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Biomedical Engineering

  • This book provides a state-of-the-art look at the applied biomechanics of accidental injury and prevention. The editors, Drs. Narayan Yoganandan, Alan M. Nahum and John W. Melvin are recognized international leaders and researchers in injury biomechanics, prevention and trauma medicine. They have assembled renowned researchers as authors for 29 chapters to cover individual aspects of human injury assessment and prevention. This third edition is thoroughly revised and expanded with new chapters in different fields. Topics covered address automotive, aviation, military and other environments. Field data collection; injury coding/scaling; injury epidemiology; mechanisms of injury; human tolerance to injury; simulations using experimental, complex computational models (finite element modeling) and statistical processes; anthropomorphic test device design, development and validation for crashworthiness applications in topics cited above; and current regulations are covered. Risk functions and injury criteria for various body regions are included. Adult and pediatric populations are addressed. The exhaustive list of references in many areas along with the latest developments is valuable to all those involved or intend to pursue this important topic on human injury biomechanics and prevention. The expanded edition will interest a variety of scholars and professionals including physicians, biomedical researchers in many disciplines, basic scientists, attorneys and jurists involved in accidental injury cases, and governmental bodies. It is hoped that this book will foster multidisciplinary collaborations by medical and engineering researchers, and academicians and practicing physicians for injury assessment and prevention and stimulate more applied research, education and training in the field of accidental-injury causation and prevention.
  • "A reflection of the intense study of the effects of electromagnetic fields on living tissues that has taken place during the last several decades, this book discusses the theoretical and experimental evidence and considerations the effects of strong electromagnetic fields and/or electric pulses and their importance in medicine and biology. The authors present the basic techniques applied in electroporation and the advanced methods for creation of nanopores, highlighting their basic science and clinical applications. Topics include nano electroporation, classic electroporation, experimental evidence for electroporation of living cells, and electroporation for cancer and wound healing"--Provided by publisher.
  • Cell Adhesions and Signaling: A Tool for Biocompatibility Assessment / Roumen Pankov and Albena Momchilova -- Development of Provisional Extracellular Matrix on Biomaterials Interface: Lessons from In Vitro Cell Culture / George Altankov, Thomas Groth, Elisabeth Engel, Jonas Gustavsson and Marta Pegueroles, et al. -- Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Tissue Engineering and Tissue Regeneration Endothelial Progenitor Cells / Joyce Bischoff -- Dermal Precursors and the Origins of the Wound Fibroblast / Jeffrey M. Davidson -- Cell Based Therapies: What Do We Learn from Periosteal Osteochondrogenesis? / Peter J. Emans, Tim J. M. Welting and Venkatram Prasad Shastri -- Bioreactor Systems in Regenerative Medicine / Ivan Martin, Stefania A. Riboldi and David Wendt -- Biomimetic Approaches to Design of Tissue Engineering Bioreactors / Bojana Obradovic, Milica Radisic and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic -- The Nature of the Thermal Transition Influences the Shape-Memory Behavior of Polymer Networks / Andreas Lendlein, Marc Behl and Stefan Kamlage -- Nanoengineered Systems for Regenerative Medicine Surface Engineered Polymeric Biomaterials with Improved Bio-Contact Properties / Todorka Vladkova and Natalia Krasteva -- Nanocomposites for Regenerative Medicine / Ryan Hoshi, Antonio R. Webb, Hongjin Qiu and Guillermo A. Ameer -- Role of Spatial Distribution of Matricellular Cues in Controlling Cell Functions / Daniela Guarnieri and Paolo A. Netti -- Materials Surface Effects on Biological Interactions / Josep A. Planell, Melba Navarro, George Altankov, Conrado Aparicio and Elisabeth Engel, et al. -- Chemical and Physical Modifications of Biomaterial Surfaces to Control Adhesion of Cells / Thomas Groth, Zhen-Mei Liu, Marcus Niepel, Dieter Peschel and Kristin Kirchhof, et al. -- Results of Biocompatibility Testing of Novel, Multifunctional Polymeric Implant Materials In-Vitro and In-Vivo / Dorothee Rickert, Rosemarie Fuhrmann, Bernhard Hiebl, Andreas Lendlein and Ralf-Peter Franke -- UFOs, Worms, and Surfboards: What Shapes Teach Us About Cell-Material Interactions / Julie A. Champion and Samir Mitragotri -- Nano-engineered Thin Films for Cell and Tissue-Contacting Applications / Richard F. Haglund -- Injectable Hydrogels: From Basics to Nanotechnological Features and Potential Advances / Biancamaria Baroli -- Polyelectrolyte Complexes as Smart Nanoengineered Systems for Biotechnology and Gene Delivery / Vladimir A. Izumrudov.
  • The presence of oriented features in images often conveys important information about the scene or the objects contained; the analysis of oriented patterns is an important task in the general framework of image understanding. As in many other applications of computer vision, the general framework for the understanding of oriented features in images can be divided into low- and high-level analysis. In the context of the study of oriented features, low-level analysis includes the detection of oriented features in images; a measure of the local magnitude and orientation of oriented features over the entire region of analysis in the image is called the orientation field. High-level analysis relates to the discovery of patterns in the orientation field, usually by associating the structure perceived in the orientation field with a geometrical model. This book presents an analysis of several important methods for the detection of oriented features in images, and a discussion of the phase portrait method for high-level analysis of orientation fields. In order to illustrate the concepts developed throughout the book, an application is presented of the phase portrait method to computer-aided detection of architectural distortion in mammograms.
  • Animal Biotechnology introduces applications of animal biotechnology and implications for human health and welfare. It begins with an introduction to animal cell cultures and genome sequencing analysis and provides readers with a review of available cell and molecular tools. Topics here include the use of transgenic animal models, tissue engineering, nanobiotechnology, and proteomics. The book then delivers in-depth examples of applications in human health and prospects for the future, including cytogenetics and molecular genetics, xenografts, and treatment of HIV and cancers. All this is complemented by a discussion of the ethical and safety considerations in the field. Animal biotechnology is a broad field encompassing the polarities of fundamental and applied research, including molecular modeling, gene manipulation, development of diagnostics and vaccines, and manipulation of tissue. Given the tools that are currently available and the translational potential for these studies, animal biotechnology has become one of the most essential subjects for those studying life sciences. Highlights the latest biomedical applications of genetically modified and cloned animals with a focus on cancer and infectious diseases. Provides firsthand accounts of the use of biotechnology tools, including molecular markers, stem cells, and tissue engineering.
  • Analysis for internal fixation of a fractured bone by means of bone-fixator plate -- Human lumbar vertebral body : analysis of its functionally optimal design -- Human spinal intervertebral disc : optimal structural design characteristics -- Biomechanics of fitness index : optimal walking and jogging modes, and hip joint assessment -- Analysis of spinning ball trajectories of soccer kicks and basketball throws -- Mechanics of baseball pitching and batting -- Biodynamics analysis of women's gymnastics : Yurchenko layout vault. Biomechanics in medical diagnosis in the form of nondimensional physiological indices -- Left ventricular mechanics -- Left ventricular contractility indices -- Vascular biomechanics -- Lung ventilation modeling for lung disease diagnosis -- Lung gas-transfer performance analysis -- Indicators for extubation of mechanically ventilated COPD patients using lung ventilation modeling -- Glucose-insulin dynamics modeling -- Glucose tolerance tests modeling -- Modeling of OGTT blood glucose and insulin responses and diagnostic indices --
  • Artificial organs 2009
  • Artificial heart valves -- Artificial heart and cardiac assist devices -- Cardiac pacemakers -- Dialysis.
  • 1. Advances in Auditory Prostheses / Fan-Gang Zeng -- 2. Bilateral Cochlear Implants / Richard van Hoesel -- 3. Combining Acoustic and Electric Hearing / Christopher W. Turner and Bruce J. Gantz -- 4. Implantable Hearing Devices for Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Impairment / Ad Snik -- 5. Vestibular Implants / Justin S. Golub, James O. Phillips, and Jay T. Rubinstein -- 6. Optical Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve / Claus-Peter Richter and Agnella Izzo Matic -- 7. A Penetrating Auditory Nerve Array for Auditory Prosthesis / John C. Middlebrooks and Russell L. Snyder -- 8. Cochlear Nucleus Auditory Prostheses / Douglas B. McCreery and Steven R. Otto -- 9. Midbrain Auditory Prostheses / Hubert H. Lim, Minoo Lenarz, and Thomas Lenarz -- 10. Central Auditory System Development and Plasticity After Cochlear Implantation / Anu Sharma and Michael Dorman -- 11. Auditory Training for Cochlear Implant Patients / Qian-Jie Fu and John J. Galvin III -- 12. Spoken and Written Communication Development Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation / Sophie E. Ambrose, Dianne Hammes-Ganguly, and Laurie S. Eisenberg -- 13. Music Perception / Hugh McDermott -- 14. Tonal Languages and Cochlear Implants / Li Xu and Ning Zhou -- 15. Multisensory Processing in Cochlear Implant Listeners / Pascal Barone and Olivier Deguine.
  • Print Material
    "This step-by-step guide to medical technology innovation, now in full color, has been rewritten to reflect recent trends of industry globalization and value-conscious healthcare. Written by a team of medical, engineering, and business experts, the authors provide a comprehensive resource that leads students, researchers, and entrepreneurs through a proven process for the identification, invention, and implementation of new solutions. Case studies on innovative products from around the world, successes and failures, practical advice, and end-of-chapter 'Getting Started' sections encourage readers to learn from real projects and apply important lessons to their own work. A wealth of additional material supports the book, including a collection of nearly 100 videos created for the second edition, active links to external websites, supplementary appendices, and timely updates on the companion website at Readers can access this material quickly, easily, and at the most relevant point in the text from within the ebook"--Provided by publisher.
  • Print Material
    Stage 1. Needs finding -- 1.1. Strategic focus -- 1.2. Observation and problem identification -- 1.3. Need statement development -- Stage 2. Needs screening -- 2.1. Disease state fundamentals -- 2.2. Treatment options -- 2.3. Stakeholder analysis -- 2.4. Market analysis -- 2.5. Needs filtering -- Stage 3. Concept generation -- 3.1. Ideation and brainstorming -- 3.2. Concept screening -- Stage 4. Concept selection -- 4.1. Intellectual property basics -- 4.2. Regulatory basics -- 4.3. Reimbursement basics -- 4.4. Business models -- 4.5. Prototyping -- 4.6. Final concept selection -- Stage 5. Development strategy and planning -- 5.1. Intellectual property strategy -- 5.2. Research and development strategy -- 5.3. Clinical strategy -- 5.4. Regulatory strategy -- 5.5. Quality and process management -- 5.6. Reimbursement strategy -- 5.7. Marketing and stakeholder strategy -- 5.8. Sales and distribution strategy -- 5.9. Competitive advantage and business strategy -- Stage 6. Integration -- 6.1. Operating plan and financial model -- 6.2. Business plan development -- 6.3. Funding sources -- 6.4. Licensing and alternate pathways.
  • Also available: Print – 2006
  • Biomaterials 2007
    Metallic biomaterials / Joon B. Park and Young Kon Kim -- Ceramic biomaterials / W.C. Billotte -- Polymeric biomaterials / Hai Bang Lee, Gilson Khang, and Jin Ho Lee -- Composite biomaterials / Roderic S. Lakes -- Biodegradable hydrogels : tailoring properties and function through chemistry and structure / Andrew T. Metters and Chien-Chi Lin -- Biodegradable polymeric biomaterials : an updated overview / Chih-Chang Chu -- Biologic biomaterials : tissue-derived biomaterials (collagen) / Shu-Tung Li -- Soft tissue replacements / K.B. Chandran, K.J.L. Burg, and S.W. Shalaby -- Hard tissue replacements / Sang-Hyun Park ... [et al.] -- Controlling and assessing cell-biomaterial interactions at the micro- and nanoscale : applications in tissue engineering / Jessica Kaufman, Joyce Y. Wong, and Catherine Klapperich.
  • 2014 Knovel
    "Written by world-leading experts, this book focusses on the role of biomaterials in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Emphasising basic principles and methodology, it covers stem cell interactions, fabrication technologies, design principles, physical characterisation and biological evaluation, across a broad variety of systems and biomaterials. Topics include: stem cell biology, including embryonic stem cells, IPS, HSC and progenitor cells; modern scaffold structures, including biopolymer, bioceramic, micro- and nanofiber, ECM and biohydrogel; advanced fabrication technologies, including computer-aided tissue engineering and organ printing; cutting-edge drug delivery systems and gene therapy techniques; medical applications spanning hard and soft tissues, the cardiovascular system and organ regeneration. With a contribution by Nobel laureate Shinya Yamanaka, this is a must-have reference for anyone in the field of biomaterials, stem cell biology and engineering, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine"--Provided by publisher.
  • Electrohydrodynamic processing of micro- and nanometer biological materials / Yiquan Wu and Robert Lewis Clark -- Fabrication and function of biohybrid nanomaterials prepared via supramolecular approaches / Katsuhiko Ariga -- Polypyrrole nano- and microsensors and actuators for biomedical applications / Yevgeny Berdichevsky and Yu-Hwa Lo -- Processing of biosensing materials and biosensors / Yingchun Zhu, Yu Yang, and Yanyan Liu -- Synthetic and natural degradable polymeric biomaterials / Sanjukta Deb -- Electroactive polymers as smart materials with intrinsic actuation properties: new functionalities for biomaterials / Federico Carpi and Danilo De Rossi -- Blood contacting surfaces / Menno L.W. Knetsch -- Improving blood compatibility of biomaterials using a novel antithrombin-heparin covalent complex / Leslie Roy Berry and Anthony Kam Chuen Chan -- Surface modification of biomaterials using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition / Xuanyong Liu, Ricky K.Y. Fu, Paul K. Chu -- Biomaterials for gastrointestinal medicine, repair and reconstruction / Richard M. Day -- Biomaterials for cartilage reconstruction and repair / Wojciech Swieszkowski ... [et al.]. Inorganic and composite bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering / Q.Z. Chen, Oana Bretcanu, Aldo R. Boccaccini -- Design, fabrication and characterization of scaffolds via solid free-form fabrication techniques / Dietmar W. Hutmacher and Maria Ann Woodruff -- Control and monitoring of scaffold architecture for tissue engineering / Ying Yang ... [et al.] -- Rapid prototyping methods for tissue engineering applications / Giovanni Vozzi and Arti Ahluwalia -- Design and fabrication principles of electrospinning of scaffolds / Dietmar W. Hutmacher and Andrew K. Ekaputra -- Nanoparticles in cancer drug delivery systems / So Yeon Kim and Young Moo Lee -- Polymeric nano/microparticles for oral delivery of proteins and peptides / S. Sajeesh and Chandra P. Sharma -- Nanostructured porous biomaterials for controlled drug release systems / Yang Yang Li, Jifan Li, and Bunichiro Nakajima -- Inorganic nanostructures for drug delivery / Ying-Jie Zhu -- Self-assembly of nanostructures as biomaterials / Hua Ai, Yujiang Fan, and Zhongwei Gu --
  • Biomaterials in relation to dentistry / Deb, S. -- Polymer therapeutics in relation to dentistry / Rojo, L., Deb, S . -- Biological impact of bioactive glasses and their dissolution products / Hoppe, A., Boccaccini, A.R. -- Organic-inorganic composites toward biomaterial application / Miyazaki, T., Sugawara-Narutaki, A., Ohtsuki, C. -- New advanced materials for high performance at the resin-dentine interface / Toledano, M., Osorio, R. -- Nanobiomaterial coatings in dentistry / Choi, A.H., Cazalbou, S., Ben-Nissan, B. -- The effect of titanium surface modifications on dental implant osseointegration / Annunziata, M., Guida, L. -- Global gene expression analysis for the assessment of nanobiomaterials / Hanagata, N. -- Membranes for periodontal regeneration -- a material perspective / Bottino, M.C., Thomas, V. -- Biomaterials in the reconstruction of the oral and maxillofacial region / Ayoub, A., Al-Fotawei, R.
  • While coronary heart diseases are considered the most deadly medical conditions in terms of overall deaths per year, orthopedic maladies are the costliest. One of the most prevalent orthopedic conditions is low back pain, which stems from degenerative tissue changes within the spinal column and associated spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment successes in conservative and surgical treatment are mixed, although the rates of spine surgery have dramatically increased over the past decade. Surgical treatment is considered a last resort, and of all the surgical approaches, spinal fusion is the most common for the treatment of low back pain. Since spinal fusion has been in use in the clinic for several decades now, results of long-term retrospective clinical reviews are now becoming available. Some of these studies have shown that spinal fusion may induce secondary injuries such as adjacent tissue regeneration, which may require additional surgical treatment. To overcome some of these complications, posterior dynamic stabilization has been introduced as an alternative to fusion surgery. Posterior dynamic stabilization is still considered mostly experimental and the majority of spine companies with ambitions in this field have not yet settled on particular design goals and implant concepts. A significant hurdle for entry to the market for such devices is the lack of understanding of what the ideal function of the device is, and how the implants should interact with the spinal column. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the functionality of posterior dynamic stabilization depending on patient conditions such as mobility and body mass and to suggest efficient rigidities of the dynamic device when considering patients' characteristics. This study is divided into three specific aims. The purpose of the first aim was to investigate the significant influence of a patient's spinal kinematics on dynamic stabilization. The patients were divided by segmental range of motion (L3-L4) into two groups (hyper-mobility and hypo-mobility) and finite element (FE) models were generated for these respective groups. This study showed that patient characteristics such as mobility produced different spinal kinematics after dynamic stabilization and demonstrated that the effectiveness of dynamic stabilization was increased when the mechanical properties of the device were changed in response to patient characteristics. The purpose of the second aim was to evaluate the stabilization devices in relation to patients' body mass and spinal mobility, testing the effects of dynamic stabilization devices of varying levels of rigidity. Based on analyzed results of the spinal mobility at the diseased level (L4-L5), the hyper-mobility patients were divided into three groups, based on severity. Depending on the body mass in the hyper-mobility patients, the patients were divided into three groups. The findings of the study demonstrated the significant influence of patients' body mass and mobility on spinal kinematics after dynamic stabilization. The purpose of the third aim was to investigate the effect of implant rigidity on spinal kinematics utilizing a cadaveric tissue model. This in-vitro study was designed to validate the biomechanical influence of physiological loading after dynamic stabilization. The results of this in-vitro study showed that patients' characteristics change spinal segmental motion and different implant rigidities of the dynamic stabilization device also produce varying spinal kinematics depending on patients' conditions. Through these in-vitro tests, this thesis readdresses the importance of considering patient characteristics in the design of appropriate devices for spinal stabilization, and to select the right implants for the right patient population.
  • Floating Skeleton Concept -- Sanomechanics -- Biomechanics for Life -- SanomechanicsTM Exercises -- About Forces and Moments in Locomotion -- Sanomechanics for Respiration.
  • This dissertation investigated the role of biomechanics in two physiological systems, the heart and bone. Biomechanics motivates the study and characterization of how cells sense external forces and convert these signals into an intracellular response in a process called mechanotransduction. Three independent studies were designed with the goal of applying mechanical forces that mimic the in vivo microenvironment of either the heart or bone. The aim of these studies was to better under the mechanisms driving cellular processes, including cardiac myocyte differentiation and osteoblast mechanotransduction. The first study presents the design and implementation of tissue engineering approach to stem cell-based myocardial therapy. Three dimensional engineered heart tissue was formed by suspending human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes isolated from beating embryoid bodies in a soluble extracellular matrix, and an in vitro mechanical conditioning regimen was applied at physiological levels of myocardial strain. The viability of the engineered stem cell tissue was monitored in vitro and in vivo for up to 8 weeks using molecular imaging of reporter gene activity. The application of cyclic mechanical strain in vitro resulted in cellular alignment along the axis of strain and an elongated cellular morphology with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, typical of neonatal cardiac myocytes, as well as increased expression of cardiac troponin I, in comparison to static controls. Analysis of the in vitro and in vivo bioluminescence imaging data demonstrated the viability of engineered heart tissue constructs; however, histology results showed immature cells within the implanted constructs, suggesting an inability of the stem cell-derived cardiac precursors to maintain a cardiac phenotype in vivo, as well the inherent inefficiency of the beating embryoid body method to identify and isolate cardiac myocyte precursors. The functional shortcomings exhibited by the embryoid body-based differentiation of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes in the first study motivated further refinement of cardiac myocyte differentiation techniques. Therefore, the second study executed the design and fabrication of a microelectromechanical platform to study the role of electrical and mechanical stimulation in cardiac myocyte differentiation. The fabrication process used a combination of soft lithography and traditional microfabrication techniques to pattern thin film metal electrodes on an elastomeric polymer membrane. The completed device enabled coupled characterization and imaging of cardiac myocytes precursors, and the ability to assess the range of mechanical forces, up to 10% equibiaxial strain, that may induce or maintain a cardiac fate. Electrical continuity was demonstrated under static conditions but not under strain, and improvements in metal deposition and adhesion could address this performance defect. Beating clusters containing human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes were plated on fabricated membranes, uncoated and coated with Matrigel, and cell viability was monitored using contrast microscopy. The third study transitioned to a different mechanical model of physiological forces, which was the application of oscillatory fluid flow-mediated fluid shear stress generated by the loading and unloading of bone. Specifically, the role of focal adhesion kinase, a protein tyrosine kinase recruited at focal adhesions and a major mediator of integrin signaling pathways, was studied in osteoblast mechanotransduction. The biochemical and transcriptional response of focal adhesion kinase mutant osteoblasts to physiological levels of shear stress induced by oscillatory fluid flow was impaired as measured by prostaglandin E2 release and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression. Restoration of focal adhesion kinase expression with site-specific mutations at two tyrosine phosphorylation sites demonstrated that phosphorylation events play a role in prostaglandin release following oscillatory fluid flow. In conclusion, the role of mechanical forces, including the effect of cyclic mechanical strain in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocyte tissue engineering and the fluid shear stress-induced response of focal adhesion kinase mutant osteoblasts, was successfully demonstrated and quantified in this dissertation.
  • 1. Biofluid dynamics of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery -- 2. Biomechanics of artificial heart -- 3. Biomaterials for an artificial pacemaker -- 4. Biomaterials for carotid stenting -- 5. Biomechanics of angioplasty : ballooning and stenting -- 6. Biomechanics of artificial lung -- 7. Biomechanics of artificial kidney -- 8. Biomechanics of arthritis and human body pain -- 9. Biomechanics of orthopaedic fixations -- 10. Biomechanics of total knee replacement -- 11. Biomechanics of dental prostheses.
  • The outermost layer of human skin, the stratum corneum (SC), is subject daily to variable ambient moisture and temperature conditions as well as application of potentially damaging cleansing agents. The inevitable results of these exposures are "tightness" of the skin which is directly related to the buildup of tensile residual drying stresses in the SC layer. In this work, we first describe the application of the substrate curvature technique to quantitatively measure the magnitude of these stresses and their relationship to selected drying environments and times. The SC drying stresses were observed to be very sensitive to the relative humidity and temperature of the drying environment as well as harshness of the chemical treatment. There was a strong correlation with the SC drying stresses and the chemical potential of water in the drying environment. The evolution of drying stresses in SC is discussed in relation to the effects of hydration and damage caused by chemical treatments on the underlying SC structure. We also describe the application of the substrate curvature technique to characterize stresses in occlusive topical coatings. We then extend the substrate curvature technique to measure the combined effects of the coating applied to human stratum corneum (SC) where the overall drying stresses may have contributions from the coating, the SC and the interaction of the coating with the SC. We show how these separate contributions in the coating and SC layers can be differentiated. Using this methodology, we characterize the effect of a range of moisturizing treatments on the drying stresses in human stratum corneum. Following moisturizer treatment, the SC was observed to have distinctive stress profiles with drying time depending on the effectiveness of the treatment. The stress values of specimens treated with the humectant moisturizers were observed to increase and stabilize after a few hours in the drying environment where they remained relatively constant until the end of exposure to the drying environment whereas the stress values of specimens treated with the emollient treatments were observed to rise rapidly to a peak stress value and relax to a final stress value. The effect of moisturizing treatments on the SC drying stresses was rationalized in terms of SC water loss and the chemical state of the SC components. Finally, we employ a fracture mechanics approach to understand the implications of the drying stresses in SC as a mechanical driving force for damage propagation (e.g. cracking and chapping) in the tissue. The crack driving force G was found for several cracking configurations and compared with the intercellular delamination energy, Gc, which is a property of the tissue that provides a measure of the resistance to cracking. Using this approach, we demonstrate how damaging treatments enhance and moisturizing treatments alleviate the propensity for dry skin damage.
  • Introduction -- Chemistry and structure of dendrimers. Definition of terms and nomenclature ; Sugar code (glyc code) ; Classes of peptide-, glyco, and glycopeptide dendrimers ; The dendritic state and dendritic effects ; Synthesis of dendrimers : convergent and divergent approaches ; Purification and characterization of dendrimers ; Dendrimeric libraries ; Dendrimers in catalysis -- Dendrimers and their biological and therapeutic applications. Dendrimers and solubility ; Biocompability and toxicity of dendrimers ; Dendrimers in nanoscience and nanotechnology ; Dendrimers in drug delivery ; Dendrimers in gene delivery ; Dendrimers and bacteria ; Dendrimers and viruses ; Dendrimers and parasites ; Cancer ; Diagnostics, lectin detection and cell-cell interactions ; Dendrimers as biosensors and imaging tools ; Dendrimers regulating in intracellular signaling pathways ; Vaccines and immunomodulation ; Dendrimers in neurodegenerative diseases ; Conclusions and perspectives. .
  • Sect. I. Physiologic systems. An outline of cardiovascular structure and function -- Endocrine system -- Nervous system -- Vision system -- Auditory system -- Gastrointestinal system -- Respiratory system -- sect. II. Physiological modeling, simulation, and control. Modeling strategies and cardiovascular dynamics -- Compartmental models of physiologic systems -- Cardiovascular models and control -- Respiratory models and control -- Neural networks for physiological control -- Methods and tools for identification of physiologic systems -- Autoregulating windkessel dynamics may cause low frequency oscillations -- External control of movements -- The fast eye movement control system -- A comparative approach to analysis and modeling of cardiovascular function -- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analyses -- sect. III. Bioelectric phenomena. Basic electrophysiology -- Volume conductor theory -- The electrical conductivity of tissues -- Membrane models -- Computaitonal methods and software for bioelectric field problems -- Principles of electrocardiography -- Principles of electromyography -- Principles of electroencephalography -- Biomagnetism -- Electrical stimulation of excitable systems -- sect. IV. Neuroengineering. History and overview of neural engineering -- Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system -- Transcutaneous FES for ambulation: the parastep system -- Comparing electrodes for use as cortical control signals: tiny tines, tiny wires, or tiny cones on wires: which is best? -- Development of a multi-functional 22-channel functional electrical stimulator for paraplegia -- An implantable bionic network of injectable neural prosthetic devices: the future platform for functional electrical stimulation and sensing to restore movement and sensation -- Visual prostheses -- Interfering with the genesis and propagation of epileptic seizures by neuromodulation -- Transcranial magnetic stimulation of deep brain regions -- sect. V. Biomaterials. Metallic biomaterials -- Ceramic biomaterials -- Polymeric biomaterials -- Composite biomaterials -- Biodegradable polymeric biomaterials: an updated overview -- Biologic biomaterials: tissue-derived biomaterials (collagen) -- Soft tissue replacements -- Hard tissue replacements -- Controlling and assessing cell-biomaterial interactions at the micro- and nanoscale: applications in tissue engineering -- sect. VI. Biomechanics. Mechanics of hard tissue -- Musculoskeletal soft tissue mechanics -- Joint-articulating surface motion -- Joint lubrication -- Analysis of gait -- Mechanics of head/neck -- Biomechanics of chest and abdomen impact -- Cardiac biomechanics -- Heart valve dynamics -- Arterial macrocirculatory hemodynamics -- Mechanics of blood vessels -- The venous system -- Mechanics, molecular transport, and regulation in the microcirculation -- Mechanics and deformability of hematocytes -- Mechanics of tissue/lymphatic transport -- Modeling in cellular biomechanics -- Cochlear mechanics -- Vestibular mechanics -- Exercise physiology -- Factors affecting mechanical work in humans -- sect. VII. Rehabilitation engineering. Rehabilitation engineering, science, and technology -- Orthopedic prosthetics and orthotics in rehabilitation -- Wheeled mobility: wheelchairs and personal transportation -- Externally powered and controlled orthoses and prostheses -- Sensory augmentation and substitution -- Augmentative and alternative communication -- Measurement tools and processes in rehabilitation engineering -- Rehabilitation engineering technologies: principles of application -- sect. VIII. Human performance engineering. The elemental resource model for human performance -- Measurement of neuromuscular performance capacities -- Measurement of sensory-motor control performance capacities: tracking tasks -- Measurement of information-processing subsystem performance capacities -- High-level task analysis: cognitive components -- Task analysis and decomposition: physical components -- Human-computer interaction design -- Applications of human performance measurements to clinical trials to determine therapy effectiveness and safety -- Applications of quantitative assessment of human performance in occupational medicine -- Human performance engineering design and analysis tools -- Human performance engineering: challenges and prospects for the future -- sect. IX. Ethics. Beneficence, nonmaleficence, and medical technology -- Ethical issues related to clinical research.
  • Print Material
  • Also available: Print – 2005
    Converging technologies : nanotechnology and biomedicine / Mihail C. Roco -- Trends in biomedical nanotechnology programs worldwide / Mark Morrison and Ineke Malsch -- Nanotechnology and trends in drug delivery systems with self-assembled carriers / Kenji Yamamoto -- Implants and prostheses / Jeroen J.J.P. van den Beucken, X. Frank Walboomers, and John A. Jansen -- Diagnostics and high throughput screening / Aránzazu del Campo and Ian J. Bruce -- Nano-enabled components and systems for biodefense / Calvin Shipbaugh ... [et al.] -- Social and economic contexts : making choices in the development of biomedical nanotechnology / Ineke Malsch -- Potential risks and remedies / Emmanuelle Schuler.
  • Biomedical nanotechnology / Sarah J. Hurst -- Multiplexed detection of oligonucleotides with biobarcoded gold nanoparticle probes / Jae-Seung Lee -- Molecular detection of biomarkers and cells using magnetic nanoparticles and diagnostic magnetic resonance / Jered B. Haun ... [et al.] -- Real-time quantum dot tracking of single proteins / Jerry C. Chang and Sandra J. Rosenthal -- Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in advanced imaging and nanotherapeutics / Tijana Rajh, Nada M. Dimitrijevic, and Elena A. Rozhkova -- Surface modification and biomolecule immobilization on polymer spheres or biosensing applications / Chris R. Taitt ... [et al.] -- Multivalent conjugation of peptides, proteins, and DNA to semiconductor quantum dots / Duane E. Prasuhn, Kimihiro Susumu, and Igor L. Medintz -- Single snO2 nanowire-based microelectrode / Jun Zhou ... [et al.] -- Biosensing using nanoelectromechanical systems / Ashish Yeri and Di Gao -- Nano "Fly Paper" technology for the capture of circulating tumor cells / Shutao Wang, Gwen E. Owens, and Hsian-Rong Tseng -- Polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy / Young-Eun Koo Lee and Raoul Kopelman -- Hydrogel templates for the fabrication of homogeneous polymer microparticles / Ghanashyam Acharya ... [et al.] -- Antibacterial application of engineered bacteriophage nanomedicines : antibody-targeted, chloramphenicol prodrug loaded bacteriophages for inhibiting the growth of staphylococcus aureus bacteria / Lilach Vaks and Itai Benhar -- Viruses as nanomaterials for drug delivery / Dustin Lockney, Stefan Franzen, and Steven Lommel -- Applications of carbon nanotubes in biomedical studies / Hongwei Liao ... [et al.] -- Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for engineering soft connective tissues / Roshan James ... [et al.] -- Peptide amphiphiles and porous biodegradable scaffolds for tissue regeneration in the brain and spinal cord / Rutledge G. Ellis-Behnke and Gerald E. Schneider -- Computational simulations of the interaction of lipid membranes with DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles / One-Sun Lee and George C. Schatz -- Cytotoxic assessment of carbon nanotube interaction with cell cultures / Hanene Ali-Boucetta, Khuloud T. Al-Jamal, and Kostas Kostarelos -- Nanoparticle toxicology : measurements of pulmonary hazard effects following exposures to nanoparticles / Christie M. Sayes, Kenneth L. Reed, and David B. Warheit -- Nanoparticle therapeutics : FDA approval, clinical trials, regulatory pathways, and case study / Aaron C. Eifler and C. Shad Thaxton -- Legislating the laboratory? Promotion and precaution in a nanomaterials company / Robin Phelps and Erik Fisher -- Navigating the patent landscapes for nanotechnology : english gardens or tangled grounds / Douglas J. Sylvester and Diana M. Bowman -- Scientific entrepreneurship in the materials and life science industries / Jose Amado Dinglasan, Darren J. Anderson, and Keith Thomas -- Applying the marketing mix (5 Ps) to bionanotechnology / Michael S. Tomczyk -- Managing the "Known Unknowns" : theranostic cancer nanomedicine and informed consent / Fabrice Jotterand and Archie A. Alexander.
  • Biomedical polymers 2007
  • Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time and frequency analysis and filters. Embedded within each chapter are examples from the biological world, ranging from medical devices to cell and molecular biology. While the focus of the book is on the theory of analog signals and systems, many chapters also introduce the corresponding topics in the digital realm. Although some derivations appear, the focus is on the concepts and how to apply them. Throughout the text, systems vocabulary is introduced which will allow the reader to read more advanced literature and communicate with scientist and engineers. Homework and Matlab simulation exercises are presented at the end of each chapter and challenge readers to not only perform calculations and simulations but also to recognize the real-world signals and systems around them.
  • Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) and medical industry providers can use the Method to evaluate medical devices, information systems and work processes from their own perspectives. The book describes the 3Q Method in detail and provides additional suggestions for optimal presentation and report preparation.
  • Biopacemaking 2007
  • v. 2, 2009 Springer Protocols
    V. 1. Optical-based detectors. Pt. I. Optical-based detectors. Surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy for sensitive detection of tumor markers / Yusuke Arima ... [et al.] -- Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for biomolecular interaction analysis based on spatial modulation phase detection / Xiang Ding, Fangfang Liu, and Xinglong Yu -- Array-based spectral SPR biosensor: analysis of mumps virus infection / Jong Seol Yuk and Kwon-Soo Ha -- Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves / Valery N. Konopsky and Elena V. Alieva -- Surface plasmon resonance biosensing / Marek Piliarik, Hana Vaisocherová, and Jiří Homola -- Label-free detection with the resonant mirror biosensor / Mohammed Zourob ... [et al.] -- Label-free detection with the liquid core optical ring resonator sensing platform / Ian M. White ... [et al.] -- Reflectometric interference spectroscopy / Guenther Proll ... [et al.] -- Phase sensitive interferometry for biosensing applications / Digant P. Davé -- Label-free serodiagnosis on a grating coupler / Thomas Nagel, Eva Ehrentreich-Förster, and Frank F. Bier -- Pt. II. Indirect detectors. CCD camera detection of HIV infection / John R. Day -- Integrating waveguide biosensor / Shuhong Li ... [et al.] -- Detection of fluorescence generated in microfluidic channel using in-fiber grooves and in-fiber microchannel sensors / Rudi Irawan and Swee Chuan Tjin -- Multiplex integrating waveguide sensor: SignalyteTM-II / Shuhong Li ... [et al.] -- CCD based fiber-optic spectrometer detection / Rakesh Kapoor -- V. 2. Electrochemical and mechanical detectors, lateral flow and ligands for biosensors. Pt. I. Mechanical detectors. A set of piezoelectric biosensors using cholinesterases / Carsten Teller ... [et al.] -- Piezoelectric biosensors for aptomer-protein interaction / Sara Tombelli ... [et al.] -- Piezoelectric quartz crystal resonators applied for immunosensing and affinity interaction studies / Petr Skládal -- Biosensors based on cantilevers / Mar Alvarez ... [et al.] -- Piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever biosensors / Raj Mutharasan -- Pt. II. Electrochemical detectors. Preparation of screen-printed electrochemical immunosensors for estradiol, and their application in biological fluids / Roy M. Pemberton and John P. Hart -- Electrochemical DNA biosensors: protocols for intercalator-based detection of hybridization in solution and at the surface / Kagan Kerman, Mun'delanji Vestergaard, and Eiichi Tamiya -- Electrochemical biosensor technology: application to pesticide detection / Ilaria Palchetti, Serena Laschi, and Marco Mascini -- Electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization using micro and nanoparticles / María Teresa Castañeda, Salvador Alegret, and Arben Merkuçi -- Electrochemical immunosensing using micro and nanoparticles / Alfredo de la Escosura-Muñiz ... [et al.] -- Methods for the preparation of electrochemical composite biosensors based on gold nanparticles / A. González-Cortés, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, and J.M. Pingarrón -- Pt. III. Lateral flow. Immunochromatographic lateral flow strip tests / Gaiping Zhang, Junqing Guo, Xuannian Wang -- Liposome-enhanced lateral-flow assays for the sandwich-hybridization detection of RNA / Katie A. Edwards and Antje J. Baeumner -- Rapid prototyping of lateral flow assays / Alexander Volkov ... [et al.] -- Lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for pesticide / Shuo Wang, Can Zhang, and Yan Zhang -- Pt. IV. Ligands. Synthesis of a virus electrode for measurement of prostate specific membrane antigen / Juan E. Diaz ... [et al.] -- Simple luminescence detector for capillary electrophoresis / Antonio Segura-Carretero, Jorge F. Fernández-Sánchez, and Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez -- Optical system design for biosensors based on CCD detection / Douglas A. Christensen and James N. Herron --A simple portable electroluminescence illumination-based CCD detector / Yordan Kostov ... [et al.] -- Fluoroimmunoassays using the NRL array biosensor / Joel P. Golden and Kim E. Sapsford -- Biosensors technologies: acousto-optic tunable filter-based hyperspectral and polarization images for fluorescence and spectroscopic imaging / Neelam Gupta -- Photodiode-based detection system for biosensors / Yordan Kostov -- Photodiode array on-chip biosensor for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 pathogenic bacteria / Joon Myong Song and Ho Taik Kwon -- DNA analysis with a photo-diode array sensor / Hideki Kambara and Guohua Zhou -- Miniaturized and integrated fluorescence detectors for microfluidic capillary electrophoresis devices / Toshihiro Kamei -- Photomultiplier tubes in biosensors / Yafeng Guan -- In vivo bacteriophage display for the discovery of novel peptide-based tumor-targeting agents / Jessica R. Newton and Susan L. Deutscher -- Biopanning of phage displayed peptide libraries for the isolation of cell-specific ligands / Michael J. McGuire, Shunzi Li, and Kathlynn C. Brown -- Biosensor detection systems: engineering stable, high-affinity bioreceptors by yeast surface display / Sarah A. Richman, David M. Kranz, and Jennifer D. Stone -- Antibody affinity optimization using yeast cell surface display / Robert W. Siegel -- Using RNA aptamers and the proximity ligation assay for the detection of cell surface antigens / Supriya S. Pai and Andrew D. Ellington -- In vitro selection of protein-binding DNA aptamers as ligands for biosensing applications / Naveen K. Navani, Wing Ki Mok, and Yingfu Li -- Pt. V. Protein and DNA preparation. Immobilization of biomolecules onto silica and silica-based surfaces for use in planar array biosensors / Lisa C. Shriver-Lake, Paul T. Charles, and Chris R. Taitt -- Rapid DNA amplification using a battery-powered thin-film resistive thermocycler / Keith E. Herold ... [et al.].
  • v. 29, 2005 CRCnetBase
  • "This book is a comprehensive overview of all the important aspects of medical biotechnology intended for interested, scientifically oriented laypersons, along, who want a relatively low level presentation of important biotechnology medical specialties such as bacteriology, immunology, recombinant DNA, molecular diagnostics, gene therapy, synthetic biology, tissue engineering, bioethics, IP issues, vaccines, and more"-- Provided by publisher.
  • Part I. Fundamentals of How People Learn (HPL) -- Introduction to HPL Methodology -- Part II. Fundamental Concepts in Biotransport -- Fundamental Concepts in Biotransport -- Modeling and Solving Biotransport Problems -- Part III. Biofluid Transport -- Rheology of Biological Fluids -- Macroscopic Approach for Biofluid Transport -- Shell Balance Approach for One Dimensional Biofluid Transport -- General Microscopic Approach for Biofluid Transport -- Part IV. Bioheat Transport -- Heat Transfer Fundamentals -- Macroscopic Approach to Bioheat Transport -- Shell Balance Approach for 1-D Bioheat Transport -- General Microscopic Approach for Bioheat Transport -- Section V. Biological Mass Transport -- Mass Transfer Fundamentals -- Macroscopic Approach to Biomass Transport -- Shell Balance Approach for 1-D Biomass Transport -- General Microscopic Approach for Biomass Transport.
  • Also available: Print – 2006
  • Also available: Print – 2005
  • Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates. Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. A comprehensive overview of calcium orthophosphates, this book highlights their importance and biomedical uses.
  • The biomedical engineering senior capstone design course is probably the most important course taken by undergraduate biomedical engineering students. It provides them with the opportunity to apply what they have learned in previous years, develop their communication, teamwork, project management,and design skills,and learn about the product development process. It prepares students for professional practice and serves as a preview of what it will be like to work as a biomedical engineer.
  • Mammalian cell lines command an effective monopoly for the production of therapeutic proteins that require post-translational modifications. This book deals with the methodology involved in the development of cell lines and the cell engineering approach that can be employed to enhance productivity and improve cell function.
  • Due to their unique properties, chitosan-based materials have emerged as useful resources in a variety of medicines, drug controlled-release carriers, tissue engineering scaffolds, and immobilized enzymes. But many of these materials have yet to reach the commercial market. Therefore, more work must be completed to fill the gap between research and production. Exploring the state of the field, Chitosan-Based Hydrogels: Functions and Applications details the latest progress in the research and development of chitosan-based biomaterials. The book introduces the formation and chemical structure of chitosan-based hydrogels. It also discusses the relationship between their structure and functions, which provides a theoretical basis for the design of biomaterials. In addition, many real-world examples illustrate the potential application of chitosan-based hydrogels in various areas, including materials science, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, regenerative medicine, and cell engineering. By examining the structure and functions of chitosan-based hydrogels in living systems, this book provides the foundation for future research. It encourages readers to contribute to further research and development of these unique biomaterials.
  • This book represents the first in a two-volume set on biological rhythms. This volume focuses on supporting the claim that biological rhythms are universal and essential characteristics of living organisms, critical for proper functioning of any living system. The author begins by examining the potential reasons for the evolution of biological rhythms: (1) the need for complex, goal-oriented devices to control the timing of their activities; (2) the inherent tendency of feedback control systems to oscillate; and (3) the existence of stable and powerful geophysical cycles to which all organisms must adapt. To investigate the second reason, the author enlists the help of biomedical engineering students to develop mathematical models of various biological systems. One such model involves a typical endocrine feedback system. By adjusting various model parameters, it was found that creating a oscillation in any component of the model generated a rhythmic cascade that made the entire system oscillate. This same approach was used to show how daily light/dark cycles could cascade rhythmic patterns throughout ecosystems and within organisms.
  • This is the first textbook to offer a comprehensive account of ocular prosthetics and the evidence used to underpin and support this field of healthcare. It does so by bringing together information from ophthalmology, prosthetic eye and contact lens literature, and from experts actively engaged in these fields. The book describes the psychological, anatomical and physiological aspects of eye loss as well as surgical procedures for removing the eye, patient evaluation, constructing prosthetic eyes (including prosthetic and surgical techniques for dealing with socket complications), the socket's response to prosthetic eyes, prosthetic eye maintenance and the history of prosthetic eyes. Though primarily intended for prosthetists, ophthalmologists, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and students in the fields of ocular medicine, maxillofacial medicine and anaplastology, the book also offers a useful resource for other health workers and family members who care for prosthetic eye patients, and for those patients seeking a deeper understanding of the issues affecting them than they can find elsewhere.
  • Surfactants and block copolymers in drug delivery / Ambikanandan Misra ... [et al.] -- Application of colloidal properties in drug delivery / Swarnlata Saraf -- Polymeric nanocapsules for drug delivery : an overview / Sílvia S. Guterres ... [et al.] -- Poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles for drug delivery and vaccine development / Anja Graf, Karen Krauel-Göllner, Thomas Rades -- Stimuli-sensitive polymer gels for dermal and transdermal drug delivery and their application in the development of smart textile materials / Witold Musial and Vanja Kokol -- Micelles : the multifunctional nanocarrier for colloidal drug delivery / Chandana Mohanty, Sarbari Acharya, and Sanjeeb K. Sahoo -- Multiple emulsions : an overview and pharmaceutical applications / Jatin Khurana, Somnath Singh, and Alekha K. Dash -- Pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications of multiple emulsions / Rita Cortesi and Elisabetta Esposito -- Nanoemulsions as drug delivery systems / Figen Tirnaksiz, Seyda Akkus, and Nevin Celebi -- Microemulsion systems : application in delivery of poorly soluble drugs / Ljiljana Djekic and Marija Primorac -- Diclofenac solubilization in mixed nonionic surfactants microemulsions / Monzer Fanun -- Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems / D. P. Maurya, Yasmin Sultana, and M. Abul Kalam -- Liquid crystals and their application in the field of drug delivery / Rakesh Patel and Tanmay N. Patel -- Liquid crystalline nanoparticles as drug nanocarriers / Anan Yaghmur and Michael Rappolt -- Niosomal delivery system for macromolecular drugs / Yongzhuo Huang, Faquan Yu, and Wenquan Liang -- A new class of mesoscopic aggregates as a novel drug delivery system / Federico Bordi, Cesare Cametti, and Simona Sennato -- Liposomes and biomacromolecules : effects of preparation protocol on in vitro activity / Paola Luciani, Debora Berti, and Piero Baglioni -- Colloidal nanocarrier systems as a tool for improving antimycobacterial and antitumor activities and reducing the toxicity of usnic acid / N. S. Santos-Magalhães ... [et al.] -- Dendrimers in drug delivery / Hu Yang -- Microsphere : a novel drug delivery system / Abdus Samad ... [et al.] -- Colloids in aerosol drug delivery system / Nazrul Islam -- Respiratory aerosol dynamics with applications to pharmaceutical drug delivery / Jinxiang Xi, P. Worth Longest, and Paula J. Anderson -- Colloidal carriers for drug delivery in dental tissue engineering / Nader Kalaji, Nida Sheibat-Othman, and Hatem Fessi -- Classification and application of colloidal drug delivery systems : passive or active tumor targeting / H. Yesim Karasulu, Burcak Karaca, and Ercüment Karasulu -- Nanocarriers for imaging applications / Vandana Patravale and Medha Joshi.
  • Overview of combination products -- Ensuring successful combination product development -- Overview of FDA and other regulatory agency expectations -- Resource requirements -- Manufacturing of combination products -- Challenges and pitfalls to avoid with combination products -- Postlaunch compliance requirements -- Agency audits and challenges.
  • Biomedical robotics and biomechatronics -- Complex virtual technology in medicine -- Information and communication technology in medicine -- Complex technology in rehabilitation -- Cognitive neuroscience and technology -- Complex bioinformatics.
  • Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital heart defect where a narrowing occurs in the thoracic aorta. Aortic coarctation accounts for approximately 5-10% of all congenital heart defects, affecting approximately 1 in 3000 newborns. While the condition has been recognized for over 70 years, many clinical questions still remain about the management of patients with aortic coarctation. There exists a need to investigate the complex hemodynamics associated with this disease using computational fluid dynamics to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of these patients. First, computational simulations were used to determine the hemodynamic significance of various aortic arch obstructions, specifically to determine the significance of aortic hypoplasia, defined as long segment aortic narrowing, compared with aortic coarctation, defined as discrete narrowing. Ventricular workload was used as a metric for the degree of significance imposed by the narrowing. Results indicated that aortic hypoplasia was more significant that aortic coarctation when the same percent narrowing was considered. In addition, the simulations revealed that aortic hypoplasia consisting of 25-50% narrowing is not likely to be hemodynamically significant under resting conditions. Next, various treatment options were investigated by using simulations to compare surgical and stent-based treatment. In particular, stents placed in the aorta create a compliance mismatch because the stent is rigid and the aorta is deformable, so computational simulations were used to determine the significance of the mismatch. The results showed that the compliance mismatch associated with a rigid stent did not produce a clinically significant change in the required ventricular workload. This study refuted the claim that the compliance mismatch associated with stenting in aortic coarctation patients negatively impacts patient hemodynamics. Finally, patients with corrected aortic coarctation often suffer from hypertension and associated cardiovascular problems in the coronary and cerebral vessels. Computational simulations were used to determine the hemodynamics in the aorta, coronary, and cerebral vessels associated with hypertension and subsequent vascular remodeling. The results showed that hypertension induced with aortic coarctation is associated with nearly equal increases in mean pressure but different increases in pulse pressure throughout the model. This study revealed interesting and important information related to the hemodynamics in a large vascular model under the effects of hypertension and vascular wall remodeling. These studies showed the power of computational simulations to aid in the investigation of clinical questions regarding aortic coarctation.
  • Recent advances in development of sequencing technology has resulted in a deluge of genomic data. In order to make sense of this data, there is an urgent need for algorithms for data processing and quantitative reasoning. An emerging in silico approach, called computational genomic signatures, addresses this need by representing global species-specific features of genomes using simple mathematical models. This text introduces the general concept of computational genomic signatures, and it reviews some of the DNA sequence models which can be used as computational genomic signatures. The text takes the position that a practical computational genomic signature consists of both a model and a measure for computing the distance or similarity between models. Therefore, a discussion of sequence similarity/distance measurement in the context of computational genomic signatures is presented. The remainder of the text covers various applications of computational genomic signatures in the areas of metagenomics, phylogenetics and the detection of horizontal gene transfer.
  • It is well known that blood vessels exhibit viscoelastic properties. Vessel wall viscoelasticity is an important source of physical damping and dissipation in the cardiovascular system. There is a growing need to incorporate viscoelasticity of arteries in computational models of blood flow which are utilized for applications such as disease research, treatment planning and medical device evaluation. However, thus far the use of viscoelastic wall properties in blood flow modeling has been limited. As part of the present work, arterial wall viscoelasticity was incorporated into two computational models of blood flow: (1) a nonlinear one-dimensional (1-D) model and (2) a three-dimensional (3-D) fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model of blood flow. 1-D blood flow model: In blood flow simulations different viscoelastic wall models may produce significantly different flow, pressure and wall deformation solutions. To highlight these differences a novel comparative study of two viscoelastic wall models and an elastic model is presented in this work. The wall models were incorporated in a nonlinear 1-D model of blood flow, which was solved using a space-time finite element method. The comparative study involved the following applications: (i) Wave propagation in an idealized vessel with reflection-free outflow boundary condition; (ii) Carotid artery model with non-periodic boundary conditions; (iii) Subject-specific abdominal aorta model under rest and exercise conditions. 3-D FSI blood flow model: 3-D blood flow models enable physiologic simulations in complex, subject-specific anatomies. In the present work, a viscoelastic constitutive relationship for the arterial wall was incorporated in the 3-D Coupled Momentum Method for Fluid-Solid Interaction problems (CMM-FSI). Results in an idealized carotid artery stenosis geometry show that higher frequency components of flow rate, pressure and vessel wall motion are damped in the viscoelastic case. These results indicate that the dissipative nature of viscoelastic wall properties has an important impact in 3-D simulations of blood flow. Future work will include simulations of blood flow in patient-specific geometries such as aortic coarctation (a congenital disease) to assess the impact of wall viscoelasticity in clinically relevant scenarios. In the present work, arterial viscoelasticity has been incorporated in 1-D and 3-D computational models of blood flow. The biomechanical effects of wall viscoelasticity have been investigated through idealized and subject-specific blood flow simulations. These contributions are significant and suggest the potential importance of wall viscoelasticity in blood flow simulations for clinically relevant applications.
  • A new method to evaluate bone rigidity and strength using tomographic bone images obtained via QCT (Quantitative Computed Tomography) is introduced. A newly developed computer program named VA-BATTS is used for image processing, bone segmentation, mesh creation, material assignment and calculation of far field normal and shear stresses as well as other cross sectional properties. In order to calculate torsional and transverse shear stresses in prismatic bodies having inhomogenous material properties, a new two-dimensional finite element formulation to estimate is presented. The formulation combines the torsional and transverse shear problem solutions and adds terms to account for the material inhomogeneity into one Weak Form of the problem, further discretized to yield a numerical approximation of the shear stresses problem. Results were validated using analytical models as well as three dimensional commercial code test cases yielding mean errors over the entire domain of less than 1%. This semi-automated application is publicly distributed and can be downloaded from VA-BATTS implements an elliptical stress failure criterion to predict bone strength. To validate, fifty-two fresh frozen femurs were tested under combined three-point bending and torsion to failure. VA-BATTS was able to predict bone failure under combined bending and torsion (R2=0.68) as well as bone torsional (R2=0.80) and bending (R2=0.50) rigidity. Using multivariate analysis that combined the elliptical stress failure and the torsional and bending rigidities, the prediction confidence level was raised (R2=0.87), comparable to existing more complex three dimensional finite element studies. The elliptical stress criterion suggests that the distal femur is weaker, in absolute terms, than the midshaft femur suggesting an explanation of the increased rate of distal femur fractures in patients with Spinal Cord Injury. In general, the newly introduced method proved to yield more accurate predictions compared to DXA derived Bone Mineral Density measurements (R2=0.56). Fracture patterns were analyzed to show mostly spiral patterns where torsional loads were applied. In addition, the accuracy of three point bending experiments was examined. Three parameters that may introduce errors in the predictions - transverse shear, local deformation (indentation) as well as cross sectional deformation effect -- were studied using a parametric finite element model. The model shows that depending on the geometric properties of the bone, errors as high as 75% may be introduced in the estimation of the bone elastic modulus. Bone rigidity estimates may now be corrected using the correction factors supplied in this study.
  • Computer methods. Part A-C pt. A-B, C, 2009, 2011.
    pt. B, 2009 ScienceDirect
    pt. C, 2011 ScienceDirect
  • This pocket-sized manual serves as a concise and ideal reference work for therapeutic approaches using apheresis. Covering both basic theory and clinical details to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, the text considers a variety of diseases, including myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, nephrotic syndrome, TTP/TMA, dilated cardiomyopathy, and many other conditions. The book also reviews the growing trend toward adopting this unique therapy for a wide range of health management issues such as morbid obesity and/or type 2 diabetes, and for lowering LDL-cholesterol (cholesterol apheresis) in patients unresponsive to medication or lifestyle modification.
  • Conductive polymers as organic nanometals -- Conducting polymer fibre for smart fabric and interactive textile applications -- Inkjet printing and patterning of PEDOT-PSS -- Printing organic electronics on flexible substrates -- Light emitting polymers -- Organic electro-optic materials -- Conjugated polymer electronics -- Electrical bistable polymer films and their applications in memory devices -- Electroactive polymers for batteries and supercapacitors -- Conjugated polymer based photovoltaic devices -- Biomedical applications of ICPs -- Biosensors based on conducting electroactive polymers -- Optical biosensors based on conjugated polymers -- Conducting polymers for MEMS and other micro-devices -- Corrosion protection using conducting polymers -- Artificial muscles.
  • The shoulder bones provide few constraints on motion. Therefore, stability must be maintained by muscles and ligaments. Shoulder mobility allows versatility of function, but makes the shoulder prone to injury. A better understanding of the role of muscle in shoulder mechanics is needed to improve the treatment of shoulder injuries and pathologies. Computational models provide a valuable framework for characterizing joint mechanics. Previous shoulder models have used simple representations of muscle architecture and geometry that may not capture the details needed to fully understand muscle function. The purpose of this dissertation was to create a detailed 3D finite element model of the deltoid and the four rotator cuff muscles. This model was then used to characterize the muscle contributions to joint motion and stability. The model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of a healthy shoulder. From the images, the 3D geometry of the muscles, tendons and bones was acquired. A finite element mesh was constructed and the 3D trajectories of the muscle fibers were mapped onto the finite element mesh. A hyperelastic, transversely-isotropic material model was used to represent the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of muscle. Bone motions were prescribed and the resulting muscle deformations were simulated using an implicit finite element solver. To characterize muscle contributions to joint motion, we calculated moment arms for each modeled muscle fiber. We found that 3D models predicted substantial variability in moment arms across fibers within each muscle, which is not generally represented in line segment models. We also discovered that for muscles with large attachment regions, such as deltoid, the line segment models under constrained the muscle paths in some cases. As a result, line segment based moment arms changed more with joint rotation than moment arms predicted by the 3D models. Glenohumeral instability is common, and difficult to treat. To better understand the mechanics of instability we used the 3D model to investigate the role of the muscles in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint by simulating joint translations. We found that at the neutral position, anterior deltoid provides the largest potential to resist anterior translation which counters the conclusions of conventional line segment models. This is the result of compression generated by muscle contact, which must be considered when characterizing the ability of muscle to resist joint translation. This dissertation provides a new computational method for analyzing shoulder mechanics, and demonstrates the importance of 3D analysis when investigating the complex function of shoulder muscles.
  • This book presents a unique approach not found in any other text for those looking to improve the clinical results of refractive surgery by gaining a better understanding of corneal biomechanics and the instrumentation related to it. Written by leading experts in the field, this book provides authoritative coverage of the interactions of the cornea and the bioinstrumentation, such as corneal topography, pachymetry, aberrometers, tonometry and optical coherence tomography. Organized in an easy-to-read manner, Corneal Biomechanics and Refractive Surgery is designed for refractive surgeons and general ophthalmologists alike and describes the biomechanical role of the corneal tissue and how each part is affected in refractive surgery. Additionally, showing what the bioinstrumentation can measure, how models can improve understanding of the interaction between biomechanics, bioinstrumentation, and refractive surgery, and how these models and bioinstrumentation together can improve the refractive results, are also discussed.
  • Print Material
    v. 1. General principles.
  • Cryocoolers 13 2005
  • In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), two leading causes of blindness, the photoreceptor layer of the retina is degenerated while the rest of the retina is well preserved. The function of the photoreceptors is very similar to that of solar cells. Upon receiving light, they activate the inner layers of the retina by producing electrical and chemical signals. These signals are then processed and compressed by a complex circuit of retinal neurons (horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells) and sent to the brain. The brain perceives these data as sight. Electronic retinal implant systems seek to restore sight in AMD and RP by electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons. Currently the more dominant systems consist of a microelectrode array, which is placed directly on the ganglion cells (epiretinal). In this approach, a camera mounted on goggles captures video which is then processed by a pocket computer. The power and data are then transmitted wirelessly to an extraocular receiver unit. Through an intraocular cable, the receiver unit sends appropriate electrical stimuli to the array of microelectrodes. The electrodes then stimulate the ganglion cells by passing current pulses through the tissue. These stimulations are perceived by the brain as spots of light. The epiretinal approach has some disadvantages. Because the electrodes directly stimulate the ganglion cells, the image processing and data compression capabilities of the retina are not utilized. Placing the extraocular receiver unit and connecting it via a cable to the microelectrode array significantly complicates the surgical procedure and increases the chance of post surgical complications. Additionally, the perceived images are independent of the eye movements. We have developed an integrated photovoltaic monolithic silicon retinal implant that requires no electrical power or data connection. In our design, a miniature camera captures video that is processed by a pocket computer before being projected into the eye at a near-infrared wavelength ([Lambda] = 905 nm) onto the silicon implant located in the subretinal space (area in the back of the retina). The implant consists of a two-dimensional array of photovoltaic pixels. The projected image is provided in pulsed fashion and each pixel element consists of up to three series-connected photovoltaic cells such that the pixels deliver current pulses that are sufficiently strong to stimulate the remaining functional neural cells. The current pulses are interpreted as visual images by the brain. Placing the implant in the subretinal space allows for utilization of the existing image processing and data compression functions of the retina. Each pixel receives both power and data directly through laser radiation. This eliminates the need for a separate wireless receiver unit and simplifies the surgical procedures and reduces the post-surgical risks. Additionally, in this approach, eye movements change the perceived images. The novelty of the work reported here is the integration of photovoltaic devices in a MEMS process that allows the implant to deform to the natural curvature of the eye, while also providing isolation between the bodies of the three series-connected subpixels that make up each pixel. This was achieved by patterning the implants into an array of pixels connected together by deformable silicon flexures. In addition, the trenches also provide electrical isolation between the three series-connected photovoltaic subpixels. Curving the implant is advantageous since the complete implant is in focus, resulting in optimum quality of vision perceived. Curved implants can also be substantially larger than planar implants and can hence cover a larger part of the field of view. A curvable implant also causes no mechanical strain or abnormality in the eye. Usage of three series-connected subpixels per pixel improves the impedance matching to the surrounding tissue and enhances the injected current per pixel allowing for higher resolution implants. Fabricated implant with a resolution of 64 pixels/mm2 can inject sufficient current for neural activation at safe optical intensities. Additionally, the exchange of nutrients and waste, which is necessary for the survival of the retinal cells, is provided by diffusion through the trenches that define the silicon devices.
  • "This book is based upon cutting-edge research conducted in the authors lab (Cellular Bioengineering), which over the past decade has developed a number of sophisticated techniques to facilitate use of 3D cell based assays or biosensors. This book uses data from peer-reviewed publications to conclusively justify use of 3D cell cultures in cell-based biosensors (assays) for (HTS). The majority of assays performed in accelerated drug discovery processes are biochemical in nature, but there is a growing demand for live cell-based assays. Unlike biochemical ones, cellular assays are functional approximations of in vivo biological conditions and can provide more biologically relevant information"--Provided by publisher.
  • Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatomical structures, together with thorough evaluations of segmentation accuracy on clinical image data. As compared to related work, these fully automatic pipelines allow for highly accurate segmentation of benchmark image data. Contents Deformable Meshes for Accurate Automatic Segmentation Omnidirectional Displacements for Deformable Surfaces (ODDS) Coupled Deformable Surfaces for Multi-object Segmentation From Surface Mesh Deformations to Volume Deformations Segmentation of Anatomical Structures in Medical Image Data Target Groups Academics and practitioners in the fields of computer science, medical imaging, and automatic segmentation. The Author Dagmar Kainmueller works as a research scientist at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, Germany, with a focus on bio image analysis. The Editor The series Aktuelle Forschung Medizintechnik - Latest Research in Medical Engineering is edited by Thorsten M. Buzug.
  • Dental Evolution -- Tooth development -- Dental Pulp is a Connective Tissue -- Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC) -- Isolation methods of DPSC -- Characterization of DPSC -- Reprogramming of DPSC to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) -- Immunomodulatory effects of DPSC -- Dental Pulp is a Complex Adaptive System.

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A repository of medical knowledge from internal medicine, cardiology, genetics, pharmacy, diagnosis and management, basic sciences, patient care, and more. Continuously expanding, all databases in the repository contain the latest editions of selected medical titles.MicroMedex: Premier pharmaceutical information source containing multiple databases and drug reference tools. Of particular value is DRUGDEX Evaluations, one of the most comprehensive drug sources available.DynaMed is a clinical information resource used by physicians to answer clinical questions quickly and easily at the point of care. Topics are updated daily as new evidence becomes available. Scopus is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature: scientific journals, books and conference proceedings.A drug information resource containing: American Hospital Formulary System (AHFS), drug formulary for Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) and Stanford Hospital & Clinics (SHC), Lexi-Drugs (adverse reactions, dosage and administration, mechanism of action, storage, use, and administration information), Lexi-Calc, Lexi-ID, Lexi-I.V. Compatibility (King Guide), Lexi-Interact, and Lexi-PALS.Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) contains coverage of nursing and allied health literature.A knowledge database that provides access to topic reviews based on over 6000 clinically relevant articles. The evidence-based content, updated regularly, provides the latest practice guidelines in 59 medical specialtiesProvides critical assessments of systematic reviews compiled from a variety of medical journals.Selects from the biomedical literature original studies and systematic reviews that are immediately clinically relevant and then summarizes these articles in an enhanced abstract with expert commentary.Multidisciplinary coverage of over 10,000 high-impact journals in the sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities, as well as international proceedings coverage for over 120,000 conferences. Includes cited reference searching, citation maps, and an analyze tool.Features systematic reviews that summarize the effects of interventions and makes a determination whether the intervention is efficacious or not. Cochrane reviews are created through a strict process of compiling and analyzing data from multiple randomized control trials to ensure comprehensiveness and reliability.Provides systematic coverage of the psychological literature from the 1800s to the present through articles, book chapters and dissertations.BMJ Clinical Evidence. A clinical information tool built around systematic reviews summarizing the current state of knowledge about prevention and treatment of clinical conditions.PIER (Physicians' Information and Education Resource) is a Web-based decision-support tool designed for rapid point-of-care delivery of up-to-date, evidence-based guidance for primary care physicians.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) provides access to 300,000 controlled trials that have been identified the Cochrane Collaboration.Provides drug information targeted for patients.A continually updating drug monograph.The National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents.MedlinePlus: A repository of health information from the National Library of Medicine. Links are from trusted sites. No advertising, no endorsement of commercial companies or productsLPCH CareNotes via MicroMedex: Patient education handouts customized by LPCH clinical staffMicromedex Lab Advisor: Evidence based laboratory test informationA drug database organized by generic name, trade name and drug class.LPCH / Stanford Hospital Formulary.A goldmine of trusted consumer health information from the world's largest medical library.A trusted source of expert advice for and about kids, providing the information necessary to help patients and parents understand their unique needs.Provides patient handouts from the American Academy of Family Physician.Access to the Stanford Health Library for patients.Lane provides access to over 5,000 eBooks many of which provide helpful background material that will prepare you to better tackle primary literature.Largest, broadest eBook package; covers all sciences, as well as technology (including software), medicine, and humanities. In addition to covering Wiley and Springer, MyiLibrary is also the only provider for Oxford and Cambridge University Press titles. No seat restrictions.A collection of biomedical books that can be searched directly by concept, and linked to terms in PubMed abstracts.A web-based, decision support system for infectious diseases, epidemiology, microbiology and antimicrobial chemotherapy. The database, updated weekly, currently includes 337 diseases, 224 countries, 1,147 microbial taxa and 306 antibacterial (-fungal, -parasitic, -viral) agents and vaccines. Over 10,000 notes outline the status of specific infections within each country.
Large number of high quality software and database programming titles from O'Reilly. Other software titles are also available from Sams and Prentice Hall. Limited to 7 concurrent users.Vast collection of software and database programming titles from multiple publishers, including Microsoft Press.Largest provider of engineering-related eBooks; includes titles in computer science and biomedical engineering.Over 4,000 full-text e-books covering scientific and technical information from CRC Press and others. Many handbooks and single volume reference sources.Includes peer-reviewed life science and biomedical research protocols compiled from Methods in Molecular Biology, Methods in Molecular Medicine, Methods in Biotechnology, Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuromethods, the Biomethods Handbook, the Proteomics Handbook, and Springer Laboratory Manuals.Contains full text access to selected biomedical and nursing books.Provides online, full-text access to Springer's journal titles as well as journals from other publishers. Subjects include: life sciences, chemical sciences, environmental sciences, geosciences, computer science, mathematics, medicine, physics and astronomy, engineering and economics. Also includes eBooks.Collection of over 8 thousand fulltext titles in engineering, math, and basic and applied biomedical research. Coverage is from 1967 to the present.A library of ebooks on a wide array of topics, digitized and made available online in conjunction with the original publishers.