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Chemistry

  • 2006 CRCnetBASE
    Pederson, Ole.
  • 2006 Springer
    Vermerris Wilfred; Nicholson, Ralph L.
  • 2002 CRCnetBASE
    Meskin, Mark S.
  • 2006 Springer
    Janshoff, Andreas; Steinem, Claudia.
  • 2012 Springer
    Akishev, Yuri; Hensel, Karol; Machala, Zdenko.
  • 2014 Springer
    Eliades, George; Eliades, Theodore.
    The polycarbonate products, adhesives, and composite resins used in dentistry may have the potential to release bisphenol-A (BPA). BPA is known to exert effects at very low doses and presents a risk to reproductive, neurological, behavioural, and metabolic development, however, the actual effects induced by dental materials have not been sufficiently covered and critically analyzed. Nevertheless, many practicing dentists will be confused by the occasionally contradictory and often misinterpreted evidence in the literature. This book therefore represents a timely and comprehensive review of our current knowledge of BPA release from dental polymers and the potential presence of endocrinological consequences. After a review of the history and evolution of the issue within the broader biomedical context, the estrogenicity of BPA is explained. The basic chemistry of the polymers used in dentistry is then presented in a simplified and clinically relevant manner. Key chapters in the book carefully evaluate the release of BPA from dental polymets and the estrogenicity of these materials. Currently available evidence on the potential estrogenic action of dental composites, sealants, and adhesives is presented, and the exaggerated conclusions of various methodological protocols are assessed. The entire dental community will find this book to be an invaluable aid to safe practice.
  • 2007 Springer
    Koetz, Joachim; Kosmella, Sabine.
  • 2008 CRCnetBASE
    Workman, Jerry; Weyer, Lois.
    Introduction to near-infrared spectra -- Alkanes and cycloalkanes -- Alkenes and alkynes -- Aromatic compounds -- Hydroxyl containing compounds -- Water -- Carbonyls -- Amines and amides -- P-H and S-H -- Carbohydrates -- Amino acids, peptides, and proteins -- Synthetic polymers and rubbers -- History of near-infrared (NIR) applications.
  • 2006 CRCnetBASE
    Kowalska, Teresa; Sherma, Joseph.
  • 2005 CRCnetBASE
    Ahmed, Hafiz.
  • 2011
    Welsh, John Patrick; Frydman, Judith; Swartz, James R.; Wang, Clifford.
    The Swartz lab has put much effort into understanding the underlying principles of E. coli-based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS), and the technology has developed into a scalable, affordable platform for producing a wide range of protein targets. Key breakthroughs have included activating central metabolism, stabilization of critical amino acids, controlling the redox environment to produce proteins containing disulfide bonds, and using scale-up technologies to produce proteins at milligram quantities. My work has sought to expand this CFPS technology for producing valuable and complex eukaryotic protein targets by manipulating and optimizing the folding of these proteins in the heterologous CFPS environment. Furthermore, I have sought to apply these advances to specific applications of interest. By modifying a key molecular chaperone native to the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Hsp70-family chaperone, BiP, soluble production was increased in CFPS reactions for specific proteins normally secreted through this organelle, namely those from the immunoglobulin superfamily which includes antibodies, T-cell receptors, and many membrane receptors. First, the functional properties of BiP were compared to that of the E. coli Hsp70, DnaK. A fusion protein was then constructed between BiP and the ribosome-binding portion of the E. coli protein, trigger factor, to localize BiP to translating ribosomes. This replicated the native function of BiP, which provides co-translational folding assistance to nascent polypeptides. After verifying its bioactivity, this fusion protein was utilized in CFPS reactions to indicate that the chaperone functions of BiP are specific to proteins normally secreted through the eukaryotic ER, whereas DnaK demonstrates a more general chaperone mechanism. Since the discovery that somatic cells could be reprogrammed back to a pluripotent state through the viral expression of a specific set of transcription factors, there has been great interest in reprogramming using a safer and more clinically relevant protein-based approach. Production of these transcription factor proteins was greatly increased by fusing them to the C-terminus of the solubility partner, IF2 domain 1 (IF2D1). While the fusions provided marginal benefit in molar yields using a CFPS approach, in vivo E. coli expression produced the transcription factors in soluble form. The fusion proteins could be purified in milligram quantities from liter shake-flask cultures, whereas essentially no soluble protein accumulated without the fusion partner. The transcription factor fusions bound specifically to their consensus DNA sequences and partially activated some of their downstream gene targets. Another application utilizing CFPS technology is an enhanced luciferase mutant from the marine copepod, Gaussia princeps (GLuc). GLuc is both the smallest and brightest known luciferase, and previous work from our lab demonstrated that this protein could be produced at higher volumetric yields and specific activities in CFPS compared to conventional protein expression systems. By mutating key residues in the Gaussia luciferase sequence, the luminescence half-life was shown to increase over ten-fold while maintaining the initial specific activity of the wild-type. This improved mutant provides a valuable imaging agent to use in fusions and bioconjugates with other proteins such as those that recognize cell surface markers on cancer cells. In a final application, influenza vaccines were produced using CFPS by isolating specific fragments of the protein hemagglutinin (HA), a viral surface protein. Specific mutations as well as a C-terminal trimerization domain were critical for producing this protein fragment in both its monomeric and native trimeric forms. By using the CFPS platform to incorporate non-natural amino acids (nnAAs) with alkyne functional groups, the HA proteins were covalently 'clicked' to virus-like particles (VLPs) that had surface exposed nnAAs with azide functionality. The VLPs provide an immunogenic delivery platform that efficiently traffics to lymph nodes and allows for co-attachment of other adjuvants in addition to the primary HA antigen. This vaccine platform was characterized and tested in mouse models and compared to both a standard influenza vaccine as well as free HA protein fragments. In summary, CFPS is a valuable and robust method of protein production for a variety of targets. My thesis has sought to use this platform as a means to better understand folding pathways of complex, eukaryotic proteins and improve production of these proteins. To this end, CFPS has been shown to be a valuable method for elucidating and manipulating chaperone function, producing difficult proteins with enhanced function, and as a platform to produce novel vaccines.
  • 2001 CRCnetBASE
    Beesley, Thomas E.; Buglio, Benjamin; Scott, Raymond P. W.
  • 2001 ScienceDirect
    Matthews, Benjamin F.; Romeo, John T.; Saunders, James A.
  • 2005 Springer
    Durairaj, Raj B.
  • 2006 CRCnetBASE
    Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Shishodia, Shishir.
  • 2010
    Gutierrez, Alicia Carolina; Trost, Barry M.; Waymouth, Robert M.; Wender, Paul A.
    A facile and 100% regioselective cycloisomerization--6-pi-cyclization method for obtaining pyridines is described. The unsaturated ketones and aldehydes derived from the cycloisomerization of primary and secondary propargyl diynols in the presence of CpRu(MeCN)₃PF₆ are converted to 1-azatrienes which in turn undergo a subsequent electrocyclization--dehydration to provide pyridines with excellent regiocontrol. The ruthenium-catalyzed cycloisomerization is a mild, atom-economical method for obtaining the requisite dienone and dienal substrates. The cycloisomerization--6-pi-cyclization sequence may be carried out in one pot or in two independent steps. Additionally, the azatriene cyclization may be carried out in 1-3 hours under microwave irradiation or, for more sensitive substrates, at lower temperatures for longer periods of time (6--24 hours at 90 °C). An atom-economical method for the convenient synthesis of tetrahydropyrans and tetrahydrofurans is also described. Enones and enals derived from the [IndRu(PPh₃)₂Cl]-catalyzed redox-isomerization of primary and secondary propargyl alcohols undergo a subsequent intramolecular conjugate addition to provide cyclic ethers in excellent yields. Lastly, we have developed complementary methods for the transition metal-catalyzed enyne cycloisomerizations of cyclic olefins. By using distinct ruthenium and palladium catalysts, decalins and 7,6-bicycles can be obtained with dichotomous stereochemical outcomes. The change in mechanism that accompanies the change in metal affords trans-fused 1,4-dienes with ruthenium and their cis-fused diastereomers under palladium catalysis. In the reactions under ruthenium catalysis, a coordinating group is required, and acts to direct the metal to the same side of the carbocycle, resulting in the observed trans diastereoselectivity. Subtle changes in the carbocyclic substrate led to the discovery of a heretofore-unobserved mechanistic pathway, providing bicyclic cycloisomerization products under palladium catalysis, tricyclic products under ruthenium catalysis in DMA, and a 1:1 mixture of the two under ruthenium catalysis in acetone. The different coordination requirements of the two paths allow for the reaction to be shuttled through the metallacycle pathway (generating tricyclic products) when DMA is used as a solvent. This method of obtaining these cyclobutene products complements the existing methods for catalyzing the [2+2] cycloaddition of alkynes. While other methods have been demonstrated for larger ring sizes with palladium, and for specific alkyne termini with platinum and gold, this method is unique in its substrate scope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a [2+2] cycloaddition catalyzed by CpRu(MeCN)₃PF₆.
  • 2009 CRCnetBASE
    Dikshith, T. S. S.
  • 2001 CRCnetBASE
    Bard, Allen J.; Mirkin, Michael V.
  • 2000 ScienceDirect
    Valkó, Klára.
  • 2002 CRCnetBASE
    Yan, Hong.
    Part I. Image Reconstruction and Restoration -- 1. Introduction to Image Reconstruction / Zhi-Pei Liang, Jim Ji, and E. Mark Haacke -- 2. Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Local Tomography / E. Rashid-Farrokhi and K.J.R. Liu -- 3. The Point Spread Function of Convolution Regridding Reconstruction / Gordon E. Sarty -- 4. Mapping Motion and Strain with MRI / Yudong Zhu -- 5. Rotational Motion Artifact Correction Based on Fuzzy Projection onto Convex Sets / Chaminda Weerasinghe, Lilian Ji, and Hong Yan -- 6. Tagged MR Cardiac Imaging / Nikolaos V Tsekos and Amir A. Amini -- 7. Functional MR Image Visualization and Signal Processing Methods / Alex R. Wade, Brian A. Wandell, and Thomas P. Burg --Part II. Image Segmentation and Analysis -- 8. Multiscale Segmentation of Volumetric MR Brain Images / Wiro J. Niessen, Koen L. Vincken, Joachim Weickert, and Max A. Viergever -- 9. A Precise Segmentation of the Cerebral Cortex from 3-D MRI Using a Cellular Model and Homotopic Deformations / Yann Cointepas, Isabelle Bloch, and Line Garnero -- 10. Feature Space Analysis of MRI / Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh -- 11. Geometric Approaches for Segmentation and Signal Detection in Functional MRI Analysis / Guillermo Sapiro -- 12. MR Image Segmentation and Analysis Based on Neural Networks / Javad Alirezaie and M.E. Jernigan -- 13. Stochastic Model Based Image Analysis / Yue Wang and Tiilay Adal -- 14. Functional MR Image Analysis -- Shang-Hong Lai and Ming Fang -- 15. Tagged MR Image Analysis / Amir A. Amini and Yasheng Chen -- Part III. Spectroscopic Signal Processing -- 16. Time-Domain Spectroscopic Quantitation / Leentje Vanhamme, Sabine Van Huffel, and Paul Van Hecke -- 17. Multidimensional NMR Spectroscopic Signal Processing / Guang Zhu and Yingbo Hua -- 18. Advanced Methods in Spectroscopic Imaging / Keith A. Wear -- 19. Characterization of Brain Tissue from MR Spectra for Tumor Discrimination / Paulo J.G. Lisboa, Wael El-Deredy, Y.Y. Barbara Lee, Yangxin Huang, Angelica R. Corona Herandez, Peter Harris, and Carles Aris -- 20. Wavelet Packets Algorithm for Metabolite Quantification in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Chemical Shift Imaging / Luca T Mainardi, Sergio Cerutti, Daniela Origgi, and Giuseppe Scotti -- 21. Cramér-Rao Bound Analysis of Spectroscopic Signal Processing Methods / Sophie Cavassila, Dirk van Ormondt, and Danielle Graveron-Demilly.
  • 2002 Wiley
    Enderlein, J.; Keller, Richard A.; Zander, Ch.
    ch. 1. Single Molecule Detection in Liquids and on Surfaces under Ambient Conditions: Introduction and Historical Overview / Jörg Enderlein, Richard A. Keller and Christoph Zander, p. 1-19 -- ch. 2. Theoretical Foundations of Single Molecule Detection in Solution / Jörg Enderlein and Christoph Zander, p. 21-67 -- ch. 3. Conceptual Basis of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Related Techniques as Tools in Bioscience / Jerker Widengren and Ülo Mets, p. 69-120 -- ch. 4. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS - A Tool for Single Molecule Detection in Solution / Katrin Kneipp, Harald Kneipp, Irving Itzkan, Ramachandra R. Dasari and Michael S. Feld, p. 121-144 -- ch. 5. Single Molecule Detection on Surfaces with the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope / Martin Böhmer and Jörg Enderlein, p. 145-183 -- ch. 6. Spectroscopy of Individual Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes / J. Wrachtrup, T.J. Aartsma, J. Köhler, M. Ketelaars, A. M. van Oijen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, C. Tietz and F. Jelezko, p. 185-229 -- ch. 7. Single Dye Tracing for Ultrasensitive Microscopy on Living Cells / Gerhard J. Schütz and Hansgeorg Schindler, p. 231-245 -- ch. 8. Single Molecule Identification in Solution: Principles and Applications / M. Sauer and C. Zander, p. 247-272 -- ch. 9. Studying Molecular Motors on the Single Molecule Level / Y. Ishii, A. H. Iwane, H. Yokota, Y. Inoue, T. Wazawa, M. Nishiyama, H. Tanaka, K. Kitamura and T. Yanagida, p. 273-292 -- ch. 10. The Chemistry of a Single Enzyme Molecule / Robert Polakowski, Michael Eggertson, Douglas B. Craig and Norman J. Dovichi, p. 293-301 -- ch. 11. Single Molecule Detection of Specific Nucleic Acid Sequences / Alonso Castro, p. 303-321 -- ch. 12. Single Molecule Detection in the Near-Infrared / Steven A. Soper, Musundi Wabuyele, Clyde V. Owens and Robert P. Hammer, p. 323-362.
  • 2011
    Lee, Hsiao-lu; Fayer, Michael D.; Moerner, W. E.; Pecora, Robert.
    Since the first successful detection single molecules over two decades ago, single-molecule spectroscopy has developed into a burgeoning field with a wealth of experiments at room temperature and inside living cells. Probing asynchronous and heterogeneous populations in situ, one molecule at a time, is not only desirable, but critical for many biological questions. Further, super-resolution imaging based on sequential imaging of sparse subsets of single molecules, has seen explosive growth within the last five years. This dissertation describes both the application of live-cell single-molecule imaging as an answer to important biological questions, and development and validation of fluorescent probes for targeted super-resolution imaging.
  • 2000 Wiley
    Meier, Peter C.; Zünd, Richard E.
    Univariate Data -- Bi- and Multivariate Data -- Related Topics -- Complex Examples -- Appendices.
  • 2006 Springer
    Hellwich, Karl-Heinz; Siebert, Carsten D.
  • 2005 HighWire
    Also available: Print – 2005
  • 2010
    Mulcahy, John V.; Du Bois, Justin; Kool, Eric T.; Wender, Paul A.
    Voltage-gated sodium ion channels are integral membrane proteins most commonly associated with the propagation of action potentials along electrically conducting cells. Nine distinct mammalian isoforms exist, which vary in their primary sequence, gating properties and tissue distribution. Efforts to deconvolute the physiological roles of each isoform through genetic methods, including knockout and gene silencing, are complicated by issues of redundancy and compensatory upregulation of related isoforms. Here we present new strategies and methods for the synthesis of a class of small molecule sodium channel inhibitors, the paralytic shellfish poisons. Methods for the construction of cyclic 5-membered guanidines from acyclic precursors through intramolecular C--H amination and a total synthesis of the paralytic shellfish poison (+)-gonyautoxin 3 are described. It is our vision that these developments will ultimately lead to new small molecule probes designed to help answer fundamental questions regarding sodium ion channel structure and diversity.
  • 2006 CRCnetBASE
    Richards, Ryan.
  • 2005 CRCnetBASE
    Vadgama, Pankaj.
  • v. 78, 80, 89, 93, 95-96, 100, 102-103, 105, 108-117, 119-, 1999- CRCnetBase
    Schick, Martin J.
  • 2008 Springer
    Khulbe, Kailash C.; Feng, C. Y.; Matsuura, Takeshi.
  • An online journal and ebook service of the Thieme Publishing Group. The ebook package is also called Thieme Clinical Collections.
  • 2008 CRCnetBASE
    Kowalska, Teresa; Sherma, Joseph; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika.
  • 2005- Wiley
    Ullmann, Fritz.
    Covers science and technology in all areas of industrial chemistry, containing nearly 1000 major articles with more than 16 million words, nearly 10,000 tables, 30,000 figures, and literature sources and cross-references. It also includes full text index, author index, CAS registry number index, and keyword index.
  • 2008 CRCnetBASE
    Cartwright, Hugh M.; Kharma, Nawwaf.
  • 2010
    Litchfield, Justin David; Aldrich, R. W.; Brauman, J. I.; Du Bois, Justin.
    Several methods of examining the structure and function of voltage-gated ion channels are described. The first part of this work involves synthetic small molecules based on the structure of (+)-saxitoxin, a marine neurotoxin. (+)-saxitoxin interacts with the pore of the voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channel to prevent the passage of ions. A scaffold was designed to be modular, synthetically facile, and contain the functionality that had been implicated in the previous literature. Several members of this family of molecules were produced, and they were assayed for occlusion of sodium current (INa). The second part of this work examines the gating kinetics of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels. 6-bromo-mercaptotryptamine (BrMT) is a marine neurotoxin that has been shown to alter the gating kinetics of KV channels. Specifically, BrMT affects the early, typically independent steps of KV gating by stabilizing the resting state of some number of the subunits. A family of small molecules was designed and synthesized that would examine the functional effects of different parts of the BrMT molecule. BrMT is a dimer containing three key functional groups: a halogenated indole, a pendant ethyl-amine, and a disulfide linker. Variance at all these positions was examined, and each had different effects. Notably, one of the variants, in which the disulfide linker was substituted for an oxy-bismethyl ether linker, affects KV gating in a different way from BrMT. Alternate models of gating in the presence of this novel analog are discussed.
  • 2011
    Iwamoto, Mari; Khosla, Chaitan; Kool, Eric T.; Wandless, Thomas.
    The ability to make specific perturbations to biological molecules in a cell or organism is a central experimental strategy in modern research biology. Chemical approaches to probe biological function have greatly contributed to the understanding of protein functions. While small-molecule inhibitors offer rapid and reversible control of protein functions, identification and development of specific inhibitors for every protein of interest remains a challenge. In the past decade, numerous technologies have been developed that combine genetic with chemical methods to create conditional protein control systems with impeccable specificity. These systems include inducible protein localization using chemical inducer of dimerization, such as rapamycin, and inducible protein stabilization system such as our destabilizing domain (DD) technology previously developed by L. Banaszynski. Highly specific, high-affinity protein-ligand interactions are key to their effectiveness. In this thesis, three technologies that utilize highly specific protein-ligand interactions are discussed. The first chapter of this thesis focuses on the development of a general technique in which the stability of a specific protein is regulated by a cell-permeable small molecule. Mutants of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) were engineered to have ligand-dependent stability, and when this destabilizing domain is fused to a protein of interest, the instability is conferred to the fused protein resulting in rapid degradation of the entire fusion protein. A small-molecule ligand trimethoprim (TMP) stabilized the destabilizing domain in a rapid, reversible and dose-dependent manner, and protein levels in the absence of TMP were barely detectable. The ability of TMP to cross the blood-brain barrier enabled the tunable regulation of YFP expressed rat striatum. The second chapter of this thesis describes the development of a technique in which a protein of interest is degraded in the presence of a ligand. In this system, we regulated the stability of a receptor protein of an E3 ligase complex using the previously developed destabilizing domains. A DD-fused receptor protein cannot recruit the substrate to the E3 ubiquitin ligase in the absence of ligand. Upon addition of ligand, the receptor protein is stabilized and can successfully promote ubiquitination and degradation of the substrate protein. We used HIV-1 Vif protein, a receptor protein of the Cul5 E3 ligase complex, and its substrate, human APOBEC3G. We were able to induce degradation of GFP fused APOBEC3G upon addition of ligand. Degradation of GFP occurred rapidly, tunably, and reversibly. The advantage of this system over the DD technology is that it does not require continuous administration of the ligand until the desired experimental window and is thus better suited for in vivo applications. By limiting the dosage to only during the knockout window, the cost of dosing is dramatically decreased and side effects from long-term administration of ligand can be minimized. The third and last chapter of this thesis describes an attempt to develop a new approach to induce genome modification at a specific site with high efficiency in mammalian cell lines. While there are several successful nuclease-based gene-targeting approaches that exist today, these technologies require extensive engineering and screening to isolate efficient and specific nucleases that bind to the target sites. Our strategy was to simplify the design of DNA targeting domains by using an oligonucleotide analogue, peptide nucleic acid (PNA). PNAs incorporate DNA bases on peptide backbones and make base-specific contacts with the target DNA site. The PNA domain is coupled to TMP, which then allows recruitment of the nuclease domain fused to ecDHFR. The nuclease domain is made up of a single-chain, pseudohomodimer FokI catalytic domain that non-specifically cleaves the DNA. We could not produce any recombination activity in cell. However, in vivo experiments revealed successful target DNA binding by the PNA, as well as TMP-PNA/ecDHFR-FokI binding.
  • 2012 Springer Protocols
    Badoer, Emilio.
    Multiple immunohistochemical labelling of peripheral neurons / Ian L. Gibbins -- Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in rat brain tissue using digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes / Natasha N. Kumar, Belinda R. Bowman, and Ann K. Goodchild -- In situ hybridization within the CNS tissue : combining in situ hybridization with immunofluorescence / Dominic Bastien and Steve Lacroix -- Visualizing GABA[subscriptβ] receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking / Paola Ramoino [and others] -- Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to visualise insulin action / James G. Burchfield, Jamie A. Lopez, and William E. Hughes -- Live-cell quantification of mitochondrial functional parameters / Marco Nooteboom [and others] -- Functional imaging using two-photon microscopy in living tissue / Ivo Vanzetta [and others] -- Calcium imaging techniques in vitro to explore the role of dendrites in signaling physiological action potential patterns / Audrey Bonnan, Benjamin Grewe, and Andreas Frick -- Juxtacellular labeling in combination with other histological techniques to determine phenotype of physiologically identified neurons / Ruth L. Stornetta -- Visualization of activated neurons involved in endocrine and dietary pathways using GFP-expressing mice / Rim Hassouna [and others] -- Use and visualization of neuroanatomical viral transneuronal tracers / J. Patrick Card and Lynn W. Enquist -- Visualisation of thermal changes in freely moving animals / Daniel M.L. Vianna and Pascal Carrive -- Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging quantification in the brain / Fernando Calamante.
  • 2007 Wiley
    Messerschmidt, Albrecht.
    Part I. Principles and Methods -- Chapter 1. Introduction, p. 1-22 -- Chapter 2. Experimental Techniques, p. 23-44 -- Chapter 3. Principles of X-Ray Diffraction by a Crystal, p. 45-79 -- Chapter 4. Diffraction Data Evaluation, p. 81-97 -- Chapter 5. Methods for Solving the Phase Problem, p. 99-139 -- Chapter 6. Phase Improvement by Density Modification and Phase Combination, p. 141-156 -- Chapter 7. Model Building and Refinement, p. 157-185 -- Chapter 8. Crystal Structure Determination of the Time-Course of Reactions and of Unstable Species, p. 187-202 -- Chapter 9. Structural Genomics, p. 203-220 -- Part II. Practical Examples -- Chapter 10. Data Evaluation, p. 223-238 -- Chapter 11. Determination of Anomalous Scatterer or Heavy Atom Positions, p. 239-251 -- Chapter 12. MIRAS and MAD Phasing with the Program SHARP, p. 253-259 -- Chapter 13. Molecular Replacement, p. 261-266 -- Chapter 14. Averaging about Non-Crystallographic Symmetry (NCS) for 4-BUDH, p. 267-275 -- Chapter 15. Model Building and More, p. 277-291

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