Books by Subject
- 5-HT2C receptors in the pathophysiology of CNS disease — Electrophysiological recording techniques (100)
- Élèves de Claude Bernard : les nouvelles disciplines physiologiques en France au tournant du du XXe siècle — Musculoskeletal radiology (100)
- Musculoskeletal ultrasound with MRI correlations — Sebrane spisy = Opera omnia (100)
- Single-molecule biophysics of kinesin family motor proteins — Zebrafish protocols for neurobehavioral research (37)
- 2011 SpringerGiuseppe Di Giovanni, Ennio Esposito, Vincenzo Di Matteo, editors.
- Toy, Eugene C.Clinical cases selected from the LANGE Case Files series, edited by Eugene C. Toy, MD.
- 2016 SpringerCorrado Angelini, editor.Foreword -- Introduction -- Part I Diagnosis of acquired myopathies -- Auto-Antibodies in Neuromuscular Disorders -- Electromyography -- Imaging of the Muscle -- Peripheral Nerve Ultrasound -- Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Peripheral Nerve -- Part II Clinical Entities -- The Spectrum of Inflammatory Myopathies: Dermatomyositis, Polymyositis, Necrotizing Myositis and Inclusion Body Myositis -- Necrotising Myopathy -- Statin Myopathy -- Myasthenia Gravis -- Acquired Autoimmune Rippling Muscles with Myasthenia Gravis -- Endocrinological Myopathies -- Vitamin D deficiency in Muscle -- Intensive Care Unit Acquired Weakness -- Part III Neurogenic disorders -- Idiopathic Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies: Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy -- GBS Immune Neuropathies -- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -- Epidemiology and Risk Factors -- Paraneoplastic Diseases of the Peripheral Nervous System -- Diabetic Neuropathy -- Infectious Neuropathies -- Toxic Neuropathies.
- 2007 CRCnetBASEedited by György Haskó, Bruce N. Cronstein, Csaba Szabó.
- 2012 SpringerMichael E. Symonds, editor.1. Adipocyte Precursors: Developmental Origins, Self-Renewal, and Plasticity / Christian Dani and Nathalie Billon -- 2. Adipocyte Differentiation / José María Moreno-Navarrete and José Manuel Fernández-Real -- 3. Brown Adipose Tissue / Martin Klingenspor and Tobias Fromme -- 4. White Adipose Tissue / Stephane Gesta and C. Ronald Kahn -- 5. Sex Differences in Body Fat Distribution / Alain Veilleux and André Tchernof -- 6. Macrophages and Inflammation / Elise Dalmas, Joan Tordjman, Michèle Guerre-Millo, and Karine Clément -- 7. Adipocyte Growth and Factors Influencing Adipocyte Life Cycle / Srujana Rayalam and Clifton A. Baile -- 8. The Evolution of Mammalian Adipose Tissue / Caroline M. Pond -- 9. Dietary Determinants of Fat Mass and Body Composition / María A. Zulet, María J. Moreno-Aliaga, and J. Alfredo Martínez -- 10. The Genetic Determinants of Common Obesity-Susceptibility / Ruth J.F. Loos -- 11. Early Origins of Obesity and Developmental Regulation of Adiposity / Shalini Ojha and Helen Budge.
- 2011 ClinicalKeyeditors, Leonard A. Levin, Siv F.E. Nilsson, James Ver Hoeve, Samuel M. Wu ; managing editors, Paul L. Kaufman, Albert Alm.Drs. Paul L. Kaufman, Albert Alm, Leonard A Levin, Siv F.E. Nilsson, James Ver Hoeve, and Samuel Wu present the 11th Edition of the classic text Adler's Physiology of the Eye, updated to enhance your understanding of ocular function. This full-color, user-friendly edition captures the latest molecular, genetic, and biochemical discoveries and offers you unparalleled knowledge and insight into the physiology of the eye and its structures. A new organization by function, rather than anatomy, helps you make a stronger connection between physiological principles and clinical practice; and more than 1,000 great new full-color illustrations help clarify complex concepts. You can also access the complete contents online at www.expertconsult.com. Deepen your grasp of the physiological principles that underlie visual acuity, color vision, ocular circulation, the extraocular muscle, and much more.
- Advances in cognitive neurodynamics (III) : proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics, 20112013 SpringerYoko Yamaguchi, editor.This book contains the Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics held in Japan, June 9-13, 2011. It reviews the progress in this field since the first ICCN in 2007. The participants were treated to an exciting and stimulating conference that left everyone with an enthusiastic vision for the future. The discussed topics in this book include: Neural coding and realistic neural network dynamics, Neural population dynamics, Firing Oscillations and Patterns in Neuronal Networks, Brain imaging, EEG, MEG, Sensory and Motor Dynamics, Global cognitive function, Multi-scalar Neurodynamics - from Physiology to Systems Theory, Neural computing, Emerging Technologies for Brain Computer Interfaces, Neural dynamics of brain disorders.
- 2015 Kargervolume editors, Anatoliy I. Yashin, Durham, NC, Michal Jazwinsk, New Orleans, La.Introduction to the theory of aging networks / Witten, T.M. -- Applications to aging networks / Wimble, C., Witten, T.M. -- Computational systems biology for aging research / Auley, M.T., Mooney, K.M. -- How does the body know how old it is? Introducing the epigenetic clock hypothesis / Mitteldorf, J. -- The great evolutionary divide : two genomic systems biologies of aging / Rose, M.R., Cabral, I.G., Philips, M.A., Rutledge, G.A., Phung, K.H., Mueller, L.D., Greer, L.F. -- Development and aging : two opposite but complementary phenomena / Feltes, B.C., De Faria Poloni, J., Bonatto, D. -- Aging as a process of deficit accumulation : its utility and origin / Mitnitski, A., Rockwood, K. -- Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease / Guarner, V., Rubio-Ruiz, M.E. -- Modulating mTOR in aging and health / Johnson, S.C., Sangesland, M., Kaeberlein, M., Rabinovitch, P. -- Melatonin and circadian oscillators in aging : a dynamic approach to the multiply connected players / Hardeland, R. -- Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects : implications for healthy aging / Lynch, D.B., Jeffery, I.B., Cusack, S., O'Connor, E.M., O'Toole, P.W. -- Systems biology approaches in aging research / Chauhan, A., Liebal, U.W., Vera, J., Baltrusch, S., Junghanss, C., Tiedge, M., Fuellen, G., Wolkenhauer, O., Köhling, R. -- Conservative growth hormone/IGF-1 and mTOR signaling pathways as a target for aging and cancer prevention : do we really have an antiaging drug? / Anisimov, V.N.
- Allgemeine Physiologie : eine systematische Darstellung der Grundlagen sowie der allgemeinen Ergebnisse und Probleme der Lehre vom tierischen und pflanzlichen Lebenv. 1, 1916-24.von A. von Tschermak.Bd. 1. Groundlagen der allgemeinen Physiologie. T. 1. Allgemeine Charakteristik des Lebens physikalische und chemische Beschaffenheit der lebenden Substanz.
- Alterations to synaptic function and connectivity in area CA3 of the hippocampus in mouse models of mental retardation2011Ricardo Andres Valenzuela.Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome are disorders of mental retardation that are characterized by cognitive impairments and changes to other physical characteristics. A goal in the study of these diseases has been to understand the mechanisms that underlie the cognitive impairments present in these two disorders of mental retardation. A great deal of effort has been made to study synaptic function and structure in these disorders of mental retardation in order to determine whether there are any alterations present. Alterations to synaptic structure and function present during these disorders may give insight to the neural basis of the cognitive impairments that are characteristic of this disorder of mental retardation. An area of the brain that may be affected by these disorders is the hippocampus. This area of the brain has been extensively studied for its role in memory and alterations to synaptic function and structure may underlie some of the memory deficits present in these disorders of mental retardation. Both Down Syndrome patients and Fragile X Syndrome patients have deficits in their performance on memory tests. Down Syndrome patients also have a reduction in the number of neurons present in the hippocampus (Carlesimo et al., 1997). Fragile X Syndrome patients had structural abnormalities in the hippocampus including an enlargement of ventricular spaces (Jakala et al., 1997). Synaptic function and structure in the hippocampus of mouse models of Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome were studied in order to determine this region of the brain was affected. Electrophysiology recordings in area CA3 of the hippocampus of the Ts65Dn Down Syndrome mouse model indicated there were disruptions to synaptic connectivity, decreases in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, and also a reduction in intrinsic interneuron activity. Imaging studies of CA3 in the Ts65Dn mouse did not show alterations to the number of synapses or structure of synapses suggesting that the alterations found with electrophysiology recordings are the result of functional changes to synapses. Electrophysiology study of the hippocampus in mouse models of Fragile X Syndrome has shown that inhibitory function was generally intact but that excitatory axons from neurons that lacked the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) were less competitive at forming synapses in a mosaic expression system of the Fmr1 gene the lack of which causes the disease. These studies indicate that alterations to synaptic structure and function are present in the hippocampus of these mouse models of mental retardation. The differences however, were not the same in Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome mouse models. Nonetheless, it is possible that the changes to synaptic function found in both of these mouse models leads to altered network function in the hippocampus which may, in turn, be the underlying cause of the memory deficits present in these disorders of mental retardation. The data presented in these studies indicate that the study of these mouse models of mental retardation can give insight to alterations caused by these disorders of mental retardation which may also lead to the development of new treatments.
- 2010Brandon E. Johnson.Ion channels coordinate the movement of ions across biological membranes in response to a diversity of cellular signals to regulate most if not all aspects of physiology. The large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channel is widely expressed across tissues and functions to repolarize action potentials, regulate smooth muscle tone and endocrine function, and tune auditory hair cells. In all tissues, BK channels provide a functional link between cytosolic Ca2+ and membrane excitation. Extensive alternate splicing of the slo-1 gene, encoding the BK channel, significantly diversifies channel function. We identified all twelve predicted BK channel splice variants expressed by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and measured the Ca2+ and voltage dependence for each. Alternate exons encode portions of two regions of the cytoplasmic tail: the RCK domain, important for Ca2+ coordination, and an unstructured region, termed the C-linker. Using the patch clamp technique, we determined that alternate splicing across multiple sites diversifies activation kinetics and Ca2+ sensitivity by manipulating the functional interaction between the RCK domain and C-linker. We recovered two slo-1 alleles (pg34 and pg52) that contain point-mutations near an alternative splice site in the C-linker from a mutant screen. Using real-time PCR, we determined that both mutations change slo-1 splice variant expression profiles. The pg34 mutation encodes an A698T substitution, and the pg52 mutation is located in an intron. When heterologously expressed, the A698T mutation changes BK channel Ca2+ sensitivity in specific splice variant backgrounds by disrupting the functional connection between the C-linker and the RCK domain. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we determined that the pg34 mutation reduces but does not abolish BK channel function in C. elegans neurons. These results suggest that alternate splicing of slo-1 modulates the functional connection between the RCK domain and the C-linker of the BK channel to establish a proper balance between intracellular Ca2+ and membrane excitation in a variety of cell type and physiological conditions.
- Amyloid-beta inhibits E-S plasticity and LTP through inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1-dependent synaptic disinhibition2010Adrienne Orr.Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly that is characterized by loss of short-term memory and cognitive decline. Studies in both human patients and animal models of AD point to over-accumulation of soluble oligomers of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) as a mediator of learning and memory impairments early in the disease (Rowan, Klyubin et al. 2005; Selkoe 2008). Support for Abeta's role in learning deficits comes from studies demonstrating impaired plasticity of synaptic inputs to neurons, as measured in the paradigm of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength in hippocampal slices (Chen, Kagan et al. 2000; Freir, Holscher et al. 2001; Walsh, Klyubin et al. 2002; Wang, Pasternak et al. 2002; Townsend, Shankar et al. 2006), the prime candidate for the neuronal substrate of learning and memory behavior (Bliss and Collingridge 1993). Induced concurrently with synaptic LTP is an increase in the electrical coupling between the dendritic synaptic inputs and the soma, such that a greater proportion of the EPSP survives at the spike trigger zone, resulting in greater action potential output for a given EPSP. This potentiation of EPSP-spike coupling (E-S coupling) provides an additional boost to the efficacy of the EPSP on top of the potentiation (LTP) that occurs at the synapse (Bliss and Lomo 1973). While LTP of synaptic strength is an essential component of memory storage, in all models of learning, memory recall occurs only when spikes are evoked in the neurons participating in a representation. Thus E-S potentiation exerts control over the essential substrate of memory retrieval. Although LTP and E-S potentiation are mechanistically distinct processes, several features during the induction phase are shared. Studies have shown that Abeta impairs the induction, but not maintenance of LTP (Wang, Walsh et al. 2004; Townsend, Shankar et al. 2006), leaving the possibility that Abeta-mediated impairment to memory is not specific to LTP. Nevertheless, focus has centered on pathways central to LTP, while impairment to other forms of plasticity have not been explored. Here we show a mechanism by which Abeta peptides impairs post-tetanic suppression of inhibition, thereby inhibiting E-S potentiation. This impairment to E-S potentiation was occluded by GABAA-receptor, Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), but not mGluR block. This suggests that the impairment is mediated by mAChR-initiated endocannbinoid signaling. Together, the results provide a mechanism to explain learning and memory impairments in early Alzheimer's disease.
- 2012 SpringerHans-Georg Joost, editor.The volume Appetite Control provides a comprehensive description of the mechanisms controlling food intake, and thereby energy balance, in the mammalian organism. During the last decade, research in this area has produced a remarkable wealth of information and has characterized the function of numerous peptides, transmitters, and receptors in appetite control. Dysfunction of these circuits leads to obesity, a growing health concern. However, the plethora of mechanistic information is in marked contrasts to an almost complete lack of anti-obesity drugs that meet the safety standards required for the chronic therapy of morbid obesity. Consequently, ongoing research aims to identify additional targets and agents for a pharmacological intervention. Thus, the mechanisms of appetite control as well as all agents interfering with its control are of considerable practical interest.The authors of the volume are distinguished scientists who are leading experts in the field, and who have contributed important, original data to our understanding of the mechanisms of appetite control. They have quite different scientific backgrounds and, together, they represent all relevant disciplines. Thereby, the topics are presented from different points of view, not exclusively from that of pharmacology and neuroendocrinology. Thus, the volume addresses all scientists who are interested in the field of obesity research and the pathophysiology of appetite control.
- 2006 SpringerMichael R. Pinsky, Laurent Brochard, Jordi Mancebo, editors.
- 2009 SpringerM.R. Pinsky, L. Brochard, J. Mancebo, G. Hedenstierna, (eds.).
- 2006 Springeredited by Yoshiaki Hayashida, Constancio Gonzalez and Hisatake Kondo.A tribute to Professor Autar Singh Paintal -- Structure of chemoreceptors -- Developmental aspects of chemoreceptors -- Molecular biology of chemoreceptors -- Biophysics of ionic channels in chemoreceptors -- Central integration and systemic effects of chemoreflex -- Mechanisms of chemoreceptions.
- 2015 SpringerChris Peers, Prem Kumar, Christopher Wyatt, Estelle Gauda, Colin A. Nurse, Nanduri Prabhakar, editors.Every three years, the International Society for Arterial Chemoreception (ISAC) arranges a Meeting to bring together all of the major International research groups investigating the general topic of oxygen sensing in health and disease, with a prime focus upon systemic level hypoxia and carotid body function. This volume summarises the proceedings of the XIXth meeting of the Society, held in Leeds, UK during the summer of 2014. As such this volume represents a unique collection of state of the art reviews and original, brief research articles covering all aspects of oxygen sensing, ranging from the molecular mechanisms of chemotransduction in oxygen sensing cells such as the carotid body type I cells, to the adverse, reflex cardiovascular outcomes arising from carotid body dysfunction as seen, for example, in heart failure or obstructive sleep apnoea. This volume will be of tremendous interest to basic scientists with an interest in the cellular and molecular biology of oxygen sensing and integrative, whole organism physiologists as well as physicians studying or treating the clinical cardiovascular consequences of carotid body dysfunction.Also available: Print – 2015
- 2015 Thieme-ConnectDiethelm Wallwiener [and eight others].
- 2012 SpringerMarco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi ; foreword by Gwendolen Jull.Part 1. Part I. -- Introduction and Applications of Surface EMG -- Basic Concepts Concerning Fields and Potential Distributions of Stationary and Moving Point Sources -- Generation, Propagation, and Extinction of Single-Fiber and Motor Unit Action Potentials -- EMG Imaging: Geometry and Anatomy of the Electrode-Muscle System -- Features of the Single-Channel sEMG Signal -- Features of the Two-Dimensional sEMG Signal: EMG Feature Imaging -- Applications of sEMG in Dynamic Conditions, Ergonomics, Sports, and Obstetrics -- Part 2. Part II. -- Trunk -- Upper Limb -- Lower Limb.
- 2014 SpringerPiero Picci, Marco Manfrini, Nicola Fabbri, Marco Gambarotti, Daniel Vanel, editors.This book reflects the experience of the Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute during more than 100 years of treatment of musculoskeletal tumor and tumorlike lesions. It presents a wide range of lesions from a multidisciplinary perspective, highlighting pertinent clinical, radiological, and histological correlations. Treatment is briefly reported for each entity. In addition, the more recent biomolecular findings of use for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are carefully analyzed. The Rizzoli case archive spans more than a century, the first treated case dating back to 28 September 1900, and contains the original material, clinical charts, imaging, paraffin blocks, and histological slides of more than 40,000 cases, including about 29,000 bone lesions and 11,000 soft tissue lesions. This book reports the most relevant entities and reflects the improvements in knowledge of musculoskeletal tumors as presented during the yearly international course held at the Rizzoli Institute.
- 2013 SpringerBrian C.J. Moore, Roy D. Patterson, Ian M. Winter, Robert P. Carlyon, Hedwig E. Gockel, editors.Peripheral processing -- Mosaic evolution of the mammalian auditory periphery -- A computer model of the auditory periphery and its application to the study of hearing -- A probabilistic account of absolute auditory thresholds and its possible physiological basis -- Cochlear compression: Recent insights from behavioural experiments -- Improved psychophysical methods to estimate peripheral gain and compression -- Contralateral efferent regulation of human cochlear tuning: Behavioural observations and computer model simulations -- Modeling effects of precursor duration on behavioral estimates of cochlear gain -- Is overshoot caused by an efferent reduction in cochlear gain? -- Accurate estimation of compression in simultaneous masking enables the simulation of hearing impairment for normal-hearing listeners -- Modelling the distortion produced by cochlear compression -- Temporal fine structure and pitch -- How independent are the pitch and the interaural-time-difference mechanisms that rely on temporal fine structure information? -- On the limit of neural phase-locking to fine-structure in humans -- Effects of sensorineural hearing loss on temporal coding of harmonic and inharmonic tone complexes in the auditory nerve -- A glimpsing account of the role of temporal fine structure information in speech recognition -- Assessing the possible role of frequency-shift detectors in the ability to hear out partials in complex tones -- Pitch perception: Dissociating frequency from fundamental-frequency discrimination -- Pitch perception for sequences of impulse responses whose scaling alternates at every cycle -- Putting the tritone paradox into context: insights from neural population decoding and human psychophysics -- Enhancement and perceptual compensation -- Spectral and level effects in auditory enhancement -- Enhancement of increments in spectral amplitude: further evidence for a mechanism based on central adaptation -- Differential sensitivity to appearing and disappearing objects in complex acoustic scenes -- Perceptual compensation when isolated test words are heard in room reverberation -- A new approach to sound source identification -- Binaural processing -- Maps of ITD in the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl -- The influence of the envelope waveform on binaural tuning of neurons in the inferior colliculus and its relation to binaural perception -- No evidence for ITD-specific adaptation in the frequency following response -- Interaural time difference thresholds as a function of frequency -- Interaural time processing when stimulus bandwidth differs at the two ears -- Neural correlates of the perception of sound source separation -- When and how envelope "rate-limitations" affect processing of interaural temporal disparities conveyed by high-frequency stimuli -- The sound source distance dependence of the acoustical cues to location and their encoding by neurons in the inferior colliculus: implications for the Duplex theory -- Cochlear contributions to the precedence effect -- Off-frequency BMLD: the role of monaural processing -- Measuring the apparent width of auditory sources in normal and impaired hearing -- Psychophysics of human echolocation -- Speech and temporal processing -- Formant-frequency variation and its effects on across-formant grouping in speech perception -- Do we need STRFs for cocktail parties? - On the relevance of physiologically motivated features for human speech perception derived from automatic speech recognition -- Modeling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions -- Better temporal neural coding with cochlear implants in awake animals -- Effects of auditory nerve refractoriness and adaptation on auditory perception -- Robust cortical encoding of slow temporal modulations of speech -- Wideband monaural envelope correlation perception -- Detection thresholds for amplitude modulations of tones in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) -- Phase discrimination ability in Mongolian gerbils provides evidence for possible processing mechanism of mistuning detection -- Auditory cortex and beyond -- Stimulus-specific adaptation beyond pure tones -- Mapping tonotopy in human auditory cortex -- Cortical activity associated with the perception of temporal asymmetry in ramped and damped noises -- Cortical representation of the combination of monaural and binaural unmasking -- Processing of short auditory stimuli: The Rapid Audio Sequential Presentation paradigm (RASP) -- Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception -- A dynamic system for the analysis of the acoustic features and valence of aversive sounds in the human brain -- Auditory scene analysis -- Can comodulation masking release occur when frequency changes would promote perceptual segregation of the on-frequency and flanking bands? -- Illusory auditory continuity despite neural evidence to the contrary -- High-acuity spatial stream segregation -- How early aging and environment interact in everyday listening: From brainstem to behaviour through modeling -- Energetic and informational masking in a simulated restaurant environment -- A computational model for the dynamic aspects of primitive auditory scene analysis -- A naturalistic approach to the cocktail party -- Temporal coherence and the streaming of complex sounds.Also available: Print – 2013
- 2015 CambridgeDavid Chambers, BMBCh, MChem, DPhil, MRCP, FRCA, PGDipMedEd, Speciality Registar, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, North West School of Anaesthesia, Manchester, UK, Christopher Huang, BMBCh, PhD, DM, DSc, FSB, Professor of Cell Phisiology and Fellow Director of Medical Studies, Murray Edwards College, University of Cambridge, UK, Gareth Matthews, MA, PhD, MSB, Translational Medicine and Theraputics Research Fellow, School of Clinical Medicine and Fellow in Medical Physiology, Murray Edwards College, University of Cambridge, UK.Section 1. The basics -- Section 2. Respiratory physiology -- Section 3. Cardiovascular physiology -- Section 4. Neurophysiology -- Section 5. Gastrointestinal tract -- Section 6. Kidney and body fluids -- Section 7. Blood and immune system -- Section 8. Energy balance -- Section 9. Endocrine physiology -- Section 10. Developmental physiology -- Section 11. Environmental physiology.
- 2013 SpringerJames Daniels, William W. Dexter, editors.Introduction -- Understanding Accreditation and Certification in Musculoskeletal Ultrasound -- Choosing Ultrasound Equipment -- Knobology -- Tissue Scanning -- Hand and Fingers -- Wrist -- Elbow -- Shoulder -- Foot and Toes -- Ankle -- Knee -- Hip -- Groin -- Ultrasound Guidance of Injections -- Rheumatologic Findings.
- 2011Mariel Velez.Polarized light plays a prominent role in shaping navigational decisions and course control in a variety of insects. Work in ants, crickets and bees have highlighted the importance of a specialized subset of ommatidia in the dorsal rim of the retina, the DRA, in detecting these signals. However, the retina's full capacity to detect polarized light has not been probed, nor are the behavioral mechanisms by which animals respond to such cues known. We have developed a novel, fully-automated behavioral paradigm for detecting polarotactic responses in Drosophila, and have used genetic and behavioral approaches to address these issues. We demonstrate that when polarized UV light stimuli are displayed to populations of Drosophila, animals align their body axis with the e-vector of plane polarized light. Surprisingly, while photoreceptors in the DRA can indeed guide this behavioral response, other photoreceptors distributed across the retinal surface can do so as well. We show that that one class of UV sensitive photoreceptors, those expressing the Rh3 opsin, is both necessary and sufficient for mediating polarotactic behavior. In particular, flies in which only Rh3 expressing photoreceptors are functional can respond to UV polarized light, while inactivation of these cells blocks polarotactic behavioral responses. Moreover, ectopic expression of a green-light sensitive opsin in Rh3 expressing cells allows flies to acquire the capacity to respond to green polarized light. Detailed behavioral studies demonstrate that the ability of flies to align to the e-vector occurs via a stereotyped modulation of the flies' rotational velocity and acceleration as a function of their angular position relative to the e-vector. These studies define the precise computations necessary to explain the behavior, and provide insight into the organization of the neural circuitry that links polarized light signals to course control.
- 2010 ClinicalKeyeditors, Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton.Principles of cell function -- Homeostasis of body fluids -- Signal transduction, membrane receptors, second messengers, and regulation of gene expression -- The nervous system: introduction to cells and systems -- Generation and conduction of action potentials -- Synaptic transmission -- The somatosensory system -- The special senses -- Organization of motor function -- Higher functions of the nervous system -- The autonomic nervous system and its central control -- Sketetal muscle physiology -- Cardiac muscle -- Smooth muscle -- Overview of circulation -- Elements of cardiac function -- Properties of the vasculature -- Regulaiton of the heart and vasculature -- Integrated control of the cardiovascular system -- Structure and function of the respiratory system -- Mechanical properties of the lung and chest wall: static and dynamic -- Ventilation (V̇), perfusion (Q̇), and V̇/Q̇ relationships -- Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport -- Control of respiration -- Nonrespiratory functions of the lung -- Functional anatomy and general principles of regulation in the gastrointestinal tract -- The cephalic, oral, and esophageal phases of the integrated response to a meal -- The gastric phase of the integrated response to a meal -- The small intestinal phase of the integrated response to a meal -- The colonic phase of the integrated response to a meal -- Transport and metabolic functions of the liver -- Elements of renal function -- Solute and water transport along the nephron: tubular function -- Control of body fluid osmolality and volume -- Potassium, calcium, and phosphate homeostasis -- Role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance -- Introduction to the endocrine system -- Hormonal regulation of energy metabolism -- Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism -- The hypothalamus and pituitary gland -- The thyroid gland -- The adrenal glands -- The male and female reproductive systems.Also available: Print – 2010
- 2015 NAPCommittee on the Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Board on the Health of Select Populations, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies."Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are serious, debilitating conditions that affect millions of people in the United States and around the world. ME/CFS can cause significant impairment and disability. Despite substantial efforts by researchers to better understand ME/CFS, there is no known cause or effective treatment. Diagnosing the disease remains a challenge, and patients often struggle with their illness for years before an identification is made. Some health care providers have been skeptical about the serious physiological - rather than psychological - nature of the illness. Once diagnosed, patients often complain of receiving hostility from their health care provider as well as being subjected to treatment strategies that exacerbate their symptoms. eyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome proposes new diagnostic clinical criteria for ME/CFS and a new term for the illness - systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID). According to this report, the term myalgic encephalomyelitis does not accurately describe this illness, and the term chronic fatigue syndrome can result in trivialization and stigmatization for patients afflicted with this illness. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome stresses that SEID is a medical - not a psychiatric or psychological - illness. This report lists the major symptoms of SEID and recommends a diagnostic process.One of the report's most important conclusions is that a thorough history, physical examination, and targeted work-up are necessary and often sufficient for diagnosis. The new criteria will allow a large percentage of undiagnosed patients to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate care. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome will be a valuable resource to promote the prompt diagnosis of patients with this complex, multisystem, and often devastating disorder; enhance public understanding; and provide a firm foundation for future improvements in diagnosis and treatment"--Publisher's description.
- 2008 CRCnetBASEedited by Donald R. Peterson, Joseph D. Bronzino.Mechanics of hard tissue / J. Lawrence Katz -- Musculoskeletal soft tissue mechanics / Richard L. Lieber, Thomas J. Burkholder -- Joint-articulating surface motion / Kenton R. Kaufman, Kai-Nan An -- Joint lubrication / Michael J. Furey -- Analysis of gait / Roy B. Davis, III, Sylvia Ounpuu, Peter A. DeLuca -- Mechanics of head/neck / Albert I. King, David C. Viano -- Biomechanics of chest and abdomen impact / David C. Viano, Albert I. King -- Cardiac biomechanics / Andrew D. McCulloch -- Heart valve dynamics / Ajit P. Yoganathan, Jack D. Lemmon, Jeffrey T. Ellis -- Arterial macrocirculatory hemodynamics / Baruch B. Lieber -- Mechanics of blood vessels / Thomas R. Canfield, Philip B. Dobrin -- The venous system / Artin A. Shoukas, Carl F. Rothe -- Mechanics, molecular transport, and regulation in the microcirculation / Aleksander S. Popel, Roland N. Pittman -- Mechanics and deformability of hematocytes / Richard E. Waugh, Robert M. Hochmuth -- Mechanics of tissue/lymphatic transport / Geert W. Schmid-Schonbein, Alan R. Hargens -- Modeling in cellular biomechanics / Alexander A. Spector, Roger Tran-Son-Tay -- Cochlear mechanics / Charles R. Steele ... [et al.] -- Vestibular mechanics / Wallace Grant -- Exercise physiology / Arthur T. Johnson, Cathryn R. Dooly -- Factors affecting mechanical work in humans / Ben F. Hurley, Arthur T. Johnson.
- 2014 Wileyby Tien Tuan Dao, Marie-Christine Ho Ba Tho.Chapter 1. Biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system -- Chapter 2. Modeling of biomedical data uncertainty -- Chapter 3. Knowledge modeling in biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system -- Chapter 4. Clinical applications of biomechanical and knowledge-based models -- Chapter 5. Software and tools for knowledge modeling and reasoning/interference.
- Blood, sweat, and tears : the changing concepts of physiology from antiquity into early modern Europeedited by Manfred Horstmanshoff, Helen King, and Claus Zittel.Physiologia from Galen to Jacob Bording / Vivian Nutton -- Physiological analogies and metaphors in explanations of the Earth and the cosmos / Liba Taub -- The reception of the Hippocratic treatise On glands / Elizabeth Craik -- Between atoms and humours. Lucretius' didactic poetry as a model of integrated and bifocal physiology / Fabio Tutrone -- Losing ground. The disappearance of attraction from the kidneys / Michael R. McVaugh -- The art of the distillation of 'spirits' as a technological model for human physiology. The cases of Marsilio Ficino, Joseph Duchesne and Francis Bacon / Sergius Kodera -- The body is a battlefield. Conflict and control in seventeenth-century physiology and political thought / Sabine Kalff -- Herman Boerhaave's neurology and the unchanging nature of physiology / Rina Knoeff -- The anatomy and physiology of mind. David Hume's vitalistic account / Tamás Demeter -- More than a fading flame. The physiology of old age between speculative analogy and experimental method / Daniel Schäfer -- Suffering bodies, sensible artists. Vitalist medicine and the visualising of corporeal life in Diderot / Tomas Macsotay -- Blood, clotting and the four humours / Hans L. Haak -- An issue of blood. The healing of the woman with the haemorrhage (Mark 5.24b-34; Luke 8.42b-48; Matthew 9.19-22) in early medieval visual culture / Barbara Baert, Liesbet Kusters and Emma Sidgwick -- The nature of the soul and the passage of blood through the lungs. Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Servetus, İtaki, ʹAṭṭār / Rainer Brömer -- Sperm and blood, form and food. Late medieval medical notions of male and female in the embryology of Membra / Karine van 't Land -- The music of the pulse in Marsilio Ficino's Timaeus commentary / Jacomien Prins -- 'For the life of a creature is in the blood' (Leviticus 17:11). Some considerations on blood as the source of life in sixteenth-century religion and medicine and their interconnections / Catrien Santing -- White blood and red milk. Analogical reasoning in medical practice and experimental physiology (1560-1730) / Barbara Orland -- The "Body without Skin" in the Homeric poems / Valeria Gavrylenko -- Sweat. Learned concepts and popular perceptions, 1500-1800 / Michael Stolberg -- Of the fisherman's net and skin pores. Reframing conceptions of the skin in medicine 1572-1714 / Mieneke te Hennepe -- Vision and vision disorders. Galen's physiology of sight / Véronique Boudon-Millot -- Early modern medical thinking on vision and the camera obscura. V.F. Plempius' Ophthalmographia / Katrien Vanagt -- The Tertium comparationis of the Elementa physiologiae. Johann Gottfried von Herder's conception of "Tears" as mediators between the sublime and the actual bodily physiology / Frank W. Stahnisch -- From doubt to certainty. Aspects of the conceptualisation and interpretation of Galen's natural pneuma / Julius Rocca -- Metabolisms of the soul. The physiology of Bernardino Telesio in Oliva Sabuco's Nueva filosofía de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) / Marlen Bidwell-Steiner -- "Ful of Rapture". Maternal vocality and melancholy in Webster's Duchess of Malfi / Marion A. Wells -- The sleeping musician. Aristotle's vegetative soul and Ralph Cudworth's plastic nature / Diana Stanciu.
- 2009Patricia Daniels, Susan Tyler Hitchcock, Trisha Gura, Lisa Stein, John Thompson ; foreword by Richard Restak ; epilogue by Stefan Bechtel.Foreword / Richard Restak -- Beginnings / Patricia Daniels -- Body armor / Lisa Stein -- Structure / Lisa Stein -- Body movers / Susan Tyler Hitchcock -- Circulation / Patricia Daniels -- Vital exchange / Patricia Daniels -- Body fuel / John Thompson -- Body cleansing / John Thompson -- Control center / Patricia Daniels -- Messengers / Trisha Gura -- Reproduction / Trisha Gura -- Protection / John Thompson -- Aging / Patricia Daniels -- Epilogue: The future body / Stefan Bechtel.
- 2010 Kargervolume editors, C.V. Mobbs, P.R. Hof.Contribution of adipose tissue to health span and longevity / Huffman, D.M., Barzilai, N. -- Obesity paradox during aging / Chapman, I.M. -- Central control of food intake in aging / Kmiec, Z. -- Changes in food intake and its relationship to weight loss during advanced age / McDonald, R.B., Ruhe, R.C. -- Changes in body composition in response to challenges during aging in rats / Wolden-Hanson, T. -- New haystacks reveal new needles : using Caenorhabditis elegans to identify novel targets for ameliorating body composition changes during human aging / Wolkow, C.A. -- Sarcopenia : prevalence, mechanisms, and functional consequences / Berger, M.J., Doherty, T.J. -- mTOR signaling as a target of amino acid treatment of the age-related sarcopenia / D'Antona, G., Nisoli, E. -- Mitochondrial theory of aging in human age-related sarcopenia / Parise, G., De Lisio, M. -- Exercise as a calorie restriction mimetic : implications for improving healthy aging and longevity / Huffman, D.M. -- Clinical, cellular and molecular phenotypes of aging bone / Syed, F.A. ... [et al.].
- 2013 SpringerFelice Eugenio Agrò, editor.The administration of intravenous fluids is one of the most common and important therapeutic practices in the treatment of surgical, medical and critically ill patients. The international literature accordingly contains a vast number of works on fluid management, yet there is still confusion as to the best options in the various situations encountered in clinical practice.The purpose of this volume is to help the decision-making process by comparing different solution properties describing their indications, mechanisms of action and side-effects according to physiologic body water distribution, electrolytic and acid-base balance, and to clarify which products available on the market represent the best choice in different circumstances. The book opens by discussing in detail the concepts central to a sound understanding of abnormalities in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and the effect of intravenous fluid administration. In the second part of the monograph, these concepts are used to explain the advantages and disadvantages of solutions available on the market in different clinical settings. Body Fluid Management: From Physiology to Therapy will serve as an invaluable decision-making guide, including for those who are not experts in the subject.
- 2015 CRCnetBASEJeonhee Jang.Body reshaping for health and beauty -- A first look at the meridian system in TCM -- Who can benefit from this treatment? -- Body posture and homeostasis -- Six body types -- Anatomical approach type M1, M2, M3 -- Muscle meridian therapy and skin cutaneous therapy -- Treatment methods -- Specific clinical cautions and application.
- 2012 ClinicalKey[editor], Andrew E. Horvai ; radiology editor, Thomas Link."Save time identifying and diagnosing pathology specimens with High Yield Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology, edited by Drs. Andrew Horvai and Thomas Link. Part of the High-Yield Pathology Series, this title is designed to help you review the key pathologic features of bone and soft-tissue malformations, recognize the classic look of each disease, and quickly confirm your diagnosis. Its templated format, excellent color photographs, concise bulleted text, and authoritative content will help you accurately identify more than 160 discrete disease entities. Online access to complete text, image bank, and more at www.expertconsult.com makes this an ideal reference for on-the-go pathologists."--Publisher's website.
- 2011 SpringerErol Başar.
- 2014 ScienceDirectedited by Alexander Dityatev, Bernhard Wehrle-Haller, Asla Pitkänen.
- 2012 ScienceDirectedited by Joel H. Rothman, Andrew Singson.An updated edition of the classic Methods in Cell Biology volume 48, this book emphasizes diverse methods and technologies needed to investigate C. elegans, both as an integrated organism and as a model system for research inquiries in cell, developmental, and molecular biology, as well as in genetics and pharmacology. By directing its audience to tried-and-true and cutting-edge recipes for research, this comprehensive collection is intended to guide investigators of C. elegans for years to come.
- 2014 SpringerYong-Xiao Wang, editor.Ryanodine and Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors/Ca2+ Release Channels in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells / Lin Mei, Yun-Min Zheng, and Yong-Xiao Wang -- Kv7 (KCNQ) Potassium Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in the Regulation of Airway Diameter / Kenneth L. Byron, Lioubov I. Brueggemann, Priyanka P. Kakad, and Jennifer M. Haick -- Transient Receptor Potential and Orai Channels in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells / Jun-Hua Xiao, Yong-Xiao Wang, and Yun-Min Zheng -- Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels / Hiroaki Kume -- Calcium-activated Chloride Channels / George Gallos and Charles W. Emala Sr. -- Local Calcium Signaling in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells / Quing-Hua Liu, Carlo Savoia, Yong-Xiao Wang -- Regulation of Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction by Ca2+ Signaling: Physiology Revealed by Microscopy Studies of Lung Slices / Michael J. Sanderson -- Temporal Aspects of Ca2+ Signaling in Airway Myocytes / Etienne Roux -- Mechanisms Underlying Ca2+ Store Refilling in Airway Smooth Muscle / Charlotte K. Billington, Ian P. Hall, and Carl P. Nelson -- Novel Mechanisms in Ca2+-homeostasis and Internal Store Refilling of Airway Smooth Muscle / Luke J. Janssen -- The Role of Mitochondria in Calcium Regulation in Airway Smooth Muscle / Philippe Delmotte, Li Jia, and Gary C. Sieck -- Role of Caveolae in the Airway / Christina M. Pabelick, Brij B. Singh, and Y.S. Prakash -- CD38 : Cyclic ADP-ribose-mediated Calcium Signaling in Airway Myocytes /Deepak A. Deshpande, Alonso Guedes, Mythili Dileepan, Timothy F. Walseth, and Mathur S. Kannan -- The Pathways and Signaling Cross-talk with Oxidant in Calcium Influx in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells / Lei Cai and Quinghua Hu -- Role of RhoA/Rho-kinase and Calcium Sensitivity in Airway Smooth Muscle Functions / Satoru Ito -- Role of Integrins in the Regulation of Calcium Signaling / Thai Tran and Chun Ming Teoh -- Sex Steroid Signaling in the Airway / Y.S. Prakash, Venkatachalem Sathish, and Elizabeth A. Townsend -- Regulation of Contractility in Immature Airway Smooth Muscle / Y.S. Prakash, Christina M. Pabelick, and Richard J. Martin -- Mathematical Modeling of Calcium Dynamics in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells / James Sneyd, Pengxing Cao, Xiahui Tan, and Michael J. Sanderson -- Effects of Inflammatory Cytokines on Ca2+ Homeostasis in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells / Hisako Matsumoto -- Ca2+ Signaling and P2 Receptors in Airway Smooth Muscle / Luis M. Montaño, Edgar Flores-Soto, and Carlos Barajas-López -- Calcium Signaling in Airway Smooth Muscle Remodeling / Tengyao Song, Yun-min Zheng, and Yong-Xiao Wang -- Regulation of Intracellular Calcium by Bitter Taste Receptors on Airway Smooth Muscle / Deepak A. Deshpande and Stephen B. Liggett -- Modulation of Airway Smooth Muscle Contractile Function by TNFa and IL-13 and Airway Hyper-responsiveness in Asthma / Yassine Amrani -- Airway Smooth Muscle Malfunction in COPD / Yunchao Su.
- 2006 CRCnetBASEedited by James W. Putney, Jr.
- 2013 SpringerLars Kaestner.Summary -- Introduction -- Direct evidence - the digital approach -- Fluorescence-based visualisation -- Aequorin-based measurements -- Measurement of calcium transport across membranes -- Molecular biology based approaches -- Manipulation of calcium -- Calcium-induced function -- Calcium signalling in cardiac myocytes -- Calcium signalling in red blood cells -- Perspective -- Calcium Signalling Methodology -- Non-linear and ultra high-speed imaging for explorations of the murine and human heart -- A system for optical high resolution screening of electrical excitable cells -- Concepts for optical high content screens of excitable primary isolated cells -- A primary culture system for sustained expression of a calcium sensor in preserved adult rat ventricular myocytes -- Calcium imaging of individual erythrocytes: Problems and approaches -- Calcium Signalling in Cardiac Myocytes -- Reduced Cardiac L-Type Ca2+ Current in Cav€ 2 -/- Embryos Impairs Cardiac Development and Contraction With Secondary Defects in Vascular Maturation -- Overexpression of junctin causes adaptive changes in cardiac myocyte Ca2+ signaling -- Remodelling of Ca2+ handling organelles in adult rat ventricular myocytes during longterm culture -- Functional and morphological preservation of adult ventricular myocytes in culture by sub-micromolar cytochalasin D supplement -- Calcium Signalling in Red Blood Cells -- The non-selective voltage-activated cation channel in the human red blood cell membrane: reconciliation between two conflicting reports and further characterisation -- Ion channels in the human red blood cell membrane: Their further investigation and physiological relevance -- Prostaglandin E2 activates channelmediated calcium entry in human erythrocytes: An indication for a blood clot formation supporting process -- Functional NMDA receptors in rat erythrocytes -- Stimulation of human red blood cells leads to Ca2+-mediated intercellular adhesion -- Lysophospatidic acid induced red blood cell aggregation in vitro -- Regulation of phosphatidylserine exposure in red blood cells -- Cation Channels in Erythrocytes - Historical and Future Perspective.
- 2013 SpringerBohuslav Ostadal, Naranjan S. Dhalla, editors.The processes of adaptation and maladaptation play an important role in the pathogeny of serious cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, valvular diseases, congenital heart disease, myocardial infarction and different cardiomyopathies as well as during adaptation to exercise and high altitude hypoxia. This volume incorporates the rapidly developing basic and clinically relevant information on adaptive mechanisms, thereby contributing to the better understanding of possible prevention and therapy of life-threatening cardiovascular diseases. The first section of this volume focuses on developmental aspects of cardiac adaptation, including chapters on comparative and molecular aspects of cardiac development, prenatal and postnatal developments, coronary vascular development, and ontogenetic adaptation to hypoxia, as well as cardiac and arterial adaptation during aging. The second section is devoted to cardiac adaptations to overload on the heart, centered around the mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy due to pressure overload, volume overload, exercise, gender difference, high altitude, and different pathological situations. The third section of this volume highlights the roles of sympathetic nervous system with respect to [alpha]-adrenoceptor and [beta]-adrenoceptor mechanisms in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac Adaptations will be of great value to cardiovascular investigators, who will find this book highly useful in their cardiovascular studies for finding solutions in diverse pathological conditions; it will also appeal to students, fellows, scientists, and clinicians interested in cardiovascular abnormalities.
- 2013 SpringerBodh I. Jugdutt, Naranjan S. Dhalla, editors.The main objective of Cardiac Remodeling: Molecular Mechanisms is to summarize the major research advances in molecular, biochemical and translational aspects of cardiac remodeling over the last 2 to 3 decades under one cover and touch on future directions. It provides a high profile and valuable publication resource on molecular mechanisms of cardiac remodeling for both the present and future generations of researchers, teachers, students and trainees. This book should stimulate future translational research targeted towards discovery and development for preventing, limiting and reversing bad remodeling over the next few decades, with the ultimate goal of preventing progression to systolic and/or diastolic heart failure. The chapters suggest potential novel strategies that should receive attention for translating basic research knowledge to application in patients at the bedside.
- 2009 SpringerMogens L. Glass, Stephen C. Wood, editors.Overview of the respiratory system / S.C. Wood -- Control of respiration in aquatic vertebrates: Gas transport and gill function in water-breathing fish / S.F. Perry ... [et al.]. Patterns of acid-base regulation during exposure to hypercarbia in fishes / C.J. Brauner and D.W. Baker. Buoyancy control in aquatic vertebrates / B. Pelster. Gas exchange and control of respiration in air-breathing teleost fish / M.L. Glass and F.T. Rantin. Effects of temperature on cardiac function in teleost fish / A.L. Kalinin ... [et al.]. Physiological evidence indicates lungfish as a sister group to the land vertebrates / M.L. Glass. Aestivation in amphibians, reptiles, and lungfish / M.L. Glass, J. Amin-Naves, and G.S.F. da Silva -- Evolution of pulmonary mechaincs and respiratory control: Trade-offs in the evolution of the respiratory apparatus of chordates / S.F. Perry, W. Klein, and J.R. Codd. Environmental selection pressures shaping the pulmonary surfactant system of adult and developing lungs / S. Orgeig and C.B. Daniels. Midbrain structures and control of ventilation in amphibians / L.H. Gargaglioni and L.G.S. Branco. Comparative aspects of hypoxia tolerance of the ectothermic vertebrate heart / H. Gesser and J. Overgaard. Control of the heart and of cardiorespiratory interactions in ectothermic vertebrates / E.W. Taylor and T. Wang. The endocrine-paracrine control of the cardiovascular system / B. Tota and M.C. Cerra. Stoking the brightest fires of life among vertebrates / Raul K. Suarez and Kenneth C. Welch -- Respiratory physiology of birds : metabolic control: Prenatal development of cardiovascular regulation in avian species / J. Altimiras, D.A. Crossley II, and E. Villamor. Control of breathing in birds : implications for high-altitude flight / G.R. Scott and W.K. Milsom -- Mammalian and human physiology: Peripheral chemoreceptors in mammals : structure, function and transduction / P. Kumar. Central chemosensitivity in mammals / L.K. Hartzler and R.W. Putnam. Human exercise physiology / S. Volianitis and Niels H. Secher.
- 2010 AccessMedicineDavid E. Mohrman, Lois Jane Heller.
- 2014 AccessMedicineDavid E. Mohrman, PhD, Lois Jane Heller, PhD.Overview of the cardiovascular system -- Characteristics of cardiac muscle cells -- The heart pump -- Measurements of cardiac function -- Cardiac abnormalities -- The peripheral vascular system -- Vascular control -- Hemodynamic interactions -- Regulation of arterial pressure -- Cardiovascular responses to physiological stresses -- Cardiovascular function in pathological situations -- Answers to study questions.
- 2010 CRCnetBASELynne Berdanier, Carolyn D. Berdanier."Today's knowledge of human health demands a multidisciplinary understanding of medically related sciences, and Case Studies in the Physiology of Nutrition answers the call. Dedicated to the integration of nutrition science with physiology, this text cohesively incorporates descriptions of human problems in order to stimulate students' critical thinking about how the body integrates various physiological factors to maintain homeostasis. This textbook uses short story-type case studies about fictional individuals who have health problems in order to address a range of issues in an approachable manner. The studies vary in difficulty, with some being straightforward with very simple answers, while others require in-depth thinking and literature research to solve. Each study presents patient background, symptoms, clinical finding, and questions to ponder. Upon qualifying course adoption, this book also includes a valuable instructor's manual, which provides solutions to exercises, problem analysis, and resolution to each case study."--Publisher's description.
- 2006 SpringerPhilipp Kaldis (ed.).
- 2012 Springer[edited by] Livio Luzi.1. Human Evolution and Physical Exercise: The Concept of Being "Born to Run" / Livio Luzi -- 2. Cell Morphology and Function: The Specificities of Muscle Cells / Anna Maestroni -- 3. The Cell Membrane of the Contractile Unit / Gianpaolo Zerbini -- 4. Gene Polymorphisms and Athletic Performance / Ileana Terruzzi -- 5. Nutrients and Whole-Body Energy Metabolism: The Impact of Physical Exercise / Stefano Benedini -- 6. Mitochondrial and Non-mitochondrial Studies of ATP Synthesis / Roberto Codella -- 7. Excessive Nutrients and Regional Energy Metabolism / Gianluca Perseghin -- 8. Muscle Biopsy To Investigate Mitochondrial Turnover / Rocco Barazzoni -- 9. Introduction to the Tracer-Based Study of Metabolism In Vivo / Andrea Caumo and Livio Luzi -- 10. Physical Activity and Inflammation / Raffaele Di Fenza and Paolo Fiorina -- 11. The HPA Axis and the Regulation of Energy Balance / Francesca Frigerio -- 12. Physical Exercise in Obesity and Anorexia Nervosa / Alberto Battezzati and Simona Bertoli -- 13. Physical Exercise and Transplantation / Valentina Delmonte, Vincenzo Lauriola, Rodolfo Alejandro and Camillo Ricordi -- 14. The Baboon as a Primate Model To Study the Physiology and Metabolic Effects of Exercise / Francesca Casiraghi, Alberto Omar Chavez, Nicholas Musi and Franco Folli.
- 2012 ClinicalKeyedited by Mordecai P. Blaustein, Joseph P.Y. Kao, Donald R. Matteson.Introduction : homeostasis and cellular physiology -- Diffusion and permeability -- Osmotic pressure and water movement -- Electrical consequences of ionic gradients -- Ion channels -- Passive electrical properties of membranes -- Generation and propagation of the action potential -- Ion channel diversity -- Electrochemical potential energy and transport processes -- Passive solute transport -- Active transport -- Synaptic physiology I -- Synaptic physiology II -- Molecular motors and the mechanism of muscle contraction -- Excitation-contraction coupling in muscle -- Mechanics of muscle contraction.
- 2012 SpringerBrian Henderson, A. Graham Pockley, editors.Section 1 Historical Introduction to Secreted Cell Stress Proteins as Signalling Proteins -- Discovery of the Cellular Secretion of Cell Stress Proteins -- Discovery of the Agonist Activities of Molecular Chaperones and Protein-Folding Catalysts -- Identification of Cell Stress Proteins in Biological Fluids -- Section 2 Intracellular Trafficking of Molecular Chaperones and its Consequences -- Hsp27 Phosphorylation Patterns and Cellular Consequences -- Evidence on Cholesterol-Controlled Lipid Raft Interaction of the Small Heat Shock Protein HSPB11 -- Hsp70 Chaperone Systems in Vesicular Trafficking -- Pathways of Hsp70 Release: Lessons from Cytokine Secretion -- Nucleolin: A Novel Intracellular Transporter of HSPA1A -- The Hsp90-Based Protein Trafficking System and Linkage to Protein Quality Control -- Section 3 Molecular Chaperones as Cell Surface Receptors and Receptor Ligands -- Cell Surface Molecular Chaperones and the LPS Receptor -- Hsp60: An Unexpected Cell Surface Receptor in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes -- Pathophysiological Barriers Impeding the Delivery of Heat Shock Protein (HSP)-based Macromolecules and Nanotherapeutics to Solid Tumors -- The Chaperokine Activity of HSPA1A -- Molecular Chaperones and Scavenger Receptors: Binding and Trafficking of Molecular Chaperones by Class F and Class H Scavenger Receptors -- Grp78 (BiP): A Multifunctional Cell Surface Receptor -- Section 4 Extracellular Secretion of Molecular Chaperones in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes -- Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Hsp60 as a Key Virulence Factor in Tuberculosis -- Hsp90 vs Conventional Growth Factors in Acute and Diabetic Wound Healing -- Circulating Molecular Chaperones in Health and Disease -- Index.
- 2014 ScienceDirectedited by Narender Ramnani.Progress in Brain Research is the most acclaimed and accomplished series in neuroscience, firmly established as an extensive documentation of the advances in contemporary brain research. The volumes, some of which are derived from important international symposia, contain authoritative reviews and original articles by invited specialists. The rigorous editing of the volumes assures that they will appeal to all laboratory and clinical brain research workers in the various disciplines: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuroendocrinology, neuropathology, basic neurology, biologi
- 2015 Thieme-ConnectJuergen Freyschmidt ; translator, Terry C. Telger.
- 2014 SpringerLouis-Cyril Celestin.Genius and dilettantism often go hand in hand. Nowhere is this truer than in the life of Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard, the bilingual physician and neurologist who succeeded Claude Bernard as the Chair of Experimental Medicine at the College de France in Paris after having practiced in Paris, London and in the USA, especially in Harvard. For most men, making one discovery of global importance would have sufficed to satisfy their curiosity and self-image. Not so Brown-Sequard. His explanation of the neurological disparity following the hemi-section of the spinal cord was a unique achievement that added his name to the syndrome and made him immortal. Yet, the demons of his mind tormented him in his endless search for medical truths and drove him to explore other phenomena, seeking to explain and remedy them. This unique biography shows for the first time the conflict between his professional and personal life, and should appeal to all students of medical history and psychology.
- 2006 SpringerBrehon C. Laurent (ed.).
- 2012 AtyponDonald McEachron.This book represents the first in a two-volume set on biological rhythms. This volume focuses on supporting the claim that biological rhythms are universal and essential characteristics of living organisms, critical for proper functioning of any living system. The author begins by examining the potential reasons for the evolution of biological rhythms: (1) the need for complex, goal-oriented devices to control the timing of their activities; (2) the inherent tendency of feedback control systems to oscillate; and (3) the existence of stable and powerful geophysical cycles to which all organisms must adapt. To investigate the second reason, the author enlists the help of biomedical engineering students to develop mathematical models of various biological systems. One such model involves a typical endocrine feedback system. By adjusting various model parameters, it was found that creating a oscillation in any component of the model generated a rhythmic cascade that made the entire system oscillate. This same approach was used to show how daily light/dark cycles could cascade rhythmic patterns throughout ecosystems and within organisms.
- 2013 SpringerKerry L. Tucker, Tamara Caspary, editors.Cilia are tiny microtubule-based organelles projecting from the plasma membrane of practically all cells in the body. In the past 10 years a flurry of research has indicated a crucial role of this long-neglected organelle in the development and function of the central nervous system. A common theme of these studies is the critical dependency of signal transduction of the Sonic hedgehog, and more recently, Wnt signaling pathways upon cilia to regulate fate decisions and morphogenesis. Both primary and motile cilia also play crucial roles in the function of the nervous system, including the primary processing of sensory information, the control of body mass, and higher functions such as behavior and cognition, serving as 'antennae' for neurons to sense and process their environment. In this book we describe the structure and function of cilia and the various tissues throughout the brain and spinal cord that are dependent upon cilia for their proper development and function.
- 2005 ScienceDirectedited by Michael W. Young.Genetic approaches to circadian clocks -- Tracking circadian control of gene activity -- Molecular cycles : clock protein rhythms -- Anatomical representation of neural clocks -- Mosaic circadian systems -- Peripheral circadian clocks -- Cell and tissue culture system -- Intercellular signaling -- Photoresponsive clocks -- Sleeping flies -- Circadian biology of populations -- Circadian clocks affecting noncircadian biology.Also available: Print – 2005
- 2011 ScienceDirectLeon Chaitow, Judith DeLany.Clinical Application of Neuromuscular Techniques, Volume 2 - The Lower Body discusses the theory and practice of the manual treatment of chronic pain, especially with regards to the soft tissues of the lower body.
- 2014Puneet K. Gupta, MD, MSE, Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, Pradeep Modur, MD, MS, Associate Professor, Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, Srikanth Muppidi, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California.Anatomy and physiology -- Electronics and instrumentation -- Nerve conduction studies and electromyography (EMG) -- Electroencephalography (EEG) -- Evoked potentials and intraoperative monitoring (IOM) -- Polysomnography and other sleep studies (PSG) -- Advanced topics : high frequency oscillations (HFOs), DC shifts, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), motor evoked potential (MEP), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetoencephalopgraphy (MEG), autonomic testing, blink reflex, single fiber EMG (SFEMG), quantitative EEG (QEEG) -- Ethics and safety.
- 2010Robert W. Baloh, Kevin A. Kerber.Overview of the vestibular system anatomy and physiology -- The peripheral vestibular system -- The central vestibular system -- Epidemiology of dizziness -- The history of the dizzy patient -- Bedside examination of the vestibular system -- Laboratory examinations of the vestibular system -- Clinical evaluation of hearing -- Infectious diseases -- Benign positional vertigo -- Endolymphatic hydrops (Meniere's syndrome) -- Migraine -- Immune-mediated diseases -- Vascular disorders -- Tumors -- Trauma -- Toxic/metabolic disorders -- Developmental and genetic disorders -- Antiemetic and antivertigo drugs -- Vestibular rehabilitation.
- 2007Aaron Berkowitz.The cardiovascular system -- The pulmonary system -- The renal system -- The gastrointestinal system -- The endocrine system -- The hematologic system -- The nervous system -- Rheumatology -- Male and female reproductive systems -- Cases.
- 1960-Roberts, Kathleen E.
- 2011Stephen Goldberg.Chapter 1. Cell function -- Chapter 2. Blood pressure -- Chapter 3. Electrolytes and acid-base metabolism -- Chapter 4. Evaluation of renal function -- Chapter 5. Evaluation of cardiac function -- Chapter 6. The respiratory system -- Chapter 7. Blood cells and blood coagulation -- Chapter 8. The immune system -- Chapter 9. Neurophysiology -- Chapter 10. The digestive system -- Chapter 11. The endocrine system.
- 2008 Thieme BookKlaus Buckup.The mainstay of orthopedic diagnosis continues to be the physical examination of the patient following a thorough history. This convenient pocketbook presents a comprehensive collection of the clinical tests that are used in orthopedic diagnosis, thereby answering the following questions: What tests are available for examining a particular joint, and how are they to be interpreted? What is meant by the name of a test that is mentioned in the literature or in a physician's report? The methodology and interpretation of all relevant test procedures are presented in almost 500 instructive drawings and brief descriptions: Initial tests, Functional tests, Stress tests, Stability tests. Tables on the examination of the spinal column, shoulder joint, and knee joint help in selecting the most suitable examinations. An invaluable aid for physical therapists, orthopedic surgeons, and primary care or emergency room physicians.
- Clinical tests for the musculoskeletal system : examinations, signs, phenomena. Third edition. [3rd ed.]2016 Thieme BookKlaus Buckup, MD ; Johannes Buckup, MD [Translator: Alan Wiser].Spine -- Shoulder -- Elbow -- Wrist, hand, and fingers -- Hip -- Knee -- Foot and ankle -- Posture deficiency -- Venous thrombosis -- Occlusive arterial disease and neurovascular compression syndromes -- Disturbances of the central nervous system.
- 2007 Cold Spring Harb Lab Pressmeeting organized by Bruce Stillman, David Stewart, and Terri Grodzicker.Introduction -- Clockworks -- Posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms -- Genetics of rhythms -- Entrainment and peripheral clocks -- Systems approaches to biological clocks -- Models -- Development, proliferation, and aging -- Neuroanatomy and circuits -- Sleep, seasons, and mood.
- 2014 ThiemeWerner Platzer ; illustrations by Gerhard Spitzer.The body -- The Cell -- Tissues -- General features of the skeleton -- General features of the muscles -- Anatomical terms and their Latin equivalents -- Trunk -- Anatomical terms and their Latin equivalents -- Upper Limb -- Bones, ligaments and joints -- Muscles, fascias, and special features -- Anatomical terms and their Latin equivalents -- Lower Limb -- Bones, ligaments, joints -- Muscles, fascias, and special features -- Anatomical terms and their Latin equivalents -- Head and Neck -- Skull -- Muscles and fascias -- Anatomical terms and their Latin equivalents -- Topography of peripheral nerves and vessels -- Head and neck -- Upper limb -- Trunk -- Lower limb -- Anatomical terms and their Latin equivalents.
- 2010 Thieme BookStefan Silbernagl, Florian Lang ; illustrations by Rüdiger Gay and Astried Rothenburger.Fundamentals -- Temperature, energy -- Blood -- Respiration, acid-base balance -- Kidney, salt and water balance -- Stomach, intestines, liver -- Heart and circulation -- Metabolism -- Hormones -- Neuromuscular and sensory systems.
- 2009Stefan Silbernagl, Agamemnon Despopoulos ; color plates by Ruediger Gay and Astried Rothenburger.Fundamentals and cell physiology -- Nerve and muscle, physical work -- Autonomic nervous system (ANS) -- Blood -- Respiration -- Acid-base homeostasis -- Kidneys, salt, and water balance -- Cardiovascular system -- Thermal balance and thermoregulation -- Nutrition and digestion -- Hormones and reproduction -- Central nervous system and senses.
- 2015 ThiemeStefan Silbernagl, Agamemnon Despopoulos ; color plates by Ruediger Gay and Astried Rothenburger ; translator: Geraldine O'Sullivan.Fundamentals and cell physiology -- Nerve and muscle, physical work -- Autonomic nervous system (ANS) -- Blood -- Respiration -- Acid-base homeostasis -- Kidneys, salt, and water balance -- Cardiovascular system -- Thermal balance and thermoregulation -- Nutrition and digestion -- Hormones and reproduction -- Central nervous system and senses.
- 2008 CRCnetBASEedited by James R. Brown.Introduction : the broad horizons of comparative genomics / James R. Brown -- Advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies / Michael L. Metzker -- Large scale phylogenetic reconstruction / Bernard M.E. Moret -- Comparative genomics of viruses using bioinformatics tools / Chris Upton and Elliot J. Lefkowitz -- Archaebacteria and the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition (and the role of mitochondria therein) / William Martin, Tal Dagan, and Katrin Henze -- Comparative genomics of invertebrates / Takeshi Kawashima ... [et al.] -- Comparative vertebrate genomics / James W. Thomas -- Gaining insight into human population-specific selection pressure / Michael R. Barnes -- Comparative genomics in drug discovery / James R. Brown -- Comparative genomics and the development of novel antimicrobials / Diarmaid Hughes -- Comparative genomics and the development of antimalarial and antiparasitic therapeutics / Emilio F. Merino, Steven A. Sullivan, and Jane M. Carlton -- Comparative genomics in AIDS research / Philippe Lemey, Koen Deforche, and Anne-Mieke Vandamme -- Detailed comparisons of cancer genomes / Timon P.H. Buys ... [et al.] -- Comparative cancer epigenomics / Alice N.C. Kuo ... [et al.] -- G protein-coupled receptors and comparative genomics / Steven M. Foord -- Comparative toxicogenomics in mechanistic and predictive toxicology / Joshua C. Kwekel, Lyle D. Burgoon, and Tim R. Zacharewski -- Comparative genomics and crop improvement / Michael Francki and Rudi Appels -- Domestic animals : a treasure trove for comparative genomics / Leif Andersson.
- 2014 SpringerErika Jensen-Jarolim, editor.This new volume provides a concise overview of the most basic and exciting chapters of comparative medicine with regards to physiology and function in healthy individuals. The book includes core concepts in anatomy and physiology in human and animal models, which are key to understanding comparative medicine and to making contributions to research in this area. While writing this book, the authors were in constant interdisciplinary dialogue. They aim to contribute to improvements in quality of life for human and animal patients.
- 2012 SpringerMarshall D. McCue, editor.An introduction to fasting, starvation, and food limitation / Marshall D. McCue -- A history of modern research into fasting, starvation, and inanition / Jean-Hervé Lignot and Yvon LeMaho -- Starvation in rotifers : physiology in an ecological context / Kevin L. Kirk -- Drosophila as a model for starvation : evolution, physiology, and genetics / Alen G. Gibbs and Lauren A. Reynolds -- Metabolic transitions during feast and famine in spiders / Johannes Overgaard and Tobias Wang -- Adaptation of the physiological, endocrine, and digestive system functions to prolonged food deprivation in fish / Nadav Bar and Helene Volkoff -- Starvation in subterranean species versus surface-dwelling species : crustaceans, fish, and salamanders / Frédéric Hervant -- Physiological responses to starvation in snakes : low energy specialists / Marshall D. McCue, Harvey B. Lillywhite, and Steven J. Beaupre -- Cardiovascular circuits and digestive function of intermittent-feeding sauropsids / Rike Campen and Matthias Starck -- Thermoregulatory adaptations to starvation in birds / Esa Hohtola -- Fasting in birds : general patterns and the special case of endurance flight / Susanne Jenni-Eiermann and Lukas Jenni -- Tissue-specific mass changes during fasting : the protein turnover hypothesis / Ulf Bauchinger and Scott R. McWilliams -- Seasonal changes in body mass and energy balance in wild small mammals / Xueying Zhang, Xinyu Liu, and Dehua Wang -- Changes in form and function of the gastrointestinal tract during starvation : from pythons to rats / Jehan-Hervé Lignot -- Changes in fatty acid composition during starvation in vertebrates : mechanisms and questions / Edwin R. Price and Teresa G. Valencak -- Physiological responses to fasting in bats / Miriam Ben-Hamo, Agustí Muñoz-Garcia, and Berry Pinshow -- Muscle protein and strength retention by bears during winter fasting and starvation / Hank Harlow -- Seasonal starvation in northern white-tailed deer / Duane E. Ullrey -- Fasting physiology of the pinnipeds : the challenges of fasting while maintaining high energy expenditure and nutrient delivery for lactation / Cory D. Champagne ... [et al.] -- The use and application of stable isotope analysis to the study of starvation, fasting, and nutritional stress in animals / Kent A. Hatch -- Fearing the danger point : the study and treatment of human starvation in the United Kingdom and India, c. 1880-1974 / Kevin Grant -- Quantitative physiology of human starvation : adaptations of energy expenditure, macronutrient metabolism, and body composition / Kevin D. Hall -- Alternate day fasting : effects on body weight and chronic disease risk in humans and animals / Krista A. Varady -- Horizons in starvation research/ Marshall D. McCue.
- 2009 Springeredited by Syamal K. Dana, Prodyot K. Roy, Jürgen Kurths.
- 2011- Wiley"Comprehensive Physiology is the most authoritative and comprehensive collection of physiology information that has ever been assembled. Its starting point is more than 30,000 pages of content from the American Physiological Society's renowned Handbook of Physiology (HoP) series, which is presented here for the first time in an online format. With the launch of Comprehensive Physiology in January 2011, we will begin publishing regular issues that update and expand the classic content from HoP, as well as adding fresh review material. In this way, we aim to capture the full breadth and depth of the evolving science of physiology. New and updated materials will be published in a quarterly serial format ... The primary audience for Comprehensive Physiology is academic scientists in the life sciences. Secondary audiences include advanced students in the life sciences and medicine, instructors in these disciplines, and academic clinicians"--Edited summary from home page.
- Computational modelling of biomechanics and biotribology in the musculoskeletal system : biomaterials and tissues2014 ScienceDirectedited by Zhongmin Jin.1. Fundamentals of computational modelling of biomechanics in the musculoskeletal system -- 2. Finite element modeling in the musculoskeletal system: generic overview -- 3. Joint wear simulation -- 4. Computational modeling of cell mechanics -- 5. Computational modeling of soft tissues and ligaments -- 6. Computatonal modeling of muscle biomechanics -- 7. Computational modelling of articular cartilage -- 8. Computational modeling of bone and bone remodeling -- 9. Modelling fracture processes in bones -- 10. Modelling fatigue of bone cement -- 11. Modelling fracture processes in orthopaedic implants -- 12. Modelling cementless cup fixation in total hip arthroplasty (THA) -- 13. Computational modeling of hip implants -- 14. Computational modelling of knee implants -- 15. Computational modelling of spinal implants -- 16. Finite element modelling of bone tissue scaffolds -- Index.
- Computed tomography based estimation of bone rigidity and strength under combined bending and torsion2011Lampros C. Kourtis.A new method to evaluate bone rigidity and strength using tomographic bone images obtained via QCT (Quantitative Computed Tomography) is introduced. A newly developed computer program named VA-BATTS is used for image processing, bone segmentation, mesh creation, material assignment and calculation of far field normal and shear stresses as well as other cross sectional properties. In order to calculate torsional and transverse shear stresses in prismatic bodies having inhomogenous material properties, a new two-dimensional finite element formulation to estimate is presented. The formulation combines the torsional and transverse shear problem solutions and adds terms to account for the material inhomogeneity into one Weak Form of the problem, further discretized to yield a numerical approximation of the shear stresses problem. Results were validated using analytical models as well as three dimensional commercial code test cases yielding mean errors over the entire domain of less than 1%. This semi-automated application is publicly distributed and can be downloaded from https://simtk.org/home/va-batts. VA-BATTS implements an elliptical stress failure criterion to predict bone strength. To validate, fifty-two fresh frozen femurs were tested under combined three-point bending and torsion to failure. VA-BATTS was able to predict bone failure under combined bending and torsion (R2=0.68) as well as bone torsional (R2=0.80) and bending (R2=0.50) rigidity. Using multivariate analysis that combined the elliptical stress failure and the torsional and bending rigidities, the prediction confidence level was raised (R2=0.87), comparable to existing more complex three dimensional finite element studies. The elliptical stress criterion suggests that the distal femur is weaker, in absolute terms, than the midshaft femur suggesting an explanation of the increased rate of distal femur fractures in patients with Spinal Cord Injury. In general, the newly introduced method proved to yield more accurate predictions compared to DXA derived Bone Mineral Density measurements (R2=0.56). Fracture patterns were analyzed to show mostly spiral patterns where torsional loads were applied. In addition, the accuracy of three point bending experiments was examined. Three parameters that may introduce errors in the predictions - transverse shear, local deformation (indentation) as well as cross sectional deformation effect -- were studied using a parametric finite element model. The model shows that depending on the geometric properties of the bone, errors as high as 75% may be introduced in the estimation of the bone elastic modulus. Bone rigidity estimates may now be corrected using the correction factors supplied in this study.
- Computer modeling of human lower limb muscles to study how muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation during walking and running2012Edith Merle Arnold.Walking and running rely on the complex coordination of the neurological, muscular, and skeletal systems. The role of muscles in this system is to produce force, a task that is dramatically affected by the dynamics of muscle fibers. In walking and running, we do not know how fiber dynamics affect force generation because experimental tools are ill suited to these measurements. Computer models can be powerful tools for estimating muscle dynamics that cannot be measured experimentally. During my doctoral research I created a model based on state-of-the-art muscle architecture data that estimates fiber lengths and velocities during movement. I used this model to create simulations of muscle fiber dynamics for five subjects walking and running at multiple speeds. Analysis of my simulations revealed how walking or running speed affects force generation, explained how running enables some muscles to produce more force than they do in walking, and yielded normative muscle fiber lengths and velocities of eleven muscles during walking and running. The results support the hypothesis that the walk-to-run transition in human gait is related to the force generation ability of the plantarflexors, offer insights into dynamic properties of muscles that have not yet been measured during walking and running, and permit comparisons among muscles with diverse architecture. The model and simulations created as part of this work can be applied to many other research areas in biomechanics and have been made freely available at simtk.org.
- 2015 ScienceDirectedited by Shane O'Mara and Marian Tsanov.1. If I had a million neurons: potential tests of cortico-hippocampal theories -- 2. Diluted connectivity in pattern association networks facilitates the recall of information from the hippocampus to the neocortex -- 3. Cortico-hippocampal systems involved in memory and cognition: the PMAT framework -- 4. The subiculum: the heart of the extended hippocampal system -- 5. The neural correlates of navigation beyond the hippocampus -- 6. Septo-hippocampal signal processing: breaking the code -- 7. Major diencephalic inputs to the hippocampus: supramammillary nucleus and nucleus reuniens. Circuitry and function -- 8. Importance of the ventral midline thalmas in driving hippocampal functions -- 9. The mammillary bodies and memory: more than a hippocampal relay -- 10. Modulating the map: dopaminergic tuning of hippocampal spatial coding and interactions -- 11. Integrative hippocampal and decision-making neurocircuitry during goal-relevant predictions and encoding -- Index.
- Constructing a motile cell : how extrinsic information and intrinsic self-organization coordinate the mechanics of cellular behavior2013Greg Maness Allen.The actin-based crawling motility of eukaryotic cells is a vital example of emergent cellular behavior arising from the mechanical output of thousands to millions of individual chemical reactions occurring every second. In this work, I describe a set of experimental and analytical results that seek to reveal the underlying organization and operations of this micron sized biological machine. We found that the morphology of crawling cells is quantitatively dictated by the cytoskeletal elements that produce motility. Each cell is unique in its organization and behavior, and across a population of cells this variation could largely be reduced to a single dimension. Globally perturbing the biochemical reaction rates that drive motility with changes in temperature forced individual cells out of their steady state behavior along this same single dimension of variation. In addition individual cells fluctuated harmonically around their steady state behavior, suggesting a mechanical oscillator arising from the coupling of the processes of actin meshwork assembly and disassembly. Flickers of elevated intracellular concentration of the canonical secondary messenger calcium were seen, but these calcium flickers were not required for cell motion nor were they correlated with any measured change in cell behavior. The orientation of motion, similar to the rate of motion, is directly coupled to the cytoskeletal organization and cellular shape. To change their direction of migration, cells develop asymmetries in the interwoven actions of myosin contractility and adhesion to the substrate at the rear of the cell creating asymmetric centripetal actin flow. This system of controlling orientation was responsive to external cues from electric fields secondary to electrophoretic redistribution of charged membrane components extending into the extracellular space.
- 2013David B. Kastner.Adaptation provides a ubiquitous strategy for neural circuits to encode their inputs using their limited dynamic range within the variety of sensory environments that they encounter. However, because of the inherent timescale necessary to optimize the response properties of a cell to its environment, any form of adaptive plasticity can cause a neuron to fail to encode the stimulus when the environment changes. Many ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina, adapt so as to lower their sensitivity in an environment of high contrast, but if the contrast subsequently decreases the cell will fall below threshold and fail to signal. I have found a distinct form of plasticity within the retina that acts in coordination with the process of adaptation. Cells using this new form of plasticity elevate their sensitivity after a transition to low contrast. This process, called sensitization, occurs in retinas from multiple species. Multielectrode recordings from sensitizing and adapting cells indicate that both populations encode the same visual signals. The complementary action of the two populations helps the retina encode its input over a broader range of signals and environmental changes, with one population continuing to respond when the other fails. The threshold placement of these two cell types further enhances their coordination because sensitizing cells maintain lower thresholds, while adapting cells maintain higher thresholds. Using a theoretical model, I was able to show that this behavior maximized the amount of information that the two populations can provide about their input. I have further studied the spatiotemporal region that controlled the sensitivity of a cell--the adaptive field. Just as retinal circuitry uses excitation and inhibition to form biphasic center-surround receptive fields, the retina can also use adaptation and sensitization to form biphasic adaptive fields in both the spatial and temporal domains. Since visual statistics are correlated across time and space, center-surround biphasic receptive fields more efficiently encode the input by subtracting a prediction of the stimulus so as to just encode the deviation from that prediction. Biphasic adaptive fields appear to perform an opposite function, transmitting a prediction of the stimulus at the transition of a stimulus environment to weaker signals. This assists in the encoding of an uncertain environment by storing features of a predictable input. A model indicates that sensitization within the adaptive field can be produced by adapting inhibition, a form of plasticity whose function was previously unknown. Using pharmacology, I confirmed this prediction, showing that GABAergic inhibition is necessary for sensitization. Using simultaneous intracellular recording from inhibitory amacrine cells and multielectrode recording from ganglion cells, I show that transmission from a single amacrine cell is sucient to cause sensitization. Using a novel approach to analyze a circuit, I quantitatively describe the changes in amacrine cell transmission that underlie sensitization thus elucidating how the retina performs this sophisticated computation.
- Cortical connectivity : brain stimulation for assessing and modulating cortical connectivity and function2012 SpringerRobert Chen, John C. Rothwell, editors.The study and modulation of cortical connections is a rapidly growing area in neuroscience. This unique book by prominent researchers in the field covers recent advances in this area. The first section of the book describes studies of cortical connections, modulation of cortical connectivity and changes in cortical connections with activities such as motor learning and grasping in primates. The second section covers the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to study and modulate cortical connectivity in humans. The last section describes changes in brain connectivity in neurological and psychiatric diseases, and potential new treatments that manipulate brain connectivity. This book provides an up-to-date view of the study of cortical connectivity, and covers its role in both fundamental neuroscience and potential clinical applications.
- Craniofacial muscles : a new framework for understanding the effector side of craniofacial muscle control2013 SpringerLinda K. McLoon, Francisco Andrade, editors.Of the approximately 640 muscles in the human body, over 10% of them are found in the craniofacial region. The craniofacial muscles are involved in a number of crucial non-locomotor activities, and are critical to the most basic functions of life, including vision, taste, chewing and food manipulation, swallowing, respiration, speech, as well as regulating facial expression and controlling facial aperture patency. Despite their importance, the biology of these small skeletal muscles is relatively unexplored. Only recently have we begun to understand their unique embryonic development and the genes that control it and characteristic features that separate them from the skeletal muscle stereotype.This book is the most comprehensive reference to date on craniofacial muscle development, structure, function, and disease. It details the state-of-the-art basic science of the craniofacial muscles, and describes their unique response to major neuromuscular conditions. Most importantly, the text highlights how the craniofacial muscles are different from most skeletal muscles, and why they have been viewed as a distinct allotype. In addition, the text points to major gaps in our knowledge about these very important skeletal muscles and identified key gaps in our knowledge and areas primed for further study and discovery.
- 2007 CRCnetBASEedited by, Joseph A. Beavo, Sharron H. Francis, and Miles D. Houslay.
- 2012Jacob Rinaldi.This thesis is composed of experimental and analytic work deconstructing the cerebellar learning algorithm. The central finding is that two parallel neural circuits, with independent instructive signals, support cerebellum-dependent learning. An analytic framework for this result, based on overcoming signal-dependent noise, is proposed.
- Degradation of cartilage and meniscus tissues : an in vitro investigation in osteoarthritis development2013James Francis Nishimuta.Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease that affects 27 million Americans. Major risk factors for osteoarthritis include mechanical injury and obesity. Prolonged exposure to mechanical overload in the knee joint, either by injury, malalignment, or obesity, is associated with early onset of osteoarthritis. Recent evidence demonstrates that adipose tissue is a metabolically active and produces systemic biofactors known as adipokines associated with numerous diseases including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Interestingly, obesity is a significant risk factor for hand osteoarthritis, suggesting a biologic link between obesity and osteoarthritis that is perhaps mediated through adipokines. While many studies investigating in vitro osteoarthritic degradation have focused on cartilage tissue, the menisci has received relatively little attention despite it's important functional role in joint stability and load transfer in the knee. The purpose of this thesis was to explore the relative susceptibility of cartilage and meniscal tissue degradation to in vitro mechanical overload and adipokine exposure using an immature bovine tissue explant model. To explore the injury response, explants of cartilage and meniscal tissues were compressed at various strain rates to create a spectrum of peak injury forces and cultured for up to nine days post-injury. To investigate whether adipose tissue and adipokines can biochemically induce changes in cartilage and meniscal tissues, explants of cartilage and meniscal tissue were incubated with infrapatellar fat pad or individual adipokines and assessed for altered matrix metabolism. Overall, results indicate that, while mechanically robust, meniscal tissue is vulnerable to biologic damage induced by mechanical overload and adipokines. We also demonstrate for the first time that meniscal tissue is more catabolically sensitive to adipokines than cartilage tissue. These results provide evidence that obesity-driven degradation of knee joint could be biochemically mediated and suggest meniscal degradation as a possible early event in osteoarthritis development.
- Developing the anemone Aiptasia as a tractable model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis : generating transcriptomic resources and profiling gene expression2013Erik Michael Lehnert.Coral reefs are animal-built structures that provide habitats for a disproportionately large number of marine species relative to the small percentage of the ocean that they cover. Corals, and some other cnidarians such as anemones, host dinoflagellates within the cells of their gastrodermal tissue. The dinoflagellates fix carbon photosynthetically and transfer it to the host; the dinoflagellates can provide up to 90% of the hosts' metabolic requirements. The symbiosis between the cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbiont is therefore the trophic foundation on which coral reef are built. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms controlling symbiosis establishment, maintenance, and breakdown remain poorly understood. Our lab is working to further develop the small sea anemone, Aiptasia, as a model system for studying cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. To this end, I sequenced the transcriptome of aposymbiotic Aiptasia, of symbiotic Aiptasia, and of the dinoflagellate symbionts. I then used these resources to perform gene-expression analysis comparing symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones, which provided numerous testable biological hypotheses about both the structural basis of the symbiosis and the downstream metabolic effects of metabolite transfer to the host. These resources should serve as the foundation for future experiments in our laboratory and more widely in the field of coral biology.
- Development of genetic tools and techniques for controlling and quantitatively assessing gene-dosage profiles2013Joshua P. Ferreira.Cancer arises from the alteration of genes and the deregulation of the inherent control mechanisms existing with a cell. Cancer progression is the result of several of these genes or pathways being altered. Unfortunately, its analysis is not as straightforward as identifying a handful of discrete, independent mutational events occurring within a cell. Rather, these genes, pathways, and other regulatory elements are interconnected. Altering the expression level (dose) of one gene can have direct and indirect effects on many additional genes/pathways. Furthermore, combinations of genes can interact to have collaborative or antagonistic effects that are greater than or less than the sum of their individual contributions. It is not enough to study the effects of single genes/pathways at a few discrete expression levels. To this end, we have developed genetic tools that allow for controlling gene expression over a full range. Controlling gene expression at the level of transcription allowed for a 40-fold range of expression to be investigated. However, the range in expression of the transcriptionally controlled system varied across cell lines. Expanding beyond this system, we have turned to controlling gene expression at the level of translation. Using translational control elements, we were able to varying gene expression over a 200 -- 300-fold range. Furthermore, the translational control system was shown to be consistent across six different cell lines and with every transgene that has been tested to date. To address the fact that cancer progression is a multi-faceted event, we developed a system that would allow observation of the effects resulting from the interactions of multiple genes. By using retroviral vectors equipped with fluorescent protein fusions, we successfully derived a system that has the capacity to interrogate up to three genes of interest within a single culture of cells. This single culture makes it logistically feasible to study such large combinations of gene dosage levels. This single culture is heterogeneous in expression for each of the transgenes introduced; and by utilizing flow cytometry, the precise dosage level of each transgene can be correlated to measureable phenotypes at the single-cell level. To demonstrate how the tools we have developed can be utilized to quantitatively assess gene-dosage profiles, we ectopically controlled the expression of various mutant forms of the oncogenic version of H-Ras (H-RasG12V) in both murine fibroblast and pre-B cells. We chose to study proliferation as a measurable phenotypic read-out. In NIH/3T3 fibroblasts we observed a maximum in proliferation at low levels of expression of H-RasG12V. A mutant version, H-RasG12V T35S, which is only able to signal down the MAPK pathway, exhibited maximal proliferation at intermediate expression levels. Other H-Ras mutants did not exhibit any proliferation optima when expressed by themselves. In contrast, when the mutants were investigated in pairwise fashion, some cooperation could be observed between particular mutant pairs. Finally, the effect of these H-Ras mutants on proliferation was investigated in a murine pre-B cell line. By adding a reference population of cells to a culture of cells expressing H-Ras mutant oncogenes over a range of expression levels, we were able to track the population dynamics between these two subsets of cells. A simple mathematical approach will be detailed to demonstrate how we can calculate the net proliferation rate as a function of H-Ras expression level by tracking the distribution of these two cell populations over time.
- 2014 CRCnetBASEedited by C. Murray Ardies."The idea of producing a book on the prevention of chronic diseases through exercise and diet was intriguing for me when I was first approached with the idea. I had been teaching nutrition, exercise, and health science courses with a focus on cellular aspects of prevention for many years and had to develop all of my own materials because very few books were available. And of those that were, they had a decided clinical approach with very little discussion about the actual biochemistry or molecular mechanisms involved in prevention. When I broached the concept with several potential coauthors, the prevailing opinion was that books that covered biochemical and molecular aspects of disease etiology also were in very short supply. Thus this book was born: an attempt to collate the latest cellular- and molecularbased research on the etiology of chronic diseases with how these mechanisms of cause are modified by various aspects of diet and exercise. Essentially, we have tried to produce a text that translates molecular-based data on etiology and prevention into a clinical prescription for the prevention of chronic disease. The focus on diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, cancer, and degenerative neurological disease is because they are the major causes of morbidity and mortality by chronic disease and also because there is sufficient molecular evidence for a strong dietary and activity (or rather, an insufficiency of both) component to their etiology. The inclusion of a separate chapter on "Inflammation" became necessary when it was clear that inflammatory signaling is a fundamental component of each of these diseases and that reducing inflammation is key to reducing risk for all of these diseases. At the time we started, obesity had not yet been declared a diseas"-- Provided by publisher.
- 2012 CRCnetBASEedited by Lonnie Michael Lowery, Jose Antonio."There has been a long standing controversy in the field of sports nutrition regarding the role of protein and protein metabolism in muscle development and athletic performance. The understanding of protein nutrition has changed dramatically over the last decade and this book aims to clarify and modernize the topic. This book presents the efficacy, safety, and recommendations of protein intake among strength athletes. Including case studies, the text covers historical perspectives of protein use; safety of high protein diets; specific protein types and timing of intake; weight control using protein; protein synthesis and breakdown; and nitrogenous compounds/supplements"--Provided by publisher.
- 2008 Springeredited by Martino Bolognesi, Guido di Prisco, Cinzia Verde.Following their own brilliant careers in haeme protein research, the outstanding scientists Jonathan and Beatrice Wittenberg continue to provide inspiration to the research community in the study of oxygen-binding proteins. Their research has provided the intellectual stimulus to bring together scientists from all over the world with the common goal of developing fascinating new ideas and performing innovative experiments. This book is dedicated to Jonathana (TM)s and Beaa (TM)s lifetime careers. It further illuminates the facts and ideas which dot the paths they traced in Biochemistry and Physiology, elaborating on how these landmark achievements were made and how the haeme proteins community still refers to them. With the field of haeme protein science such a flourishing area, the contributors to this book predict Jonathan and Bea, having played such a seminal role, will continue to be key figures for quite some time to come.
- 2013Limor Freifeld.Visual inputs are high-dimensional, dynamic, and may consist of significant levels of noise. Nevertheless, visual processing systems in many animals are capable of efficiently extracting information out of these signals to guide behavior. Flies, in particular, use visual information to guide behavior in challenging conditions such as during rapid flight maneuvers. In this dissertation we examine how early visual processing cells in the visual system of the Fruit Fly, Drosophila, achieve this feat. In particular, we focus on cells that provide inputs to motion detecting circuits and assess how these cells balance the goal of facilitating computational specializations with the goal of efficiently capturing all visual information. In these studies, we used two-photon calcium imaging in vivo to monitor the responses of specific cells in the fly visual system to visual stimuli. Using this system, we found that two first order interneurons providing inputs to pathways specialized for the detection of moving bright and dark edges nevertheless similarly encode information about both brightening and darkening. However, an in depth study of the functional properties of one of these interneurons revealed that it responds differently to bright and dark moving objects of different sizes in a manner that could facilitate the downstream specialization. Furthermore, via genetic and pharmacological manipulations it was found that GABAergic circuits providing lateral and feedback inputs to this cell enhance its responses to dark stimuli and thus enable it to relay critical information for the downstream pathway. These circuits were found to give rise to a center-surround antagonistic, anisotropic and spatiotemporally coupled RF structure in this cell. Interestingly, our studies uncovered deep similarities between the function of early visual processing cells in the fly and in vertebrate retinas. This suggests that different systems have converged on a similar set of solutions for addressing the challenge of efficiently using the resources available to the nervous system to process visual signals.
- Dissecting the neural mechanisms of cerebellum-dependent learning : enhanced plasticity and instructive signals2012T.D. Barbara Nguyen-Vu.The focus of this thesis is to understand the contribution of multiple learning mechanisms to cerebellum-dependent motor learning. The studies that contribute to this thesis examine the role multiple learning mechanisms in the context of signaling in the intact circuit of awake-behaving animals. By using a well-parameterized learning paradigm, it is possible to distinguish and separate the contribution of specific learning mechanisms to different aspects of learning. This thesis demonstrates the sufficiency to two learning mechanisms long hypothesized to be important for cerebellum-dependent learning: 1) LTD at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse in the cortex (Marr 1969; Albus 1971; Ito 1972); and 2) the output of Purkinje cell simple spike activity (Miles & Lisberger 1981). Furthermore, the findings highlight the importance of understanding how learning mechanisms operate in vivo and interact with the on-going activity as well as previous activity in the circuit to determine different learning outcomes. The idea that the properties of a learning mechanism do not operate in isolation to produce learning but must be considered in the context of the intact and functional circuit is a common lesson that could apply to and should be tested in other learning systems of the brain.
- 2008 SpringerM. Shakibaei, C. Csaki, and A. Mobasheri.
- 2013 Springer Protocolsedited by Nadine Kabbani.
- 2014 ScienceDirectedited by Marco Diana, Gaetano Di Chiara and Pier Franco Spano.Progress in Brain Research is a well-established international series examining major areas of basic and clinical research within neuroscience, as well as emerging and promising subfields. This volume, concentrates on state-of-the-art of dopamine research: from basic science to clinical applications. It covers topics including thalamostriatal synapses as a substrate for dopamine action; the multilingual nature of dopamine neurons; ethanol-mechanisms along the mesolimbic dopamine system, and much more. Progress in Brain Research is the most acclaimed and accomplished series in neuroscience, firmly established as an extensive documentation of the advances in contemporary brain research. The volumes, some of which are derived from important international symposia, contain authoritative reviews and original articles by invited specialists. The rigorous editing of the volumes assures that they will appeal to all laboratory and clinical brain research workers in the various disciplines: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuroendocrinology, neuropathology, basic neurology, biological psychiatry, and the behavioral sciences.The most acclaimed and accomplished series in neuroscienceThis volume looks at dopamine researchin the light of the newest scholarly discoveries and insights.
- Easy EMG : a guide to performing nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Second edition [2nd ed.].2016 ClinicalKeyauthors, Jay M. Weiss, Lyn D. Weiss, Julie K. Silver ; illustrator, Dennis J. Dowling.User-friendly and well organized, Easy EMG is designed to help residents learn the fundamental principles of electrodiagnostic testing (including nerve conduction studies and needle EMG). This one-of-a-kind resource offers expert guidance on performing and interpreting EMGs, as well as how to test the most common conditions encountered in daily practice. At-a-glance tables combine with clear illustrations and a pocket-sized format to make Easy EMG ideal for on-the-go reference!
- 2013 ScienceDirect2013 ClinicalKeyDavid C. Preston, Barbara E. Shapiro.Approach to Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography -- Anatomy and Neurophysiology -- Basic Nerve Conduction Studies -- Late Responses -- Blink Reflex -- Repetitive Nerve Stimulation -- Anomalous Innervations -- Artifacts and Technical Factors -- Basic Statistics for Electrodiagnostic Studies -- Routine Upper Extremity, Facial, and Phrenic Nerve Conduction Techniques -- Routine Lower Extremity Nerve Conduction Techniques -- Basic Overview of Electromyography -- Anatomy for Needle Electromyography -- Basic Electromyography: Analysis of Spontaneous Activity -- Basic Electromyography: Analysis of Motor Unit Action Potentials -- Clinical-Electrophysiologic Correlations: Overview and Common Patterns -- Median Neuropathy at the Wrist -- Proximal Median Neuropathy -- Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow -- Radial Neuropathy -- Peroneal Neuropathy -- Femoral Neuropathy -- Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome -- Facial and Trigeminal Neuropathy -- Polyneuropathy -- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and its Variants -- Atypical Motor Neuron Disorders -- Radiculopathy -- Brachial Plexopathy -- Proximal Neuropathies of the Shoulder and Arm -- Lumbosacral Plexopathy -- Sciatic Neuropathy -- Neuromuscular Junction Disorders -- Myopathy -- Myotonic Muscle Disorders and Periodic Paralysis Syndromes -- Approach to Electrodiagnostic Studies in the Intensive Care Unit -- Approach to Pediatric Electromyography -- Basics of Electricity and Electronics for Electrodiagnostic Studies -- Electrical Safety and Iatrogenic Complications of Electrodiagnostic Studies.
- 2007 ClinicalKeyBashar Katirji.The scope of the EMG examination -- Routine clinical electromyography -- Specialized electrodiagnostic studies -- Electrodiagnostic findings in neuromuscular disorders.Also available: Print – 2007
- 2008 Springer Protocolsedited by Robert P. Vertes, Robert W. Stackman Jr.Field Potential Generation and Current Source Density Analysis / L. Stan Leung -- Current Source Density Analysis of Ongoing Neural Activity: Theory and Application / Yonghong Chen, Mukesh Dhamala, Anil Bollimunta, Charles E. Schroeder, Mingzhou Ding -- The Juxtacellular Recording-Labeling Technique / Didier Pinault -- Neural Recording Using Digital Telemetry / André A. Fenton, Kathryn J. Jeffery, James G. Donnett -- Large-Scale Neural Ensembles in Mice: Methods for Recording and Data Analysis / Hui Kuang, Joe Z. Tsien -- Behavioral Correlates of Neuronal Activity Recorded as Single-Units: Promises and Pitfalls as Illustrated by the Rodent Head Direction Cell Signal / Robert W. Stackman -- Event-Related Potentials of the Cerebral Cortex / Steven L. Bressler -- Multisite Spike-Field Coherence, Theta Rhythmicity, and Information Flow Within Papez's Circuit / Zimbul Albo, Gonzalo Viana Prisco, Robert P. Vertes -- Cognitively Relevant Recoding in Hippocampus: Beneficial Feedback of Ensemble Codes in a Closed Loop Paradigm / Robert E. Hampson, John D. Simeral, Theodore W. Berger, Dong Song, Rosa H. Chan, Vasilis Z. Marmarelis, Sam A. Deadwyler -- An Intact Septo-Hippocampal Preparation for Investigating the Mechanisms of Hippocampal Oscillation / Romain Goutagny, Jesse Jackson, Sylvain Williams -- Targeted Modulation of Neural Circuits: A New Treatment Strategy for Neuropsychiatric Disease / Helen S. Mayberg, Paul E. Holtzheimer.
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