions. This dissertation describes research on public health policies related to screening, vaccination, and treatment for HBV. It also describe contributions to the theoretical literature on when to stop catch-up vaccination for chronic infectious diseases. In the United States as many as 10% of Asian and Pacific Islander adults are chronically infected with HBV, and up to two thirds are unaware that they are infected. Using Markov models of infection, treatment and disease, I find that screening programs for HBV among Asian and Pacific Islander adults are likely to be cost effective and have clinically significant benefits from identifying chronically infected persons for medical management. Liver disease associated with childhood-acquired HBV is a leading cause of death among adults in China. Approximately 20% of children under age 5 years and 40% of children aged 5 to 19 years remain unprotected from HBV. Using a Markov model of infection and disease progression I find that HBV catch-up vaccination for children and adolescents in China would improve the health of the population and save costs over the long term. Although the 20th century has seen incredible development of safe and effective vaccines, many people remain susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. "Catch-up vaccination" for age groups beyond infancy can be an attractive and effective means of immunizing people who were missed earlier. However, as vaccination rates increase, catch-up vaccination may become less attractive. This chapter addresses the question of when to discontinue catch-up vaccination programs as immunization rates increase. I use a cost-effectiveness framework: I consider the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of catch-up vaccination efforts, as a function of immunization rates over time and consequent disease prevalence and incidence. I illustrate the results with the example of HBV catch-up vaccination in China. I contrast results from a dynamic modeling approach with an approach that ignores the impact of vaccination on disease incidence.
  • This volume presents an integrated epidemiologic, social, and economic analysis of the global epidemics of HIV among sex workers in low- and middle-income countries. The book provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of the available public health and social science data to characterize the nature, scope, and complexities of these epidemics. A community empowerment-based approach to HIV prevention, treatment, and care is outlined and demonstrated to be cost-effective across multiple settings, with a significant projected impact on HIV incidence among sex workers and transmission dynamics overall. The Global HIV Epidemics among Sex Workers seeks to assist governments, public health implementing agencies, donors, and sex worker communities to better understand and respond to the epidemics among a population facing heightened social and structural vulnerabilities to HIV. The book combines a systematic review of the global epidemiology of HIV among sex workers and in-depth case studies of the epidemiology, policy and programmatic responses and surrounding social contexts for HIV prevention, care and treatment in eight countries. The authors employ mathematical modeling and cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the potential country-level impact of a community empowerment-based approach to HIV prevention, treatment, and care among sex workers when taken to scale in four countries representing diverse sociopolitical contexts and HIV epidemics: Brazil, Kenya, Thailand, and Ukraine. In each setting, greater investment in prevention, treatment, and care for sex workers is shown to significantly reduce HIV. Together these findings underline the urgency of further global investment in comprehensive, human rights-based responses to HIV among sex workers.

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A repository of medical knowledge from internal medicine, cardiology, genetics, pharmacy, diagnosis and management, basic sciences, patient care, and more. Continuously expanding, all databases in the repository contain the latest editions of selected medical titles.MicroMedex: Premier pharmaceutical information source containing multiple databases and drug reference tools. Of particular value is DRUGDEX Evaluations, one of the most comprehensive drug sources available.DynaMed is a clinical information resource used by physicians to answer clinical questions quickly and easily at the point of care. Topics are updated daily as new evidence becomes available. 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No advertising, no endorsement of commercial companies or productsLPCH CareNotes via MicroMedex: Patient education handouts customized by LPCH clinical staffMicromedex Lab Advisor: Evidence based laboratory test informationA drug database organized by generic name, trade name and drug class.LPCH / Stanford Hospital Formulary.A goldmine of trusted consumer health information from the world's largest medical library.A trusted source of expert advice for and about kids, providing the information necessary to help patients and parents understand their unique needs.Provides patient handouts from the American Academy of Family Physician.Access to the Stanford Health Library for patients.Lane provides access to over 5,000 eBooks many of which provide helpful background material that will prepare you to better tackle primary literature.Largest, broadest eBook package; covers all sciences, as well as technology (including software), medicine, and humanities. In addition to covering Wiley and Springer, MyiLibrary is also the only provider for Oxford and Cambridge University Press titles. No seat restrictions.A collection of biomedical books that can be searched directly by concept, and linked to terms in PubMed abstracts.A web-based, decision support system for infectious diseases, epidemiology, microbiology and antimicrobial chemotherapy. The database, updated weekly, currently includes 337 diseases, 224 countries, 1,147 microbial taxa and 306 antibacterial (-fungal, -parasitic, -viral) agents and vaccines. Over 10,000 notes outline the status of specific infections within each country.
Large number of high quality software and database programming titles from O'Reilly. Other software titles are also available from Sams and Prentice Hall. Limited to 7 concurrent users.Vast collection of software and database programming titles from multiple publishers, including Microsoft Press.Largest provider of engineering-related eBooks; includes titles in computer science and biomedical engineering.Over 4,000 full-text e-books covering scientific and technical information from CRC Press and others. Many handbooks and single volume reference sources.Includes peer-reviewed life science and biomedical research protocols compiled from Methods in Molecular Biology, Methods in Molecular Medicine, Methods in Biotechnology, Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuromethods, the Biomethods Handbook, the Proteomics Handbook, and Springer Laboratory Manuals.Contains full text access to selected biomedical and nursing books.Provides online, full-text access to Springer's journal titles as well as journals from other publishers. Subjects include: life sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, geosciences, computer science, mathematics, medicine, physics and astronomy, engineering and economics. Also includes eBooks.Collection of over 8 thousand fulltext titles in engineering, math, and basic and applied biomedical research. Coverage is from 1967 to the present.A library of ebooks on a wide array of topics, digitized and made available online in conjunction with the original publishers.